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ALSIETI'NUS LACUS, a small lake in Etruria, ) city of the OLCADES in Spain, not far from Cartha zo about 2 miles distant from the Lacus Sabatinus, Nova. Its capture was Hannibal's first exploit in between it and the basin or crater of Baccano, now Spain. (Polyb. ii. 13; Steph. Byz. 8. v.) Its position called the Lago di Martignano. Its ancient name is unknown. Livy calls it Carteia (xxi. 5). [P. S.] is preserved to us only by Frontinus, from whom we ALTI'NUM (ANTIVOV : Altino), a city of lelearn that Augustus conveyed the water from thence netia situated on the border of the lagunes, and on to Rome by an aqueduct, named the Aqua Alsietina, the right bank of the little river Silis (Sele) Diar more than 22 miles in length. The water was, its mouth. We learn from the Itineraries that it however, of inferior quality, and served only to was distant 32 Roman miles from Patavium, and supply a Naumachia, and for purposes of irrigation. | 31 from Concordia. (Itin. Ant. pp. 128, 281.) It was joined at CAREIAE, a station on the Via Strabo describes it as situated in a marsh or lagune, Claudia, 15 miles from Rome, by another branch like Ravenna, and we learn that travellers were in bringing water from the Lacus Sabatinus. (Frontin. the habit of proceeding by water along the lagunes de Aquaed. $$ 11, 71.) The channel of the aque- from Ravenna to Altinum. Tacitus also speaks of duct is still in good preservation, where it issues it as open to attack by sea ; but at the present from the lake, and may be traced for many miles day it is distant about 2 miles from the lagunes. of its course. (Nibby, Dintorni, vol. i. pp. 133 (Strab. p. 214; Vitruv. i. 4. $ 11 ; Itin. Ant. -137.)

[E. H. B.] p. 126 ; Tac. Hist. iii. 6.) The first historical A’LSIUM (Aronov: Eth. Alsiensis: Palo), a city mention of Altinum is found in Velleius Paterculus on the coast of Etruria, between Pyrgi and Fregenae, (ii, 76) during the wars of the Second Triumvirate, at the distance of 18 miles from the Portus Augusti and it appears to have been then, as it continued (Porto) at the mouth of the Tiber. (Itin. Ant. under the Roman Empire, one of the most conp. 301.) Its name is mentioned by Dionysius (i. 20 siderable places in this part of Italy. Pliny assigns among the cities which were founded by the Pe- it only the rank of a municipium ; but we leam lasgians in connection with the aborigines, and from inscriptions that it subsequently becaine a afterwards wrested from them by the Tyrrhenians colony, probably in the time of Trajan. (Plin. jj. (Etruscans). But no mention of it occurs in his 18. s. 22 ; Orell. Inscr. 4082 ; Zumpt de Colon. tory as an Etruscan city, or during the wars of that p. 402.) Besides its municipal importance, the people with Rome. In B. C. 245 a Roman colony shores of the adjoining lagunes became a fazourite was established there, which was placed on the same residence of the wealthy Romans, and were gradually footing with the other “ coloniae maritimae;" and in lined with villas which are described by Martial common with these claimed exemption from all iv. 25) as rivalling those of Baiae. The adjoining military service, a claim which was, however, over- plains were celebrated for the excellence of their ruled during the exigencies of the Second Punic wool, while the lagunes abounded in fish of all War. (Vell. Pat. i. 14; Liv. xxvii. 38.) No sub- kinds, especially shell-fish. (Mart. xiv. 155; Plin. sequent notice of it occurs in history, but its name xxxii. 11. s. 53; Cassiod. Ep. Varr. xii. 22.) It is mentioned by Strabo, Pliny, and Ptolemy, and we was here that the emperor L. Verus died of apolearn from an inscription of the time of Caracalla plexy in A. D. 169. (Eutrop. viii. 10; Jul. Capit. that it still retained its colonial rank, and correspond Ver. 9; Vict. de Caes. 15.) The modern village ing municipal organisation. (Strab. pp. 225, 226; of Altino is a very poor place; the period of the Plin. iii. 5. s. 8; Ptol. iii. 1. § 4; Gruter, Inscr. decay or destruction of the ancient city is unknown, p. 271. 3.) It appears to have early become a but its inhabitants are supposed to have fled for favourite resort with the wealthy Romans as a place refuge from the invasions of the barbarians to Tor. of retirement and pleasure (" maritimus et volup- cello, an island in the lagunes about 4 miles distant, tarius locus :" Fronto, Ep. p. 207, ed. Rom.); thus to which the episcopal see was transferred in A. D. we find that Pompey the Great had a villa there, 635.

