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£rst drew general attention to tlie monntnins in 4«**lioii, and Potybins, who had himself visited the pnrtku of the Alpine chain between Italy and Gaol, »** the first to give an accorate description of them. Still his geographical knowledge of their course and extent was very imperfect: he justly describes them as extending from the neighbourhood of Massilia to the bead of the Adriatic gulf, but places the sources of the Rhone in the neighbourhood of the latter, and ejosaders the Alps and that river as running parallel with each other from NE. to SW. (Polyb. ii. 14, 15, Si. 47.) Strabo more correctly describes the Alps as farming a great curve like a bow, the concare side of which was turned towards the plains of lialy: the apex of the curve being the territory of the Salassi, while both extremities make a bend round, the one to the Ligurian shore near Genoa, the other to the head of the Adriatic (Strab.' pp. 128, Siol) He justly adds that throughout this whole extent they formed a continuous chain or ridge, so that they might be almost regarded as one mountain: but that to the east and north they sent out virions oft>hoots and minor ranges in different directions. (Id. iv. p. 207.) Already previous to the time of Strabo the complete subjugation of the Alpine tribes by Augustus, and the construction of several hi^h roads across the principal passes of the chain, as well as the increased commercial intercourse with the mtinns on the other side, had begun to render the Alps comparatively familiar to the Romans. But Strabo himself remarks (p. 71) that their geographical position was still imperfectly known, and the errors of detail of which he is guilty in describing them folly confirm the statement. Ptolemy, though writing at a later period, seems to have been still ■Hre imperfectly acquainted with them, as he represents the Moos Adula (the St. Gotharct or Splugm) as the point where the chain takes its great bend from a northern to an easterly direction, while Strabo correctly assigns the territory of the Salassi as the point where this change takes place.

As the Romans became better acquainted with the Alps, they began to distinguish the different portions of the chain by various appellations, which continued in use under the empire, and are still generally adopted by geographers. These distinctive epithets are as follows:

1. Alpes Maritimae ("axuij wopaAioi, or rapafttAatro'ioi), theMaritimeAlps, was the name given, probably from an early period, to that portion of the range which abuts immediately upon the Tyrrhenian Sea, between Marseilles and Genoa. Their limit was fixed by some writers at the Portus Monoeci or Moaaeo, immediately above which rises a lofty headland on which stood the trophy erected by Augustus to tTOimemorate the subjugation of the Alpine tribes. [tbofael-jc Acgcsti.] Strabo however more judiciously regards the whole range along the coast of Liguria as far as Vada Subbata ( Vado), as belonging to the Maritime Alps: and this appears to have been in accordance with the common usage of later times, as we find both the Intcmelii and Ingauni generally reckoned among the Alpine tribes. (Strab. pp. 201, 202; Liv. xxviii. 46; Tac. Hist. ii. 12; Vopisc ProcuL 12.) From this point as far » the river Varus ( Var) the mountains descend quite to the sea-shore: but from the mouth of the Varus they trend to the north, and this continues to be the direction of the main chain as far as the commencement of the Pennine Alps. The only mountains in this part of the range of which the ancient

names have been preserved to us are the Moss Ckma, in which the Varus had its source (Plin. iii. 4. 8. 5), now called la Caittole; and the Mons Vesulus, now Monte Vito, from which the Pad us takes its rise. (Plin. iii. 16. s. 20; Mela, ii.4; Serr.adAen. x.70S.) Pliny calls this the most lofty summit of the Al]», which is far from being correct, but its isolated character, and proximity to the plains of Italy, combined with its really great elevation of 11,200 feet above the sea, would readily convey this impression to an unscientific observer.

At a later period of the empire we find the Alpes Maritimae constituting a separate province, with its own Procurator (Orell. Inter. 2214, 3331, 5040), but the district thus designated was much more extensive than the limits just stated, as the capital of the province was Ebrodunum (Kmbnm) hi Gaul. (Bocking, ad tfotit. Dign. pp. 473, 488.)

