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the Caspian. It appears to be the Se fid-rud, or (kopupal) are two, naturally connected with one Kizil Ozien as it is otherwise called. As Ptolemy another, very strongly fortified by towers; and within places the Amardi round the south coast of the this enclosure are the palace and the tombs of the Caspian and extending into the interior, we may kings; but the heights have a very narrow neck, suppose that they were once at least situated on and the ascent to which is an altitude of 5 or 6 stadia about this river.

[G. L.] on each side as one goes up from the bank of the AMA'RI LACUS (ai tirpal Aluvar, Strab. xvii. river and the suburbs; and from the neck to the p.804; Plin. vi. 29. s. 33), were a cluster of salt- heights there remains another ascent of a stadium, kupons east of the Delta, between the city of He- steep and capable of resisting any attack; the rock röpslis and the desert of Etham- the modern Scheib. also contains (ěxel, not éken) within it water-cis. The Bitter Lakes had a slight inclination from N. to terns (uopeia) which an enemy cannot get possession E., and their general outline resembled the leaf of of (avapaipeta, the true reading, not åvapépetai), the sycamore. Until the reign of Ptolemy Phila- there being two galleries cut, one leading to the deljobus (B. C. 285—247), they were the termination river, and the other to the neck; there are bridges of the royal canal, by which the native monarchs over the river, one from the city to the suburb, and and the Persian kings attempted, but ineffectually, another from the suburb to the neighbouring country, to join the Pelasiac branch of the Nile with the for at the point where this bridge is the mountain Red Sea. Philadelphus carried the canal through terminates, which lies above the rock.” This exthese lagoons to the city of Arsinoë. The mineral tract presents several difficulties. Groskurd, in his qualities of these lakes were nearly destroyed by the German version, mistakes the sense of two passages introduction of the Nile-water. A temple of Se- (ii. p. 499). rapis stood on the northern extremity of the Bitter Amasia has been often visited by Europeans, but Lakes.

[W. B. D.] the best description is by Hamilton (Researches in AMARYNTHUS ('Audpuvēos : Eth. 'Apapuvēlos, | Asia Minor, fc. vol. i. p. 366), who gives a view 'Anapus los ), a town upon the coast of Euboea, only of the place. He explains the remark of Strabo 7 stalia from Eretria, to which it belonged. It pos- about the 5 or 6 stadia to mean "the length of the sessed a celebrated teinple of Artemis, who was road by which alone the summit can be reached," for bence called Amarynthia or Amarysia, and in whose owing to the steepness of the Acropolis it is necessary honour there was a festival of this name celebrated, to ascend by a circuitous route. And this is clearly both in Euboea and Attica. (Strab. p. 448; Pans. the meaning of Strabo, if we keep closely to his text. i. 31. $ 5; Liv. xxxv. 38; Steph. B. 8. v.; Dict. of Hamilton erroneously follows Cramer (Asia Minor, Ant. art. Amarynthia.)

vol. i. p. 302) in giving the version, “ the summits AMASE'NUS, a small river of Latium, still called | have on each side a very narrow neck of land;" for the Amaseno, which rises in the Volscian mountains the words “ on each side” refer to the ascent to the above Privernum, and descends from thence to the "neck," as Groskurd correctly understands it. HaPontine marshes, through which it finds its way to milton found two “ Hellenic towers of beautiful conthe sea, between Tarracina and the Circeian pro- struction " on the heights, which he considers to be montory. Before its course was artificially regulated the kopupal of Strabo. But the greater part of the it was, together with its confluent the Ufens, one of walls now standing are Byzantine or Turkish. Inthe chief agents in the formation of those marshes. deed we learn from Procopius (de Aedif. iji. 7), Its came is not found in Pliny or Strabo, but is re- that Justinian repaired this place. Hamilton obJesielly mentioned by Virgil (Aen. vii. 684, xi. 547). serves: “ the Kopupal were not, as I at first imaServius, in his note on the former passage, errone gined, two distinct points connected by a narrow ously places it near Anagnia, evidently misled by the intermediate ridge, but one only, from which two expressions of Virgil. Vibius Sequester (p. 3) cor. narrow ridges extend, one to the north, and the other rectly says “ Amasenus Privernatium.” [E. H. B.] to the east, which last terminates abruptly close to the