[E. H. B.] and Caesar also, where he landed on his return from ALTIS. [OLYMPIA.] Africa, and at which all the nobles of Rome hastened ALU'NTIUM or HĂLU'NTIUM ('Alórtior, to greet him. (Cic. pro Milon. 20, ad Fam. ix. 6, Ptol.; 'Alouvrlov, Dion. Hal.: Eth. 'Alortivos, Haad Att. xiii. 50.) Another is mentioned as belong- luntinus), a city on the N. coast of Sicily, between ing to Verginius Rufus, the guardian of Pliny, and Tyndaris and Calacta. Its foundation was ascribed we learn from Fronto that the emperor M. Aurelius by soine authors to a portion of the companions of had a villa there, to which several of his epistles are Aeneas, who remained behind in Sicily under a addressed. (Plin. Ep. vi. 10; Fronto, Ep. p. 205– leader named Patron (Dionys. i. 51); but it pro 215.) At a later period the town itself had fallen bably was, in reality, & Sicelian town. No mention into utter decay, but the site was still occupied by of it is found in Diodorus, nor is it noticed in hisvillas, as well as that of the neighbouring Pyrgi. tory prior to the Roman conquest of Sicily. But in (Rutil. Itin. i. 223.)

the time of Cicero it appears to have been a place of The site of Alsiuin is clearly fixed by the distance soine importance. He mentions it as having suffrom Porto, at the modern village of Palo, a poor fered severely from the exactions of Verres, who, place with a fort and mole of the 17th century, in not content with ruinous extortions of corn, comthe construction of which many ancient materials pelled the inhabitants to give up all their ornamental have been used. Besides these, the whole shore to plate. (Cic. Verr. iii. 43, iv. 23.) We learn from the E. of the village, for the space of more than a inscriptions that it retained the rank of a municimile, is occupied by the remains of buildings which pium, and was a flourishing town at least as late as appear to have belonged to a Roman villa of im- the reign of Augustus. perial date, and of the most magnificent scale and Its site has been a matter of much dispute, but style of construction. These ruins are described there are very strong arguments to prove that it in detail by Nibby (Dintorni di Roma, vol. iii. occupied the same situation as the modern town of

(E. H. B.] San Marco, which rises on a lofty hill of steep and ALTHAEA ('Andala: Eth. Aldaios), the chief difficult ascent, about 3 miles from the Tyrrheniun