2. Alpes Cottiae, or Cottiaxab, the Cottian Alps, included the next portion of the chain, from the Mons Vesulus northward, extending apparently to the neighbourhood of the Mont Cenis, though their limit is not clearly defined. They derived their name from Cottiua, an Alpine chieftain, who having conciliated the favour and friendship of Augustus, was left by him in possession of this portion of the Alps, with the title of Pracfect. His territory, wliich comprised twelve petty tribes, appears to have extended from Ebrodunum or JCmbrun in Gaul, as far as Segusio or Susa in Italy, and included the pass of the Mont Genevre, one of the most frequented and important lines of communication between the two countries. (Strab. pp.179,204; Plin. iii. 20. s. 24; Tac. But. i. 61, iv. 68; Amm. Marc xv. 10.) The territory of Cottius was united by Nero to the Roman empire, and constituted a separate province under the name of Alpes Cottiae. But after the timo of Constantino this appellation was extended so as to comprise the whole of the province or region of Italy previously known as Liguria. [liguria.] (Orell. Inter. 2156, 3601; NotiL Dign. ii. p. 66, and Bocking, ad foe.; P. Diac. ii. 17.) The principal rivers which have their sources in this part of the Alps arc the Diiukxtia (Durance) on the W. and the Duria (Dora Riparia) on the E., which is confounded by Strabo (p. 203) with the river of the same name (now called Dora Baltea) that Hows through the country of the Salassi.

3. Alpes Gkaiae ( AAirtu Tpalai, Ptol.) called also Mo.ns GRAIL'S (Tac. Bitt. iv. 68), was the name given to the Alps through which lay the pass now known as the Little St. Bernard. The precise extent in which the term was employed cannot be fixed, and probably was never defined by the ancients themselves; but modern geographers generally regard it as comprising the portion of the chain which extends from the Mont Cenis to Mont Blanc. The real origin of the appellation is unknown; it is probably derived from some Celtic word, but the Romans in later times interpreted it as meaning Grecian, and connected it with the fabulous passago of the Alps by Hercules on his return from Spain. In confirmation of this it appears that some ancient altars (probably Celtic monuments) were regarded as having been erected by him upon this occasion, and the mountains themselves are called by some writers Alpes Graecak. (Plimiii. 20. s. 24; Amm. Marc, xv. 10. § 9; Petron. de B. C. 144— 151; Kep. Bamt. 3.) Livyappears to apply the name of "Creinonisjugum"to this part of the Alps (xxi.38), a name which has bceu supposed to be retained by the Crumout, a mountain near St.Didier. Pliny (xi. 42.8.97) terms them Alpes Ceotronicae from the Gaulish tribe of the Ccntrones, who occupied their western slopes.

4. Alpes Peksikae, or Poenisae, the Pennine Alps, was the appellation by which the Romans designated the loftiest and most central part of the chain, extending from the Mont Blanc on the W., to the Monte Rota on the £. The first form of the name is evidently the m:»t correct, and was derived from the Celtic " Pen" or " Ben," a height or summit; but the opinion having gained ground that the pass of the Great St. Bernard over these mountains was the route pursued by Hannibal, the name was considered to be connected with that of the Carthaginians (Poeni), and hence the form Pocninae is frequently adopted by later writers. Livy himself points out the error, and adds that the name was really derived, according to the testimony of the inhabitants, from a deity to whom an altar was consecrated on the summit of the pass, probably the same who was afterwards worshipped by the Romans themselves as Jupiter Penninus. (Liv. xxi. 38; Plin. iii. 17. s. 21; Strab. p. 205; Tac HitL i. 61, 87; Amm. Marc xv. 10; Serv. ad Virg. Aen. x. 13; OrelL Inter, vol. i. p. 104.) The limits of the Pennine Alps are nowhere very clearly designated; but it seems that the whole upper valley of the Rhone, the modern Valait, was called Vallis Poenina (see Orel!. Inter. 211), and Ammianns expressly places the sources of the Rhone in the Pennine Alps (xv. 11. § 16), so that the term must have been frequently applied to the whole extent of the mountain chain from the Mont Blanc eastward as far as the St. Gothard. The name of Alpes Lf.postiae from the Gaulish tribe of the Lepontii, is frequently applied by modem geographers to the part of the range inhabited by them between the Monte Rota and the Mont St. Gothard, but there is no ancient authority for the name. The "Alpes Graiae et Pocninae,'' during the later periods of the Roman empire, constituted a separate province, which was united with Transalpine Gaul. Its chief towns were Darantasia and Octodurus. (Amm. Marc. xv. 11. §12; Orell. Inter. 3888; Not. Dign. ii. p. 72; Bocking, ad he. p. 472.) Connected with these we find mentioned the Alpes Atractianae or Atrectianae, a name otherwise wholly unknown.