AMA'SIA ('Aueo ela, 'Auaoía: Eth. 'Auas eus: river.” But Strabo clearly means two kopupai, and Amasia. Amasiah. or Amasivah), a town of Pon. I he adds that they are naturally nnited C

| he adds that they are naturally united (ovupveis).

hucial tus, on the river Iris, or Yeshil Ermak. The It is true that he does not say that the neck unites origin of the city is unknown. It was at one time them. This neck is evidently a narrow ridge of the residence of the princes of Pontus, and after- / steep ascent along which a man must pass to reach wards appears to have been a free city under the l the kopvoal. Romans tiil the time of Domitian. It is said that The údpeia were cisterns to which there was acall the coins to the time of Domitian have only the cess by galleries (o úpiyyes). Hamilton explored a erigraph Amaseia or Amasia, but that from this | passage, cut in the rock, down which he descended time they bear the effigy and the name of a Roman about 300 feet, and found a “small pool of clear emperor. The coins from the time of Trajan bear cold water.” The wall round this pool, which apthe title Metropolis, and it appears to have been the peared to have been originally much deeper, was of chief city of Pontus.

Hellenic masonry, which he also observed in some Arnasia was the birthplace of the geographer parts of the descent. This appears to be one of the Strabo, who describes it in the following words (p. galleries mentioned by Strabo. The other gallery 561): " our city lies in a deep and extensive gorge, was cut to the neck, says Strabo, but he does not throagh which the river Iris flows; and it is wonder- say from where. We may conclude, however, that fally constructed both by art and by nature, being it was cut from the Kopupal to the ridge, and that adapted to serve the purpose both of a city and the other was a continuation which led down to the of a fort. For there is a lofty rock, steep on all well. Hamilton says : "there seem to have been sides, and descending abruptly to the river; this rock two of these covered passages or galleries at Amasia, has its wall in one direction on the brink of the one of which led from the Kopupai or summits in an river, at that part where the city is connected with easterly direction to the ridge, and the other from it; and in the other direction, the wall runs up the the ridge into the rocky hill in a northerly direction. hill on each side to the heights; and the heights. The former, however, is not excavated in the rock,



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like the latter, but is built of masonry above ground, mention Amastris. (Comp. Plin. vi. 2.) There yet equally well concealed.”

is a coin with the epigraph Sesamum. Those of The tombs of the kings are below the citadel to Amastris have the epigraph AuaoTpiavwy, the south, five in number, three to the west, and two The territory of Amastris produced a great quanto the east. The steep face of the rock has been tity of boxwoud, which grew on Mount Cytorus. artificially smoothed. “Under the three smaller The town was taken by L. Lucullus in the Mithri. tombs .... are considerable remains of the old datic war. (Appian. Mithrid. 82.) The younger Greek walls, and a square tower built in the best Pliny, when he was governor of Bithynia and PonHellenic style." These walls can also be traced tus, describes Amastris, in a letter to Trajan (a. up the hill towards the west, and are evidently those 99), as a handsome city, with a very long open described by Strabo, as forming the peribolus or en- | place (platea), on one side of which extended what closure within which were the royal tombs. (Ha- was called a river, but in fact was a filthy, pestilent, milton.) The front wall of an old medresseh at open drain. Pliny obtained the emperor's permission Amasia is built of ancient cornices, friezes, and ar to cover over this sewer. On a coin of the time of chitraves, and on three long stones which form the Trajan, Amastris has the title Metropolis. It consides and architrave of the entrance there are frag- tinued to be a town of some note to the seventh cenments of Greek inscriptions deep cut in large letters. tury of our aera.

[G. L.] Harnilton does not mention a temple which is spoken of by one traveller of little credit.