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sien. (Smyth's Sicily, p. 97.) This position exactly | Nicolochus. The Athenians, says Xenophon, erected accords with that described by Cicero, who tells us their trophy at Alyzia, and the Lacedaemonians in that Verres would not take the trouble to visit the the nearest islands. We learn from Scylax that the town himself “ quod erat difficili ascensu atque island immediately opposite Alyzia was called Carnus, arduo," but remained on the beach below while he the modern Kalamo. (Thuc, vii. 31; Xen. Hell. sent Archagathus to execute his behests (iv. 23). v. 4. $$ 65, 66; Scylax, p. 13; Leake, Northern Various inscriptions also are preserved at S. Marco, Greece, vol. iv. p. 14, seq.) or bare been discovered there, one of which begins AMA'DOCI ('Apádokoi), a people of Sarmatia with the words To Moveikh ALOV Twv 'Adortivwy. Europaea, mentioned by Hellanicus (Steph. B. 8. v.) (Castell. Inscr. Sicil. p. 55; Böckh, C. I. No.5608.) Their country was called Amadocium. Ptolemy Notwithstanding these arguments, Cluverius, folii. 5) mentions the Amadoci Montes, E. of the lowing Fazello, placed Aluntium at a spot near Borysthenes (Dnieper), as an E. prolongation of M. S. Filadelfo, where the ruins of an ancient city Peuce, and in these mountains the Amadoci, with a were then visible, and regarded S. Marco as the site city Amodoca and a lake of the same name, the of Agathyrna. It must be admitted that this ar- source of a river falling into the Borysthenes. The rangement avoids some difficulties [AGATHYRNA); positions are probably in the S. Russian province of but the above proofs in favour of the contrary hy- Jekaterinoslav, or in Kherson.

[P. S.] pothesis seem almost conclusive. (Cluver. 'Sicil. AMALEKI'TAE ('AuaAnkitai, Joseph. Ant. iii. p.294; Fazell. de Reb. Sic. ix. 4. p. 384.) [E.H.B.] 2; in LXX. 'Ajarhk), the descendants of Amalek

the grandson of Esau. (Gen. xxxvi. 9—12.) This tribe of Edomite Arabs extended as far south as the peninsula of Mount Sinai, where “ they fought with İsrael in Rephidim (Exod. xvii. 8, &c.) They occupied the southern borders of the Promised Land, between the Canaanites (Philistines) of the west coast, and the Amorites, whose country lay to the SW. of the Dead Sea. (Compare Gen. xiv. 7 with Numbers xiii. 29, xiv. 25, 43–45.) They dispos

sessed the Ishmaelite Bedouins, and occupied their COLN OF ALUNTIUM.

country “ from Havilah unto Shur, that is before

Egypt.” (Compare Gen. xxv. 18 and 1 Sam. xv. 7.) ALYDDA ('Alvda), a town of Phrygia men- They were nearly exterminated by Saul and David tioned in the Peatinger Table. Arundell (Discoveries (1 Sam. xv., xxvi. 8, 9, xxx.); and the remnant in Asia Minor, i. p. 105) gives his reasons for sup were destroyed by the Simeonites in the days of posing that it may have been at or near Ushak, on Hezekiah. (1 Chron. iv. 42, 43.) They are the the road between Sart and A farm Karahissar, and Edomites whom David smote in the Valley of Salt that it was afterwards called Flaviopolis. He found (2 Sam. viii. 12, 13; title to Psalm Lx.), doubtlous several Greek inscriptions there, but none that con- identical with Wady Malekh, about seven hours tained the name of the place.

[G. L.] south of Hebron (Reland's Palestine, pp. 78—82: ALY'ZIA ('Alucia, Thuc.vü. 31, et alii;'Alufera, Winer's Bib. Real. 8. v.; Williams's Holy City, vol. i. Steph. B. s.r.: Eth. 'Alu(eus, 'Alucaios, 'AAÚčelos, appendix i. pp. 463, 464.)

