« السابقةمتابعة »
which branches off from the Via Clodia at Baccanas | That of Amestratus, in addition to the testimony of (Baccano) and leads through Nepe and Falerii to Cicero and Stephanus, is fully supported by the Ameria and thence to Tuder: this can be no other evidence of its coins, which have the name at full, than the Via Amerina mentioned in an inscription AMHETPATINON. (Castell. Sicil. Vet. Num. of the time of Hadrian (Orell. 3306). The dis- pl. 15; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 197.) [E. H. B.) tances, as given in the Table, make Ameria distant A'MIDA ("Auda: Eth. 'Auionvós, Amidensis: 57 M. P. from Rome by this route, which agrees Diyar-Bekr). The modern town is on the right very closely with a casual statement of Cicero (pro bank of the Tigris. The walls are lofty and subo Sex. Rosc. 7. $ 18) that it was 56 miles from the stantial, and constructed of the ruins of ancient one to the other. The Castellum Amerinum placed | edifices. As the place is well adapted for a comby the Table at 9 M. P. from Ameria on the road to mercial city, it is probable that Arnida, which Falerii is otherwise unknown. [E. H. B.] occupied the site of Diyar-Bekr, was a town of
AMERI'OLA, a city of ancient Latium, mentioned considerable antiquity. It was enlarged and strengthby Livy among those reduced by force of arms by ened by Constantius, in whose reign it was besieged the elder Tarquin (i. 38). It is here enumerated and taken by the Persian king Sapor, A. D. 359. among the “ Prisci Latini," and doubtless at this | The historian Ammianus Marceilinus, who took part period was one of the thirty cities of the league: but in the defence of the town, has given us a minute its name is not found in the later list given by account of the siege. (Amm. Marc. xix. 1, seq.) Dionysius (v. 61), nor does it again occur in history; It was taken by the Persian king Cabades in the and it is only noticed by Pliny (iii. 5. s. 9) among reign of Anastasius, A. D. 502 (Procop. B. Pers. the extinct cities of Latium. From the names with i. 7, seq.); but it soon passed again into the hands which it is associated in Livy we may probably infer of the Romans, since we read that Justinian rethat it was situated in the neighbourhood of the paired its walls and fortifications. (Procop. de Corniculan Hills: and it has been conjectured by Aedif. ii. 1.) Ammianus and Procopius consider Gell and Nibby that some ruins still visible on the it a city of Mesopotamia, but it may be more properly northernmost of the three hills, about a mile north viewed as belonging to Armenia Major. [G. L.] of Mte S. Angelo, may be those of Ameriola. They AMILUS (Audos: Eth. 'Aurios), a village of consist of some remnants of walls, of irregular poly- Arcadia in the territory of Orchomenus, and on the gonal construction, running round a defensible road from the latter to Stymphalus. (Paus. viii. 14. eininence, and indicating the site of a small town. $ 5; Steph. B. 8. v.) But the distance from Mte S. Angelo (on the summit AMI'SIA, a place on the left bank of the river of which there was certainly an ancient city, whether Amisia (Ems), in Germany. (Tacit. Ann. ii. 8.) Corniculum or Medullia) is however so small as to This place, which is not mentioned by any other anrender it improbable that another independent town cient author, is perhaps the same as the town of should have existed so close to it. (Gell, Top, of l’Auávela noticed by Ptolemy (ii. 11), and the Aurora Rome, p.52; Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. p. 138; mentioned by Stephanus Byzantinus as a town of Abeken, Mittel-Italien, p. 78.) [E. H. B.] / Germany. (Comp. Ledebur, Land u. Volk der
AME'SELUM (TÒ 'Auhoelov) a town of Sicily, Bructerer, p. 180, foll.) mentioned only by Diodorus (xxii. Exc. Hoesch.p.499), AMI'SIA or AMI'SIUS ('Audotos or 'Amagía, the from whom we learn that it was situated between Ems), a river in northern Germany, rising in the Centuripi and Agyrium, in a position of great natural hills of the Weser, and emptying itself into the Gerstrength. It was taken, in B. c. 269, by Hieron king man Ocean near the town of Emden. The river was of Syracuse, who destroyed the city and fortress, well known to, and navigated by the Romans. In and divided its territory between its two neighbours B. c. 12, Drusus fought on it a naval battle against the Centuripini and Agyrians. Its exact site is the Bructeri. (Mela, üi. 3; Plin. H. N. iv. 14, who unknown.