The territory of Amasia was well wooded, and adapted for breeding horses and other animals; and the whole of it was well suited for the habitation of man. A valley extends from the river, not very wide at first, but it afterwards grows wider, and forms the plain which Strabo calls Chiliocomon, and this was succeeded by the districts of Diacopene and Pimolisene, all of which is fertile as far as the Halys,

COIN OF AMASTRIS. These were the northern parts of the territory, and extended 500 stadia in length. The southern por A'MATHUS ('Auadoùs, -OŪVTOS: Eth. 'Auadoction was much larger, and extended to Babonomonotos: Adj. Amathusiacus, Ov. Met. x. 227.: nr. Old and Ximene, which district also reached to the Limasol), an ancient town on the S. coast of CyHalys. Its width from north to south reached to prus, celebrated for its worship of Aphrodite — Zelitis and the Great Cappadocia as far as the Trocmi. who was hence called Amathusia -- and of Adonis. In Ximene rock salt was dug. Hamilton procured (Scylax, p. 41; Strab. p. 683; Paus. ix. 41. at Amasia a coin of Pimolisa, a place from which the $ 2; Steph. B. 8. v.; Tac. Ann. üï. 62; Catull. district Pimolisene took its name, in a beautiful | lviii. 51; Ov. Am. ii. 15. 15.) It was originally state of preservation.

a settlement of the Phoenicians, and was proThe modern town stands on both sides of the river; bably the most ancient of the Phoenician colonies it has 3970 houses, all mean; it produces some silk. in the island. Stephanus calls Amathus the most (London Geog. Jour. vol. x. p. 442.) [G.L.] ancient city in the island, and Scylas describes its AMASTRA. [AMESTRATUS.]

inhabitants as autochthones. Its name is of PhoeAMASTRIS (Auaotpis : Eth. 'Auastplavós, nician origin, for we find a town of the same name Amastrianus: Amasra, or Amasserah), a city of in Palestine. (See below.) Amathus appears to Paphlagonia, on a small river of the same name. have preserved its Oriental customs and character, Amastris occupied a peninsula, and on each side of long after the other Phoenician cities in Cyprus had the isthmus was a harbour (Strab. p. 544): it was become hellenized. Here the Tyrian god Melkart, 90 stadia east of the river Parthenius. The original whom the Greeks identified with Heracles, was wor. city seems to have been called Sesamus or Sesamum, shipped under his Tyrian name. (Hesych, 8. e. and it is mentioned by Homer (Il. ii. 853) in con- Mónika, TOY 'Hpakléa, 'Auadoúo 101.) The Phoejunction with Cytorus. Stephanus (s. v. "Auaotpis) nician priesthood of the Cinyradae appears to have says that it was originally called Cromna; but in long continued to exercise its authority at Amathus. another place (8. v. Kpwuva), where he repeats the Hence we find that Amathus, as an Oriental town, statement, he adds, “as it is said; but some say remained firm to the Persians in the time of Dathat Cromna is a small place in the territory of rius I., while all the other towns in Cyprus reAmastris," which is the true account. The place volted. (Herod. v. 104, seq.) The territory of derived its name Amastris from Amastris, the niece Amathus was celebrated for its wheat (Hipponax, of the last Persian king Darius, who was the wife of ap. Strab. p. 340), and also for its mineral proDionysius, tyrant of Heracleia, and after his death ductions (fecundam Amathunta metalli, Ov. Met. the wife of Lysimachus. Four places, Sesamus, x. 220, comp. 531.) Cytorus, Cromna, also mentioned in the Iliad (ii. Amathus appears to have consisted of two distinct 855), and Teion or Tios, were combined by Amas- parts: one upon the coast, where Old Limasol now tris, after her separation from Lysimachus (Memnon, stands, and the other upon a hill inland, about 1 ap. Phot. Cod. ccxxiv.), to form the new community mile from Old Limasol, at the village of Agios Tyof Amastris. Teion, says Strabo, soon detached itself chonos, where Hammer discovered the ruins of the from the community, but the rest kept together, and temple of Aphrodite. (Hammer, Reise, p. 129; EnSesamus was the acropolis of Amastris. From this gel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 109, seq. Morers, Die Phó it appears that Amastris was really a confederation nizier, vol. ii. pt. ii. pp. 221, 240, seq.) or union of three places, and that Sesamus was the A'MATHUS ('Auabous or tàApal), a strongly name of the city on the peninsula. This may ex- fortified city on the east of the Jordan, in Lower plain the fact that Mela (i. 19) mentions Sesamus Persia, 21 Roman miles south of Pella. (Eusebii and Cromna as cities of l'aphlagonia, and does not Onomast.) It was destroyed by Alexander Jannaeus