[G. W.] ap. Böckh. Corpus Inscript. No. 1793: Kandili), AMA'NIDES PYLAE ("Auavides or 'Auurikad a town on the west coast of Acarnania. According Núai), or Amanicae Pylae (Curtius, iii. 18), or Porto Strabo it was distant 15 stadia from the sea, on tae Amani Montis (Plin. v. 27. s.22). “There are," which it possessed a harbour and a sanctuary, both says Cicero (ad Fam. xv. 4), “two passes from Syria dedicated to Heracles. In this sanctuary were some into Cilicia, each of which can be held with a small works of art by Lysippus, representing the labours force owing to their narrowness." These are the of Heracles, which a Roman general caused to be passes in the Amanus or mountain range which runs removed to Rome on account of the deserted state northward from Rás el Khánzir, which proinontory of the place. The remains of Alyzia are still visible is at the southern entrance of the gulf of Iskerderun in the valley of Kandili. The distance of the bay (gulf of Issus). This range of Amanus runs along ef Kandili from the ruins of Leucas corresponds the bay of Iskenderun, and joins the great mass of with the 120 stadia which Cicero assigns for the Taurus, forming a wall between Syria and Cilicia. distance between Alyzia and Leucas. (Strab. pp. “ There is nothing," says Cicero, speaking of this 450, 459; Cic. ad Fam. xvi. 2; Plin. iv. 2; Ptolem. range of Amanus," which is better protected against 11. 14.) Alyzia is said to have derived its name Syria than Cilicia.” Of the two passes meant by from Alyzeus, a son of Icarus. (Strab. p. 452; Cicero, the southern seems to be the pass of Beilan, Steph. Byz. 8. v.) It is first mentioned by Thucy- by which a man can go from Iskenderun to Antioch; dides. In B. c. 374, a naval battle was fought in this may be called the lower Amanian pass. The the neighbourhood of Alyzia between the Athenians other pass, to which Cicero refers, appears to be NNE. Dader Timotheus and the Lacedaemonians under of Issus, in the same range of mountains (Amanus),

over which there is still a road from Bayas on the east side of the bay of Issus, to Marash: this northern pass seems to be the Amanides Pylae of Arrian and Curtius. It was by the Amanides Pylae (Arrian. Anab. i. 7) that Darius crossed the mountains into Cilicia and came upon Issus, which Alexander had left shortly before. Darius was thus in the rear of Alexander, who had advanced as far as Myriandrus,

the site of which is near Iskenderun Alexander COIX OF ALYZIA.

turned back and met the Persian king at the river Pinarus, between Issus and Myriandrus, where was ( Thronium. From hence the original name of Amanfought the battle called the battle of Issus. The tia is said to have been Abantia, and the surrounding narrative of Arrian may be compared with the com country to have been called Abantis. (Steph. B. mentary of Polybius (xii. 17, 19).