[E. H. B.] | calls the river Amisius; Tacit. Ann. i. 60, 63, AMEÄSTRATUS ('Auńctpatos, Steph. B.: Eth. 70, ïi. 23, who calls it Amisia; Strab. p. 290; Amestratinus: Mistretta), a city of Sicily, noticed Ptolem. ii, 11; comp. Ledebur, Land u. Volk der only by Cicero and Steph. B. From the circumstance Bructerer, p. 180.)
[L.S.] mentioned by the former, that Verres compelled the A'MISUS ('Auloos: Eth. 'Auronvós, Auicios. inhabitants of Calacte to deliver their tithes of corn Amisenus: Eski Samsun), a city of Pontus in Asia at Amestratus instead of at Calacte itself, it is clear Minor, situated on the west side of the bay called that it was not very far from that city: and this Amisenus, about 900 stadia from Sinope according fact, coupled with the reserblance of the name, to Strabo (p. 547). The ruins of Amisus are on a enables us to fix its site at Mistretta, now a con- promontory about a mile and a half NNW. of the siderable town, situated on a hill about 5 miles from modern town. On the east side of the promontory the N. coast of Sicily near Sto. Stefano, and 10 from was the old port, part of which is now filled up. Caronia (Calacte). According to Fazello, consider- | The pier which defended the ancient harbour may able remains of antiquity were still visible there in still be traced for about 300 yards, but it is chiefly his time; but the place is not described by any recent under water: it consists of very large blocks of traveller. We learn from Cicero that it was a small stone. On the summit of the hill where the acropo and poor town, though enjoying municipal privi lis stood there are many remains of walls of rubble leges. (Cic. in Verr. ii. 39, 43, 74; Steph. B. 8. v.; and mortar, and the ground is strewed with frasFazell. de Reb. Sicul. x. p. 415; Cluver. Sicil. ments of Roman tiles and pottery. On the south p. 383.)
end of the brow of the hill which overlooks the It is probably the same place as the Amastra of harbour there are traces of the real Hellenic walls. Silius Italicus (xiv. 267), but there is no foundation (Hamilton, Researches in Asia Minor, vol.i. p. 290.) for identifying it (as has been done by Cluverius! The origin of Amisus appears to be uncertain. and most subsequent geographers) with the Mytis- Hecataeus (Strab. p. 553) supposed it to be the tratus of Polybius and Pliny: both names being Enete of Homer (N1. ii. 852). Theopompus, quoted perfectly well authenticated. [MYTISTRATUS.] | by Strabo, says that it was first founded by the
Milesians; then settled by a Cappadocian king; and great antiquity. It was situated in the upper valley thirdly, by Athenocles and some Athenians, who of the river Aternus, from which, according to changed its name to Peiraeeus. But Scymnus of | Varro (L. L. v. 28), it derived its name, and at the Chios (Fr. v. 101) calls it a colony of Phocaea, and foot of the loftiest group of the Apennines, now of prior date to Heracleia, which was probably known as the Gran Sasso d Italia. Its ruins are founded about B. c. 559. Raoul-Rochette concludes, still visible at San Vittorino, a village about 5 miles but there seems no reason for his conclusion, that | N. of Aquila. According to Cato and Varro (ap. this settlement by Phocaea was posterior to the Mi- | Dionys. i. 14, ii. 49), this elevated and rugged lesian settlement. (Histoire des Colonies Grecques, mountain district was the original dwelling-place of vol. ill. p. 334.) However this may be, Amisus | the Sabines, from whence they first began to turn became the most flourishing Greek settlement on the their arms against the Aborigines in the neighbournorth coast of the Euxine after Sinope. The time bood of Reate. Virgil also mentions Amiternum wben the Athenian settlement was made is uncertain. among the most powerful cities of the Sabines: and Cramer concludes that, because Amisus is not both Strabo and Pliny enumerate it among the cities mentioned by Herodotus or Xenophon, the date of still inhabited by that people. Ptoleiny, on the the Athenian settlement is posterior to the time of contrary, assigns it to the Vestini, whose territory it the Arabasis ; a conclusion which is by no means must certainly have adjoined. (Virg. Aen. vii. 710; necessary. Plutarch (Lucull. 