(Joseph. Ant. xii. 13. $ 3), and after its restoration are copper coins of Amblada of the period of the
was one of the five cities in which the Sanhedrim Antonini and their successors, with the epigraph
sat: the others were Jerusalem, Jericho, Gadara | Aubadewr. The site is unknown. (G. L.]
and Sepphoris (Ib. xiv. 10). Burkhardt passed L AMBRA'CIA ('Aurparia, Thuc.; 'Aubparla
" the ruins of an ancient city standing on the de- Xen, and later writers; Eth. 'Aun pakutns, Herod.
clivity of the mountain” called Amata, near the viii. 45, Thuc. ii. 80; Ionic 'Aun pakihtns, Herod.
Jordan, and a little to the north of the Zerka ix. 28; 'Aubpakvátns, Xen. Anab. i. 7. $ 18, et
(Jabbok). He was told “ that several columns alii; 'Aubpakieús, Apoll. Rhod. iv. 1228; 'Aubpá-
remain standing, and also some large buildings." | klos, 'Aubparivos, Steph. B. 8. v. : Ambraciensis,
(Travels. p. 346.)

[G. W.] Liv. xxxviii. 43; Ambraciota, Cic. Tusc. i. 34: AMAZONES ('AuaCóves), a mythical race of Arta), an important city to the north of the Amwarlike females, of whom an account is given in the braciot gulf, which derived its name from this place. Dictionary of Biography and Mythology.

It was situated on the eastern bank of the river AJBARRI, a Gallic people, whom Caesar (B. G. Arachthus or Arethon, at the distance of 80 stadia i. 11) calls close allies and kinsmen of the Aedui. from the gulf, according to ancient authorities, or 7 If the reading “ Aedui Ambarri" in the passage re- | English miles, according to a modern traveller. It ferred to is correct, the Ambarri were Aedui. They stood on the western side of a rugged hill called are not mentioned among the “ clientes ” of the Perranthes, and the acropolis occupied one of the Aedui. (B. G. vü. 75.) They occupied a tract in summits of this hill towards the east. It was rather the valley of the Rhone, probably in the angle be- more than three miles in circumference, and, in adtween the Saône and the Rhone; and their neigh- dition to its strong walls, it was well protected by boars on the E. were the Allobroges. They are the river and the heights which surrounded it. It mentioned by Livy (v. 34) with the Aedui among is generally described as a town of Epirus, of which those Galli who were said to have crossed the Alps it was the capital under Pyrrhus and the subsequent into Italy in the time of Tarquinius Priscus. [G.L.] monarchs; but in earlier times it was an independent

AMBLA XI, a Belgic people, who were said to be state, with a considerable territory, which extended able to master 10,000 armed men in B. c. 57, the along the coast for 120 stadia. How far the terriyear of Caesar's Belgic campaign. They submitted tory extended northward we are not informed; but to Caesar. (B. G. ii. 4, 15.) Their country lay in that portion of it between the city itself and the the valley of the Samara (Somme); and their chief coast was an extremely fertile plain, traversed by town Samarobrira, afterwards called Ambiani and the Arachthus, and producing excellent corn in Civitas Ambianensiam, is supposed to be represented abundance. Ambracia is called by Dicaearchus and by Ariens. They were among the people who took Seylax the first town in Hellas proper. (Strab. p. part in the great insurrection against the Romans, 325; Dicaearch. 31, p. 460, ed. Fuhr; Scyl. p. 12; which is described in the seventh book of the Gallic Polyb. xxij. 9; Liv. xxxviii. 4.) war. (B. G. vii. 75.)