8. v. 'Abautis, 'Auarría; Etym. M. 8. v. "Auaytes; Strabo's description of the Amanides (p. 676) is Paus. v. 22. $ 3.) Amantia probably stood at some this: “ after Mallus is Aegaeae, which has a small distance from the coast, S. of the river Aons, and on fort; then the Amanides Pylae, having an anchorage a tributary of the latter, named Polyanthes. (Ly. for ships, at which (pylae) terminate the Amanus | cophr. 1043.) It is placed by Leake at Niritza, mountains, extending down from the Taurus -- and where there are the remains of Hellenic walls. This after Aegaeae is Issus, a small fort having an an site agrees with the distances afforded by Scylax and chorage, and the river Pinarus." Strabo therefore the Tabular Itinerary, the former of which places places the Amanides Pylae between Aegae and Issus, Amantia at 320 stadia, and the latter at 30 Roman and near the coast; and the Stadiasmus and Pto- miles from Apollonia. Ptolemy speaks of an Aman) lemy give the same position to the Amanides. This tia on the coast, and another town of the same name pass is represented by a place now called Kara Kapu | inland; whence we may perhaps infer that the latter on the road between Mallus on the Pyramus (Jehan) had a port of the same name, more especially as the and Issus. But there was another pass " which " language of Caesar (B. C. j. 40) would imply that (as Major Rennell observes, and Leake agrees with | Amantia was situated on the coast. Amantia was him) " crossing Mount Amanus from the eastward, a place of some importance in the civil wars between descended upon the centre of the head of the gulf, Caesar and Pompey; and it continued to be mennear Issus. By this pass it was that Darius marched tioned in the time of the Byzantine emperors. (Caes. from Sochus, and took up his position on the banks | B. C. iii. 12, 40; Cic. Phil. xi. 11; Leake, Ancient of the Pinarus; by which moveinent Alexander, who Greece, vol. i. p. 375, seq.) had just before marched from Mallus to Mvriandrus,' AMA’NUS (S 'Auavós, TO 'Auavov), is described through the two maritime pylae, was placed between by Strabo as a detached part (årbonagua) of Taurus, the Persians and Syria." (Leake, Journal of a Tour and as forming the southern boundary of the plain in Asia Minor, p. 210.) This is the pass which of Cataonia. He supposes this range to branch off has been assumed to be the Amanides of Arrian and from the Taurus in Cilicia, at the same place whers Curtius, about NNE. of Issus. It follows from this the Antitaurus branches off and takes a more norththat the Amanicae Pylae of Arrian (Anab. i. 7) are erly direction, forming the northern boundary of not the Amanides of Strabo. Q. Curtius speaks of Cataonia. (Strab. p. 535.) He considers the Amaa pass which Alexander had to gothrough in marching nus to extend eastward to the Euphrates and Melifrom the Pyramus to Issus, and this pass must be tene, where Commagene borders on Cappadocia. Kara Kaprko Kara Kapu is not on the coast, but | Here the range is interrupted by the Euphrates, it is not far from it. If Strabo called this the but it recomiences on the east side of the river, in Amanides Pylae, as he seems to have done, he cor- a larger mass, more elevated, and more irregular in tainly gave the name to a different pass from that by form. (Strab. p. 521.) He further adds: “ the which Darius descended on Issus. There is another mountain range of Amanus extends (p. 535) to Cipassage of Strabo (p. 751) in which he says: “ ad. licia and the Syrian sea to the west from Cataonia jacent to Gindarus is Pagrae in the territory of and to the south; and by such a division (1aoTáo EI) Antioch, a strong post lying in the line of the pass it includes the whole gulf of Issus and the interover the Amanus, I mean that pass which leads frommediate Cilician valleys towards the Taurus." This the Amanides Pylae into Syria." Leake is clearly seems to be the meaning of the description of the right in not adopting Major Rennell's supposition Amanus in Strabo. Groskurd, in his Gennan verthat Strabo by this pass means the Amanides. He sion (vol. ij. p. 448) translates diao táo er simply by evidently means another pass, that of Beilan, which extent" (ausdehnung); but by attending to Strabo's leads from Iskenderun to Bakras or Pagras, which words and the order of them, we seem to deduce the is the modern name of Pagrae; and Strabo is so far meaning that the double direction of the mountain consistent that he describes this pass of Pagrae as includes the gulf of Issus. And this agrees with leading from the pass which he has called Amanicae. what Strabo says elsewhere, when he makes the Leake shows that the Amanides Pylae of Strabo are | Amanus descend to the gulf of Issus between Aegae between Aegaeae and Issus, but he has not sufficiently and Issus. [AMANIDES PYLAE.] noticed the difference between Strabo and Arrian, as The term Amanus in Strabo then appears to be Cramer observes (Asia Minor, vol. ii. p.359). The applied to the high ground which descends from the map which illustrates Mr. Ainsworth's paper on the mass of Taurus to the gulf of Issus, and bounds the Cilician and Syrian Gates (London Geog. Journal, east side of it, and also to the highland which exvol. viii. p. 185), and which is copied on the op- tends in the direction already indicated to the posite page, enables us to form a more correct judg- Euphrates, which it strikes north of Samosata (Soment of the text of the ancient writers; and we meisát). The Jávur Dagh appears to be the nomay now consider it certain that the Amanicae Pylaedern name of at least a part of the north-eastern of the historians of Alexander is the pass NNE. of course of the Amanus. The branch of the Amanus Issus, and that Strabo has given the name Amanides which descends to the Mediterranean on the cast side to a different pass.