5. The Alpes Rhaeticae, or Rhaetian Alps,may be considered as adjoining the Pennine Alps on the east, and including the greater part of the countries now called the Gritont and the Tyrol. Under this more general appellation appears to have been comprised the mountain mass called Mons Adula, in which both Strabo and Ptolemy place the sources of the Rhine [adula Moss], while Tacitus expressly tells us that that river rises in one of the most inaccessible and lofty mountains of the Rhaetian Alps. (Germ. 1.) The more eastern portion of the Rhaetian Alps, in which the Athesis and Atagis have their sources, is called by Pliny and by various other writers the AlpesTkidestihae,from the important city of Tridentum in the Southern Tyrol. (Plin. iii. 16. s. 20; Dion Cass. liv. 22; Flor. iii. 4.)

6. The eastern portion of the Alps from the valley of the Athesis and the pass of the Brenner to the plains of Pannonia and the sources of the Save appear to have been known by various appellations, of which it is not easy to determine the precise extent or application. The northern arm of the chain, which extends through Noricuin to the neighbourhood of Vicuna, was known as tho Altes Noricae (Flor.

iii. 4; Plin. iii. 25. s. 28), while the more southern range, which bounds the plains of Venetia, and curves round the modern FriotU to the neighbourhood of Triette, was variously known as the Alpes CarNICAE and Juliae. The former designation, employed by Pliny (/. c), they derived from the Caroi who inhabited their mountain fastnesses: the latter, which appears to have become customary in later times (Tac. Hut. iii. 8; Amm. Marc. xxi. 9, xxxi. 16; Itin. Hier. p. 560; Sex. Ruf. Breviar. 7), from Julius Caesar, who first reduced the Cami to subjection, and founded in their territory the towns of Julium Carnicum and Forum Julii, of which the latter has given to the province its modern name of the Frioul. We find also this part of the Alps sometimes termed Alpes Vesetae (Amm. Marc. xxxi. 16. § 7) from their bordering on the province of Venetia. The mountain ridge immediately above Triette, which separates the waters of the Adriatic from the valley of the Save, and connects the Alps, properly so called, with the mountains of Dalmatia and Illyricum, was known to the Romans as Moss Ocra (0«pa, Strab. p. 207; Ptol. iii. 1. §1), from whence one of the petty tribes in the neighbourhood of Tergeste was called the Subocrini (Plin. iii. 20. s. 24.) Strabo justly observes that this is the lowest part of the whole Alpine range: in consequence of which it was from a very early period traversed by a much frequented pass, that became the medium of active commercial intercourse from the Roman colony of Aquileia with the valleys of the Save and Drove, and by means of those rivers with the plains on the banks of the Danube.

7. We also find, as already mentioned, the name of the Alps sometimes extended to the mountain ranges of Illyricum and Dalmatia: thus Pliny (xi. 42. s. 97} speaks of the Alpes Dalmaticak, and Tacitus of the Alpes Pansokicae (Bitt. ii. 98, iii. 1), by which however he perhaps means little more than the Julian Alps. But this extensive use of the term does not seem to have ever been generally adopted.