[G. L.] 1 According to tradition, Ambracia was originally a AMBLATI'NUS VICUS, or AMBITARINUS, as | Thesprotian town, founded by Ambrax, son of Thesthe true reading is said to be (Sueton. Calig. 8), a protus, or by Ambracia, daughter of Augeas; but it place in the country of the Treviri above Confluentes was made a Greek city by a colony of Corinthians, (Coblentz), where the emperor Caligula was born. | who settled here in the time of Cypselus, about B. c. Its precise position cannot be ascertained. [G. L.] 635. The colony is said to have been led by Gor

AJIBIBARI, one of the people or states of Ar-gus (also called Torgus or Tolgus), the son or morica. (Caes. B. G. vii. 75.) Their position does brother of Cypselus. Gorgus was succeeded in the Dat appear to be determined.

[G. L.] tyranny by his son Periander, who was deposed by AMBILIA'TI, people mentioned by Caesar the people, probably after the death of the Corinthian (B. G. č. 9) with the Nannetes, Morini, and others; tyrant of the same name. (Strab. pp. 325, 452; but nothing can be inferred from this passage as to Scymn. 454; Anton. Lib. 4; Aristot. Pol. v. 3. $ 6, their precise position. Some of the best MSS. have v. 8. $ 9; Ael. V. H. xii. 35; Diog. Laërt. i. 98.) in this passage the reading “ Ambianos " instead of Ambracia soon became a flourishing city, and the * Ainbiliatos."

[G. L.] most important of all the Corinthian colonies on the AMBISONTES or BISONTES, one of the many | Ambraciot gulf. It contributed seven ships to the otherwise unknown tribes in the interior of Noricum, Greek navy in the war against Xerxes, B. C. 480, about the sources of the rivers Ivarus and Anisus, and twenty-seven to the Corinthians in their war in the neighbourhood of the modern city of Salz- against Corcyra, B. C. 432. (Herod. viii. 45; Thuc. burg. (Plin. iii. 24; Ptol. i. 13. $ 3.) [L. S.] i. 46.) The Ambraciots, as colonists and allies of

AMBIVARETI, are mentioned by Caesar (B. G. Corinth, espoused the Lacedaemonian cause in the rü. 75) as “ clientes” of the Aedui; and they are Peloponnesian war. It was about this time that they mentioned again (vii. 90). As dependents of the reached the maximum of their power. They had Aedui, they must have lived somewhere near them, extended their dominions over the whole of Amphibut there is no evidence for their exact position. lochia, and had taken possession of the important The Ambivareti mentioned by Caesar (B. G. iv. 9) town of Argos in this district, from which they had were a people near the Mosa (Maas). As the two driven out the original inhabitants. The expelled natnes are evidently the same, it is probable that Amphilochians, supported by the Acarnanians, applied there is some error in one of the names; for these for aid to Athens. The Athenians accordingly sent people on the Mosa could hardly be clientes of the a force under Phormion, who took Argos, sold the Aedui. As to the various readings in the passage Ambraciots as slaves, and restored the town to the (B.G.iv.9), see Schneider's edition of Caesar. (G.L.] | Amphilochians and Acarnanians, B.C. 432. Auxious

AMBLADA (Aubaada : Eth. 'Aubadeus), a to recover the lost town, the Ambraciots, two years city of Pisidia, which Strabo (p.570) places near afterwards (430), marched against Argos, but were the boundaries of Phrygia and Caria. It produced unable to take it, and retired after laying waste its wine that was used for medicinal purposes. There territory. Not disheartened by this repulse, they