[G. L.] of the gulf of Issus is said to attain an average eleAMA'NTIA ('Auavtia: Eth. 'Auartieus, Steph. vation of 5000 feet, and it terminates abruptly in B. 8. v.; 'Auavtivos, Ptol. ii. 16. § 3; Amantinus, Jebel Kheserik and Rás-el-Khánzir. This cape Plin. iv. 10. s. 17. $ 35; Amantianus, Caes. B. C. seems to be Rhosus, or the Rhosicus Scopulus of iii. 12; Apartes, Etym. M. s. v.; Amantes, Plin. iii. Ptolemy. There was near it a town Rhosus, which 23. s. 26. $ 45), a town and district in Greek Il- | Stephanus (s. v. 'Pwoos) places in Cilicia. Rhosus is lyria. It is said to have been founded by the Abantes now Arsus. There is another short range which is of Euboea, who, according to tradition, settled near connected with Amanus, and advances right to the the Ceraunian mountains, and founded Amantia and borders of the sea, between Rás-el-Khánzir and the

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1. Ras-el-Khánzir. 2. Beilan Pass. 3. Boghras Pass. 4. Pass from Bayas. 5. Rhosus. 6. Alexandreia. 7. Kersus or Merkez. 8. Bayas. 9. Pinarus.

10. Ruins of Issus ? 11. Demir Kapu, or Kara Kapa. 12. Aegae. 13. Pyramus. 14. Seleuceia. 15. Orontes. 16. Antiocheia. 17. Pagrae.

mouth of the Orontes: this appears to be the Pieria marched 5 parasangs from Issus to the Cilician and of Strabo (p. 751). On the south-west base of this Syrian gates; and Iskenderun is 5 hours from Bayas. range, called Pieria, was Selenceia, which Strabo (p. But still he thinks that Myriandrus is at Iskende676) considers to be the first city in Syria after run, and that the Cilician and Syrian pass is at leaving Cilicia. Accordingly, he considers the moun Merkez; but he adds, we must then remove Issus tain range of Amanus, which terininates on the east to Demir Kapu; and this makes a new difficulty, side of the gulf of Issus, to mark the boundary be for it is certainly not 15 parasangs from Demir Kapus tween Cilicia and Syria; and this is a correct view to the Pyramus. Besides, the position of Issus at of the physical geography of the country.

Demir Kapu will not agree with the march of AlexCicero (ad Fam. ii. 10), who was governor of ander as described by Curtius; for Alexander made Cilicia, describes the Amanus as common to him and two days' march from Mallus, that is, from the PyBibulus, who was governor of Syria; and he calls it ramus, to Castabalum; and one day's march from the water-shed of the streams, by which description Castabalum to Issus. Castabalum, then, may be he means the range which bounds the east side of represented by Demir Kapu, undoubtedly the rethe gulf of Issus. His description in another pas- mains of a town, and Issus is somewhere east of sage also (ad Fam. xv. 4) shows that his Amanus it. The Peutinger Table places Issus next to Casis the range which bas its termination in Ras-el- tabalum, and then comes Alexandreia (ad Issum). Khanzir. Cicero carried on a campaign against Consequently we should look for Issus somewhere the mountaineers of this range during his govern- on the road between Demir Kapu and

and Iskenderun. ment of Cilicia (B.C. 51), and took and destroyed Now Issus, or Issi, as Xenophon calls it, was on or several of their hill forts. He enumerates among | near the coast (Xen. Anab. i. 4: Strab. p. 676): them Erans the name stands in our present 1 and Darius