The physical characters of the Alps, and those natural phenomena which, though not peculiar to them, they yet exhibit on a greater scale than any other mountains of Europe, must have early attracted the attention of travellers and geographers: and the difficulties and dangers of the passes over them were, as was natural, greatly exaggerated. Polybius was the first to give a rational account of them, and has described their characteristic features on occasion of the passage of Hannibal in a manner of which the accuracy has been attested by all modem writers. Strabo also gives a very good account of them, noticing particularly the danger arising from the avalanehet or sudden falls of snow and ice, which detached themselves from the vast frozen masses above, and hurried the traveller over the side of the precipice (p. 204). Few attempts appear to have been made to estimate their actual height; but Polybius remarks that it greatly exceeds that of the highest mountains of Greece and Thrace,01ympus,Ossa, A thus &c: for that almost any of these mountains might be ascended by an active walker in a single day while he would scarcely ascend the Alps in five: a statement greatly exaggerated. (Polyb. op. Strab. p. 209.) Strabo on the contrary tells us, that the direct ascent of the highest summits of the mountains in the territory of the Medulli, did not exceed 100 stadia, and the same distance for the descent on the other side into Italy (p. 203), while Pliny (ii. 65) appears to estimate the perpendicular height of some of the loftiest summits at not less than fifty mil**! The length of the whole range is estimated by Poljbius at only 2200 stadia, while Caelius Antipater (quoted by Pliny iii. 18. s. 22) stated it as Dot less than 1000 miles, reckoning along the foot of the mountains from sea to sea. Pliny himself estimates the same distance calculated from the river Varus to the Arsis, at 745 miles, a fair approximation to the truth. He also justly remarks that the very different estimates of the breadth of the Alps given by different anchors were founded on the fact of its great inequality: the eastern portion of the range between Germany and Italy being not less than 100 miles across, while the other portions did not exceed 70. (Plin.iii. 19. a. 23.) Strabo tells us that while the more lofty summits of the Alps were either covered with, perpetual snow, or so bare and rugged as to be altogether uninhabitable, the sides were clothed with extensive forests, and the lower slopes and vallies were cultivated and well peopled. There was however always a scarcity of corn, which the inhabitants procured from those of the plains in exchange for the productions of their mountains, the chief of which were resin, pitch, pine wood for torches, wax, honey, and cheese. Previous to the time of Augustus, the Alpine tribes had been given to predatory habits, and were continually plundering their more wealthy neighbours, but after they had been completely subdued and roads made through their territories they devoted themselves more to the arts of peace and husbandry. (Strab. pp. 206, 207.) Nor were the Alps wanting in more valuable productions. Gold mines or rather washings were worked in them in various places, especially in the territory of the Salassi (the Vol etAorta), where the Romans derived a considerable revenue from them; and in the Xoric Alps, near Aquileia, where gold was found in lumps as big as a bean after digging only a few feet below the surface (Strab. pp. 205, 208). The iron mines of the Noric Alps were also well known to the Bomans, and highly esteemed for the excellent quality of the metal furnished by them, which was peculiarly well adapted for swords. (Plin. xxxrr.14. s.41; Hot. Carm.\. 16. 9, Epod. xvii.71.) The rock crystal so abundant in the Alps was much •.Mined by the Bomans, and diligently sought for in consequence by the natives. (Plin.xxxvii.2.s.9,10.)

Several kinds of animals are also noticed by ancient writers as peculiar to the Alps; among these are the I'kamois (the rupicapra of Pliny), the Ibex, and the Marmot. Pliny also mentions white hares and white grouse or Ptarmigan. (Plin. viii. 79. s. 81, x. 68. s.85; Varr. de R.R. iii. 12.) Polybius described a large animal of the deer kind, but with a neck like a wild boar,evidently the Elk(Cervus Aloes) now found oolym the north of Europe. (Polyb.ap.5<ro4. p.208.)