concerted a plan in the following year (429), with | gular blocks of stone. Lieut. Wolfe measured one
the Peloponnesians, for the complete subjugation of 18 ft. by 5. The foundations of the acropolis may
Acarnania. They had extensive relations with the still be traced, but there are no other remains of
Chaonians and other tribes in the interior of Epirus, Hellenic date. The general form of the city is given
and were thus enabled to collect a formidable army in the following plan taken from Leake.
of Epirots, with which they joined the Lacedae-
monian commander, Cnemus. The united forces
advanced into Acarnania as far as Stratus, but under
the walls of this city the Epirots were defeated by
the Acarnanians, and the expedition came to an end.
Notwithstanding this second misfortune, the Am-
braciots marched against Argos again in B.C. 426.
The history of this expedition, and of their two
terrible defeats by Demosthenes and the Acarnanians,
is related elsewhere. [ARGOS AMPHILOCHICUM.]
It appears that nearly the whole adult military po-
pulation of the city was destroyed, and Thucydides
considers their calamity to have been the greatest
that befel any Grecian city during the earlier part
of the war. Demosthenes was anxious to march
straightway against Ambracia, which would have
surrendered without a blow; but the Acarnanians
refused to undertake the enterprize, fearing that the
Athenians at Ambracia would be more troublesome
neighbours to them than the Ambraciots. The
Acarnanians and Amphilochians now concluded a
peace and alliance with the Ambraciots for 100

PLAN OF AMBRACIA. years. Ambracia had become so helpless that the

1. The Acropolis. Corinthians shortly afterwards sent 300 hoplites to

2. Mt. Perranthes. the city for its defence. (Thuc. ii. 68, 80, iii. 105

3. Bridge over the Arachthus. -114.)

The severe blow which Ambracia had received [The dotted line shows the ancient walls, where prevented it from taking any active part in the re- the foundations only remain. The entire line, where mainder of the war. It sent, however, some troops the remains are more considerable.] to the assistance of Syracuse, when besieged by the Athenians. (Thuc. vii. 58.) Ambracia was sub- How long Ambracia continued deserted after the sequently conquered by Philip II., king of Macedonia. removal of its inhabitants to Nicopolis, we do not know; On the accession of Alexander the Great (B. C. 336) but it was re-occupied under the Byzantine Empire, it expelled the Macedonian garrison, but soon after and became again a place of importance. Its modern wards submitted to Alexander. (Diod. xvii. 3, 4.) name of Arta is evidently a corruption of the river At a later time it became subject to Pyrrhus, who Arachthus, upon which it stood; and we find this made it the capital of his dominions, and his usual name in the Byzantine writers as early as the place of residence, and who also adorned it with eleventh century. In the fourteenth century Arta numerous works of art. (Pol. xxii. 13; Liv. xxxvii. was reckoned the chief town in Acarnania, whence 9; Strab. p. 325.) Pyrrhus built here a strongly it was frequently called by the name of Acarnania fortified palace, which was called after him Pyr- simply. Cyriacus calls it sometimes Arechthea rheum (līúppelov). (Pol. xxii. 10; Liv. xxxvii. 5.) | Acarnana. (Böckh, Corpus Inser. No. 1797.) Ambracia afterwards fell into the hands of the Aeto- It is still the principal town in this part of Greece, lians, and the possession of this powerful city was and, like the ancient city, has given its name to the one of the chief sources of the Aetolian power in neighbouring gulf. The population of Arta was this part of Greece. When the Romans declared reckoned to be about 7000 in the year 1830. war against the Aetolians, Ambracia was besieged (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 206, seq.; Wolfe, by the Roman consul M. Fulvius Nobilior, B.c. 189. Journal of Geographical Society, vol. jii. p. 82, seq.) This siege is one of the most memorable in ancient There were three other places in the territory of warfare for the bravery displayed in the defence of Ambracia mentioned by ancient writers: 1. Amthe town. In the course of the siege the Aetolians bracus. 2. The port of Ambracia. 3. Craneia. concluded a peace with Fulvius, whereupon Am- Ambracus ('Aulpakos) is described by Polybius bracia opened its gates to the besiegers. The consul, as a place well fortified by ramparts and ontworks, however, stripped it of its valuable works of art, and as surrounded by marshes, through which there and removed them to Rome. (Pol. xxii. 9—13; was only one narrow causeway leading to the place. Liv. xxxvii. 3—9.) From this time Ambracia rapidly declined, and its ruin was completed by Augus- 219, as a preliminary to an attack upon Ambracia. tus, who removed its inhabitants to Nicopolis, which (Pol. iv. 61, 63.) Scylax probably alludes to this he founded in commemoration of his victory at place, when he says (p. 12) that Ambracia had a Actium. (Strab. p. 325; Paus. v. 23. $ 3.) fortress near its harbour; for near the western shore