I and Darius marched from Issus to the Pinarus to texts), which was the chief town of the Amanus, / meet Alexander; and Alexander returned from MyriSepvra, and Commores. He also took Pindenissus. I andrus, through the Pylae, to meet Darius. It seems a town of the Eleutherocilices, which was on a high that as the plain about the Pinarus corresponds to point, and a place of great strength. The passes in Arrian's description, this river must have been that the Amanus have been already enumerated. On the where the two armies met, and that we must look bay, between Iskenderun and Bayas, the Baiae of for Issus a little north of the Pinarus, and near the Strabo and the Itineraries, is the small river Merkez, head of the bay of Issus. Those who have exsupposed to be the Karsus or Kersus of Xenophon amined this district do not, however, seem to have (Anab. i. 4). On the south side of this small stream exhausted the subject; nor has it been treated by is a stone wall, which crosses the narrow plain be the latest writers with sufficient exactness. tween the Amanus and the sea, and terminates on Stephanus (8.v. "looos) says that Issus was called the coast in a tower. There are also ruins on the | Nicopolis in consequence of Alexander's victory. north side of the Kersus; and nearer to the moun- Strabo makes Nicopolis a different place; but his tain there are traces of “a double wall between description of the spots on the bay of Issus is conwhich the river flowed.” (Ainsworth, London Geog. fused. Cicero, in the description of his Cilician Journal, vol. viii.) At the head of the river Kersus campaign, says that he encamped at the Arae Alexis the steep pass of Boghras Beli, one of the passes andri, near the base of the mountains. He gives no of the Amanus. This description seems to agree other indication of the site; but we may be sure with that of the Cilician and Syrian gates of Xeno- that it was north of the Cilician Pylae, and probably phon. The Cilician pass was a gateway in a wall it was near Issus.

[G.L. which descended from the mountains to the sea north AMARDI, or MARDI ('Auapdol, MapSol), a of the Kersus; and the Syrian pass was a gateway / warlike Asiatic tribe. Stephanus (s. v. 'Auqpdor), in the wall which extended in the same direction to following Strabo, places the Amardi near the Hyra the south of the river. Cyrus marched from the cani; and adds “ there are also Persian Mardi withSyrian pass five parasangs to Myriandrus, which out the a.” Strabo (p. 514) says, “in a circle round may be near the site of Iskenderun. We need not the Caspian sea after the Hyrcani are the Amardi, suppose that the present walls near the Merkez are &c.” Under Mardi, Stephanus (quoting Apollodorus) as old as the time of Cyrus (B. C. 401); but it speaks of them as an Hyrcanian tribe, who were seems probable that this spot, having once been robbers and archers. Curtius (vi. 5) describes them chosen as a strong frontier position, would be main-as bordering on Hyrcania, and inhabiting mountains tained as such. If the Kersus is properly identified which were covered with forests. They occupied with the Merkez, we must also consider it as the therefore part of the mountain tract which forms the gates through which Alexander marched from Mallus southern boundary of the basin of the Caspian. to Myriandrus, and through which he returned from The name Mardi or Amardi, which we may assume Myriandrus to give battle to Darius, who had de- to be the same, was widely spread, for we find Mardi scended upon Issus, and thus put himself in the rear mentioned as being in Hyrcania, and Margiana, also of the Greeks. (Arrian. Anab. ii. 6, 8.) From as a nomadic Persian tribe (Herod. i. 125; Strab. these gates Alexander retraced his march to the p. 524), and as being in Armenia (Tacit. Ann. xiv. river Pinarus (Deli Chai), near which was fought 23), and in other places. This wide distribution of the the battle of Issus (B. C. 333). If the exact po- name may be partly attributed to the ignorance of sition of Issus were ascertained, we might feel more the Greek and Roman writers of the geography of certain as to the interpretations of Arrian and Cur- Asia, but not entirely,

[G. L.] tius. Niebuhr (Reisen durch Syrien, &c., 1837, AMARDUS, or MARDUS ('Audpdos, Mdpdos, Anhang, p. 151), who followed the road from Is- Dionys. Perieg. v. 734), a river of Media, mentioned kenderun along the east coast of the bay of Issus on by Ammianus Marcellinus in his confused descrip his road to Constantinople, observes that Xenophon tion of the Persian provinces (xxiii. 6). Ptolemy makes the march of Cyrus 15 parasangs from the (vi. 2. § 2) places it in Media, and if wa take his Pyramus to Issus; and he observes that it is 15 hours numbers as correct, its source is in the Zagrus. The by the road from Bayas to the Pyramus. Cyrus river flows north, and enters the southern coast of

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