It would be impossible here to enumerate in detail »U tie petty tribes which inhabited the vallies and slopes of the Alps. The inscription on the trophy of Augustus already mentioned, gives the names of not less than forty-four " Gentes Alpinae devictae," many of which are otherwise wholly unknown (Plin. Hi. 20. 5. 24). The inscription on the arch at Stua mentions fourteen tribes that were subject to Cottius, of which the greater part are equally obscure. (OrelL later. 626; Milfin, Toy. en Piimont, vol. i. p. 106.) Those tribes, whose locality can be determined with tolerable certainty, or whose names appear in history, will be found under their respective articles: for an examination of the whole list the

reader may consult Walckcnaer, Geographic dee (joule* vol. ii. pp. 43—66.

The eternal snows and glaciers of the Alps are the sources from which flow several of the largest rivers of Europe: the Khone, the Khine, and the Po, as well as the great tributaries of the Danube, the Inn, the Drave and the Save. It would be useless here to enter into a geographical or detailed enumeration of the countless minor streams which derive their sources from the Alps, and which will be found under the countries to which they severally belong.

Posset of the Alps.

Many of the passes across the great central chain of the Alps are so clearly indicated by the course of the rivers which rise in them, and the rallies through which these flow, that they must probably have been known to the neighbouring tribes from a very early period. Long before the passage of the western Alps by Hannibal, we know that these mountains were crossed by successive swarms of Gaulish invaders (Polyb. iii. 48; Liv. v. 33), and there is every reason to suppose that the more casilyaccessible passes of the Khaetian and Julian Alps had afforded a way for the migrations of nations in still earlier aires. The particular route taken by Hannibal is still a subject of controversy.* But it is clear from thewhole narrative of Polybius, that it was one already previously known and frequented by the mountaineers that guided him: and a few years later his brother Hasdrubal appears to have crossed the same |*ass with comparatively little difficulty. Polybius, according to Strabo, was acquainted with only four passes, viz.: 1. that through Liguria by the Maritime Alps; 2. that through the Tanrini, which was the one traversed by Hannibal; 3. that through the Salassi; and 4. that through the Rhaetians. (Polyb. op. Strab. p. 209.) At a later period Pompey, on his march into Spain (b. C. 77), opened out a passage for his army, which he describes as " different from that of Hannibal, but more convenient for the Bomans.'' (Pompeii Epist. ap. Sallust. Hist. iii. p. 230, ed. Gerlach.) Shortly after this time Varro (in a passage in which there appears to be much confusion) speaks of five passes across the Alps (without including the more easterly ones), which he enumerates as follows: "Una, quae est juxta mare per Liguras; altera qua Hannilial transiit; tenia qua Pompeius ad Hispaniense bellum profectus est: quarts qua Hasdrubal de Gallia in Italiam venit: quinta, quae quondam a Graecis possessa est, quae exinde Alpes Graeciae appellantnr." (Varr. ap. Sen. ad A en. x. 13.) From the time of the reduction of the Transalpine Gauls by J. Caesar, and that of the Alpine tribes by Augustus, the passes over the Alps came to be well known, and were traversed by high roads, several of which, however, on account of the natural difficulties of the mountains, were not practicable for carriages. These passes were the following: —

1. "Per Alpes Maritimas," along the coast of Liguria, at the foot of the Maritime Alps from Genua to the mouth of the Varus. Though the line of sea-coast must always have offered a natural means of communication, it could hardly have been frequented by the Romans until the wild tribes of the Ligurians had been effectually subdued; and it appears certain that no regular road was constructed

* See the article Hannibal, in the Did. of Biogr vol ii. p. 333, and the works there referred to.

•long it till the time of Augustus. The monument which that emperor erected over the highest part of the pass (just above the Portus Monoeci), to commemorate the reduction of the Alpine tribes, is still extant, and the Roman road may be distinctly traced for several miles on each side of it. [tbopaea Auousti.] It did not follow the same line as the modem road, but, after ascending from near Mentone to the summit of the pass at Turbia, descended a side valley to Cemenelion (Cimiez), and proceeded from thence direct to the mouth of the Varus, leaving Nicaca on the left. The stations along tins road from Vada Sabbata (Vado) to Autipolis are thus given in the ltin. Ant. p. 296: —

M.P. M.P. Pullopice - xii. Lumone - x.

Albingauno Alpe Summa( 7'uroia) vi.