There is no longer any doubt that Årta is the of the old mouth of the river Arachthus (Arta) site of Ambracia, the position of which was for a some ruins have been discovered, whose topographical long time a subject of dispute. The remains of the situation accords with the description of Polybius. walls of Ambracia confirm the statements of the They are situated on a swampy island, in a marsby ancient writers respecting the strength of its fortifi- lake near the sea. They inclosed an area of about cations. The walls were built of immense quadran- a quarter of a mile in extent, and appeared to be


It was taken

Lacedonia, in B.C.

merely a military post, which was all that the swampy and fortified by the Thebans with a double wall, in Dature of the ground would admit of. (Wolfe, Ibid. their war against Philip. Its fortifications were P. 84.) This fortress commanded the harbour, considered by Pausanias the strongest in Greece, which is described by Scylax and Dicaearchus (Il. next to those of Messene. (Paus. x. 3. 2, x. 36. cc.) as a KAELOTÒs Ayuny, or a port with a narrow $ 1, seq., iv. 31. § 5; Strab. p. 423.) It was taken entrance, which might be shut with a chain. The by the Romans in the Macedonian war, B. c. 198. harbour must have been an artificial one; for the (Liv, xxxii. 18.) The site of Ambrysus is fixed present mouth of the Arta is so obstructed by swamps at the modern village of Dhistomo, by an inscription and shoals as scarcely to be accessible even to boats. which Chandler found at the latter place. The In ancient times its navigation was also esteemed remains of the ancient city are few and inconsiderdangerous, whence Lucan (v. 651) speaks of " orae able. (Dodwell, Tour through Greece, vol. i. p. 196, malignos Ambraciae portus."

seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 535, seq.) Craneia (KpávelQ) was a small village situated AMENA'NUS ('Auévavos, Strab.: 'Auevayos, on a mountain of the same name, which Leake sup- Steph. Byz. where the MSS. have 'Auenlavós: 'Aué. prees to have been the high mountain now called vas, Pind.: Amenana flumina, Ovid. Fast. iv. Kelberini, which rises from the right bank of the 467), a small river of Sicily which flows through river Arta, immediately opposite to the town.

the city of Catania, now called the Giudicello. Between the territory of Ambracia and Amphi- It is noticed by Strabo (p. 240) as remarklachia, Dicaearchus (45) mentions a people called able for the vicissitudes to which it was subject, Oreitae ('Opeitai), who appear to have been in- its waters sometimes failing altogether for years, habitants of the mountains named Makrinoro, be- and then flowing again in abundance. The same ginning at the NW. corner of the Ambraciot gulf. peculiarity is remarked by Ovid (Met. xv. 279), and

is still observed with regard to the Giudicello. It is probably connected with internal changes of Etna, at the foot of which it rises. (Fazell. iii. 1. p. 138; Cluver. Sicil. p. 120; DOrville, Sicula, p. 218.) Pindar speaks of the newly founded city of Aetna (the name given by Hieron to Catana) as situated

by the waters of the Amenas, but the correctness of COIN OF AMBRACIA.