(Albenga) - viii. Cemenelo (Cimiez) - viii. Luco Bormani - It. Varum flumen - vi. Costa Balenae - xvi. Antipolis (Antibei) - x. Albintimilio ( Vin

timiglia) - xvi.

This line of road is given in the Itinerary as a part of the Via Amelia, of which it was undoubtedly a continuation; but we learn from the inscriptions of the mile-stones discovered near Turbia that it was properly called the Via Julia.

2. "Pbk Alfes Cottlas," by the pass now called the Mont Genevre, from Augusta Taurinorum to Brigantio (Briangon) and Ebrodunum (Embruri) in Gaul. This was the most direct line of communication from the north of Italy to Transalpine Gaul: it is evidently that followed by Caesar when he hastened to oppose the Helvetii, "qua proximum iter in ulteriorein Galliam per Alpes erat" (B. G. i. 10), and is probably the same already mentioned as having been first explored by Pompey. It was afterwards one of the passes most frequented by the Romans, and is termed by Ammianus (xv. 10) " via media et coinpendiaria," That writer has given a detailed account of the pass, the highest ridge of which was known by the name of Matronae Mons, a name retained in the middle ages, and found in the ltin. llicrosol. p. 556. Just at its foot, on the Italian side, was the station Ad Martis, probably near the modern village of Oulx. The distances given in the ltin. Ant. (p. 341) are, from Taurini (Augusta Taurinorum) to Segusio (JSusa) 51 M. P. (a great overstatement: the correct distance would be 36); thence —

Ad Martis - xvi. Ramae - xviii.

Brigantio - xviii. Eburodono xviii. Though now little frequented, this pass is one of the lowest and easiest of those over the main chain.

3. "Per Alpes Graias," by the Little SU Bernard. This route, which led from Milan and the plains of the Po by the valley of the Salassi to Augusta Praetoria (Aosta), and from thence across the mountain pass into the valley of the Isara (Iserc), and through the Tarentaise to Vienna and Lugdunum, is supposed by many writers to have been that followed by Hannibal. It was certainly crossed by D. Brutus with his army after the battle of Mutina, B. c. 43. But though it presents much less natural difficulties than its neighbour the Great St. Bernard, it appears to have been little frequented, on account of the predatory habits of the Salassians, until Augustus, after having completely subdued that people, constructed a carriage road over the Graian Alps, which thenceforward became one of the most important and frequented lines of communi

cation between Italy and GauL (Strab p. 208; Tac. Hist. ii. 66, iv. 68.)

The stations on this route arc thus given in the Itinerary, beginning from Eporedia, at the entrance of the Vol d'Aosta:


Vitricium ( Verrez) - xxL

Augusta Praetoria (Aosta) - Xxt.

Arebrigium (5. Didier) - - Xxt.

Rergintrum (Bourg. S. Maurice') xxiv.

Darautasia {Mowtiers) - - xviii.

Obilinum - xiii.

Ad Publicanos (Conflani) - hi. From thence there brauched off two lines of road, the one by Lemincum {Cltambery) and Augusta Allobrogum to Vienna, the other northwards to Geneva and the Lacus Lcmannus.

4. "Per Alpbs Penninas," by the Great St. Bernard. This route, which branched off from the former at Augusta Praetoria, and led direct across the mountain, from thence to Octodurus (Martigng) in the valley of the Rhone, and the head of the Lake Lemannus, appears to have been known and frequented from very early times, though it was never rendered practicable for carriages. Caesar speaks of it as being used to a considerable extent by merchants and traders, notwithstanding the exactions to which they were subjected by the wild tribes that then occupied this part of the Alps. (B. G. iii. 1.) The numerous inscriptions and votive tablets that have been discovered sufficiently attest how much this pass was frequented in later times: and it was repeatedly traversed by Roman armies. (OrelL Inter, vol. L p. 104; Tac. Hist. i. 61, iv. 68.) The distances by this road are thus given in the Itinerary. From Augusta Praetoria to the summit of the pass, Summo Pennino, where stood a temple of Jupiter — M. P. xxv.; thence to Octodorus {Martignjf1) xxv.; and from thence to Viviscum (V'euay) 34 miles, passing two obscure stations, the names of which are probably corrupt.

5. The next pass, for which we find no appropriate name, led from the head of the Lacus Larius to Brigantia (Bregenz), on the Lake of Constance. We find Do mention of this route in early times; but it must have been that taken by Stilicho, in the depth of winter, when he proceeded from Mediolanum through the Rhaetian Alps to summon the Vindelicians and Noricans to the relief of Honorius. (Claudian. B. Get. v. 320—360.) The Itineraries give two routes across this part of the Alps; the one apparently following the line of the modem pass of the Splugen, by Clavenna (CAiopenno) and Tarvessedo (?) to Curia (Cotre): the other crossing the pass of the Septimer, by Murus and Tinnetio (Tinsen) to Curia, where it rejoined the preceding route.

6. "Per Alpes Riiaeticas or Tridentisas,'' through the modem Tyrol, which, from the natural facilities it presents, must always have been one of the most obvious means of communication between Italy and the countries on the S. of the Danube. The high road led from Verona to Tridentuni (where it was joined by a cross road from Opitcrgiurn through the Vol Sugana), and thence up the valley of the Athesis as far as Botzen, from which point it followed the Atagis or Eisach to its source, and crossed the pass of the Brenner to Veldidana ( Wilden, near InsbrucJc), and from thence across .'mother mountain pass to Augusta Vindelicorum. [rhaetia.]

7. A road led from Aquileia to Julium Camicnra {Zvglio), and from thence across the Julian Alps to Lnrcram in the valley of tlie Gail, and by that valley aud the Putter Tlud to join the preceding road at Vijjtennm, near the foot of the Bremer. The statidcs (few of which can be determined with any irruinir) are thus given (ltin. Ant. p. 279): —


From Aquileia Ad Triccsimum - xxx.

Julium Camicum xxx.

Loncio - - xxii.

Agunto - - xviii.

Littamo - - xxiii.

Sebato - - xxiii.

Yipitcno - - xxxiii. 8. Another high road led from Aquileia eastward op the valley of the Wippach, and from thence feftiw the barren mountainous tract of comparatively small elevation (the Mons Ocra), which separates it from the valley of the Savus, to Aemona in Pannroia. There can be no doubt that this pass, which presents no considerable natural difficulties, was from tee earliest ages the highway of nations from the lacks of the Danube into Italy, as it again became after the fall of the Roman empire, (P. Diac. ii. 10.) The distance from Aquileia to Aemona is given by the ltin. Ant. at 76 Koman miles, which cannot be far from the truth; but the intermediate stations are rcn uncertain. [E. H. B.]

ALPHEIUS ('AAtfwuSi: Rufea, Rufid or Rofid, and Biter of Kariteaa), the chief river of Peloponnesus, rises in the SE. of Arcadia on the frontiers of Laconia. hows in a westerly direction through Arcadia and Elis, and after passing Olympia falls into the Ionian Sea. The Alpheius, like several other rivers and lakes in Arcadia, disappears more than once in the limestone mountains of the country, ir.d then emerges again, after flowing some distance csdergrrmrid. Pansanias (viii. 54. § 1, seq., 44. § 4) relates that the source of the Alpheius is at rhrlace, on the frontiers of Arcadia and Laconia; and that, after receiving a stream rising from many small fountains, at a place called Symbola, it flows mto the territory of Tegea, where it sinks undertrrcand. It rises again at the distance of 5 stadia from Asea, close to the fountain of the Eurotas. The two rivers then mix their waters, and after *' ■fins in a common channel for the distance of nearly 20 stadia, they again sink underground, and reappear, — the Eurotas in Laconia, the Alpheius «t Pegae, the Fountains, in the territory of Megahfda in Arcadia. Strabo (p. 343) also states that the Alpbeiug and Eorotas rise from two fountains near A-ea. and that, after flowing several stadia underground, the Eurotas reappears in the Bleminatis in Laconia, and the Alpheius in Arcadia. In another passage (p. 275) Strabo relates, that it was a common belief that if two chaplets dedicated to the Alpheius and the Eurotas were thrown into the stream near Asea, each would reappear at the sources of the river to which it was destined. This story accords with the statement of Pansanias as to the union of the waters from the two fountains, and their course in a common channel. The account of Pansanias is confirmed in many particulars by the observations of Colonel Leake and others. The river, in the first part of its course, is now called tie Sardnda, which rises at Krya Vrysi, the ancient Phjlace, and which receives, a little below AVya Vryn", a stream formed of several small mountain Virrents, by which the ancient Symbola is recognised. On entering the Tegeatic plain, the Sardinia M flows to the NE.; but there are strong reasons