the form Amenanos, preserved by Strabo, is attested

by coins of Catana, which bear on the obverse the AMBRA'CIUS SINUS (d'Aut PakiKOS KÓAmos, head of the river deity, under the usual form of a Thuc. i. 55; • 'Aubpakikos Kóxtos, Pol. iv. 63, youthful male head with horns on the forehead, and Strab. R. 325, et al.; ý Járadra ý 'Aumpakiah, the name at full length AMENANO. (Castell. Dion Cass. I. 12: Sinus Ambracius, Liv. xxxviii. Sicil. Numism. pl. 20, fig. 8.) [E. H. B.] 4; Mel. ii. 3: Gulf of Arta), an arm of the Ionian AME'RIA. [CABIRA.] sea, lying between Epirus and Acarnania, so called | AME'RIA ('Auepía, Strab. Ptol. Plut. Mar. 17; from the town of Ambracia. Polybius (l. c.) de- l 'Auéplov, Steph. B.: Eth. Amerinus: Amelia), one of scribes the bay as 300 stadia in length, and 100 | the most ancient and important cities of Umbria, stadia in breadth: Strabo (l. c.) gives 300 stadia as situated about 15 m. S. of Tuder, and 7 W. of its circumference, which is absurdly too small. Its Narnia, on a hill between the valley of the Tiber and real length is 25 miles, and its breadth 10. The that of the Nar, a few miles above their junction. entrance of the gulf, one side of which was formed (Strab. p. 227; Plin. iii. 14. 8. 19; Ptol. iii. 1. by the promontory of Actium, is described under $ 54; Festus, s. v.) According to Cato (ap. Plin. ACTIVM. In consequence of the victory which i.c.) it was founded 964 years before the war with Angustus gained over Antony at the entrance to Perseus, or 1135 B. C.: and although this date canthis gulf, Statius (Silv. ii. 2. 8) gives the name of not be regarded as historical, it may be received as Ambracise frondes to the crowns of laurel bestowed evidence of a belief in its remote antiquity. The upon the victors in the Actian games. The Am- still extant remains of its ancient walls, constructed bracius Sinns is also frequently mentioned in Greek in the polygonal style, prove it to have been a place history. On it were the towns of Argos Amphi- of strength in early times: but it is remarkable that lochicum, and Anactorium, and the sea-port of Am- its name is not once mentioned during the wars of bracia. The rivers Charadra and Arachthus flowed Rome with the Umbrians, nor does it occur in history into it from the N. It was celebrated in antiquity previous to the time of Cicero. But the great for its excellent fish, and particularly for a species orator, in his defence of Sex. Roscius, who was a native called Kárpos. (Ath. ii. p. 92, d., vii. pp. 305, e., of Ameria, repeatedly mentions it in a manner which 311, a, 326, d.) The modern gulf still maintains its proves that it must then have been a flourishing character in this respect. The red and grey mullet municipal town: its territory extended to the Tiber, are most abundant, and there are also plenty of soles and was fertile in osiers and fruit trees. (Cic. pro and eels. (Wolfe, Observations on the Gulf of Arta, | Sex. Rosc. 7, 9, &c.; Virg. Georg. i. 265; Colum. iv. in Journal of Geographical Society, vol. i.) 30, v. 10 ) Its lands were portioned out by Augustus

AMBRY'SUS or AMPHRY'SUS ("Aubpvoos, among his veterans; but it did not obtain the rank Strab.; 'Aubpwroos, Paus.; "Auopuoos, Steph. B. of a colony, as we find it both in Pliny and inscrip8. t.: Eth. 'Auspuoios, 'Aubpvoets, and in Inscr. tions of later date styled only a municipium. (Lib. 'Auspuopeus: Dhistomo), a town of Phocis, was Colon. p. 224; Zumpt. de Colon. p. 356; Inscr.ap. situated 60 stadia from Stiris, NE. of Anticyra, at Grut. p. 485.5, 1101.2, 1104.) The modern town the southern foot of Mt. Cirphis (not at the foot of of Amelia retains the ancient site as well as conParnasats, as Pausanias states), and in a fertile siderable portions of the ancient walls: it is now a Falley, producing abundance of wine and the coccus, small place with only about 2000 inhabitants, though or kermes-berry, used to dye scarlet. It was de- still the see of a bishop. stroyed by order of the Ainphictyons, but was rebuilt / The Tabula Peutingeriana gives a line of road

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