for believing that it anciently flowed to the M\V'., and disappeared in the Katavothra of the marsh of 7ai».* (Leake, Peloponnetiaca, p. 112, seq.) The two reputed sources of the Alpheius and Eurotas are found near the remains of Asea, at the copious source of water called Frangdvrysi; but whether the source of the Alpheius be really the vent of the lake of TaH, cannot be decided with certainty. These two fountains unite their waters, as Pausanias describes, and again sink into the earth. After passing under a mountain called Tzim~ band, the Alpheius reappears at Marmara, probably Pegae. (Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 37, seq.)

Below Pegae, the Alpheius receives the Hklisson ('EXiffirwi': River of j)avid), on which Megalopolis was situated, 30 stadia from the confluence. Below this, and near the town of Brenthe (Kariteaa), the Alpheius flows through a defile in the mountains, called the pasB of Lavdtta. This pass is the only opening in the mountains, by which the waters of central Arcadia find their way to the western sea. It divides the upper plain of the Alpheius, of which Megalopolis was the chief place, from the lower plain, in which Ueraea was situated. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 19, seq.) Below Heraea, the Alpheius receives the Ladon (AdoW), which rises near Cleitor, and is celebrated in mythology as the father of Daphne. The Ladon is now called Rufea, Rufid or Rofid, by which name the Alpheius is called below its junction with the Ladon. In the upper part of its course the Alpheius is usually called the River of Kariteaa. Below the Ladon, at the<listance of 20 stadia, the Alpheius receives the Erysiajjthus ('Epvfuwv'os'), rising in the mountain of the same name, and forming the boundary between Elis and the territories of Heraea in Arcadia. After entering Elis, it flows past Olympia, forming the boundary between Pisatis and Triphylia, and falls into the Cyparissian gulf in the Ionian sea. At the mouth of the river was a temple and grove of Artemis Alpheionia. From the pass of Lavdha to the sea, the Alpheius is wide and shallow: in snmmer it is divided into several torrents, flowing between islands or sandbanks over a wide gravelly bed, while in winter it is full, rapid, and turbid. Its banks produce a great number of large plane-trees. (Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 67,1'elo ponnesiaca, p. 8.)

Alpheius appears as a celebrated river-god in mythology; and it was apparently the subterranean passage of the river in the upper part of its course which gave rise to the fable that the Alpheius flowed beneath the sea, and attempted to mingle its waters with the fountain of Arethusa in the island of Ortygia in Syracuse. (Did. of Biogr. art. Alplteiut.) Hence Ovid calls the nymph Arethusa, AlpKeku. (Met. v. 487.) Virgil (Aen. x. 179) gives the epithet of A Iphcae to the Etruscan city of Pisae, because the latter was said to have been founded by colonists from Pisa in Elis, near which the Alpheius flowed.

ALSA, a small river of Venetia (Plin. iii. 18. s.22) still called the A usa, which flows into the lagunes ot Marano, & few miles W. of Aquileia. A battle was fought on its banks in A. D. 340, between the younger Constantino and the generals of his brother Constans, in which Constantino himself was slain, and his body thrown into the river Alsa. (Victor, Epit. 41. § 21; Hieron. Citron, ad aim. 2356.)

* The preceding account will be made clearer by referring to the map under Maxtiskia.

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