19) says that it was | Sil. Ital. viii. 416; Strab. y. p. 228; Plin. iii. 12. settled by the Athenians at the time of their great- s. 17; Ptol. i. 1. $ 59.) Livy speaks of Amiest power, and when they were masters of the sea. ternum as captured by the Romans in B. c. 293 The place lost the name of Peiraeeus, and became from the Samnites (x. 39), but it seems impossible a rich trading town under the kings of Pontus. that the Sabine city can be the one meant; and Mithridates Eupator made Amisas his residence either the name is corrupt, or there must have been alternately with Sinope, and he added a part to the some obscure place of the same name in Samnium. town, which was called Eupatoria (Appian. Mithrid. Strabo speaks of it as having suffered severely from 78), but it was separated from the rest by a wall, the Social and Civil Wars, and being in his time and probably contained a different population from much decayed; but it was subsequently recolonised, that of old Amisus. This new quarter contained probably in the time of Augustus (Lib. Colon. the residence of the king. The strength of the p. 228; Zumpt, de Coloniis, p. 356. not.), and beplace was proved by the resistance which it made to came a place of considerable importance under the the Roman commander L. Lucullus (B. C. 71) in the Roman empire, as is proved by the existing ruins, Mithridatic war. (Plat. Lucull. 15, &c.) The among which those of the amphitheatre are the most grammarian Tyrannio was one of those who fell into conspicuous. These are situated in the broad and the hands of Lucullas when the place was captured. level valley of the Aternus, at the foot of the hill on
Phamnaces, the son of Mithridates, subsequently which stands the village of S. Vittorino ; but some crossed over to Amisus from Bosporus, and Amisus remains of polygonal walls are said to exist on that Fas again taken and cruelly dealt with. (Dion hill, which probably belong to an earlier period, and Cass. xlii. 46.) The dictator Caesar defeated Phar- to the ancient Sabine city. It continued to be an Daces in a battle near Zeleia (Appian. B. C. ii. 91), episcopal see as late as the eleventh century, but its and restored the place to freedom. M. Antonius, complete decline dates from the foundation of the says Strabo, “ gave it to kings;" but it was again neighbouring city of Aquila by the emperor Frederescued from a tyrant Straton, and made free, after ric II., who removed thither the inhabitants of Amithe battle of Action, by Augustus Caesar; and now, ternum, as well as several other neighbouring towns. adds Strabo, it is well ordered. Strabo does not (Romanelli, vol. iii. p. 330; Giustiniani, Diz. Geogr. state the name of the king to whom Antonius gave vol. i. p. 230; Craven, Abruzzi, vol. i. pp 217 Amisus. It has been assumed that it was Po- -219.) Numerous inscriptions have been dislemon I, who had the kingdom of Pontus at least as covered there, of which the most important is a early as B.C. 36. It does not appear who Straton fragment of an ancient calendar, which is one of the was. The fact of Amisus being a free city under most valuable relics of the kind that have been prethe empire appears from the epigraph on a coin of served to us. It has been repeatedly published; the city, and from a letter of the younger Pliny to among others, by Foggini (Fast. Rom. Reliquiae, Trajan (x. 93), in which he calls it “ libera et Romae, 1779), and by Orelli (Inscr. vol. ï. c. 22). foederata," and speaks of it as having its own laws Amiternum was the birthplace of the historian by the favour of Trajan.
Sallust. (Hieron. Chron.)
[E. H. B.] Arisus, in Strabo's time, possessed a good terri AMMONI'TAE ('Auuavitai, LXX. and Joseph.), tory, which included Themiscyra, the dwelling-place the descendants of Ben-ammi, the son of Lot by his of the Amazons, and Sidene.
[G. L.] incestuous connection with his younger daughter
(Gen. xix. 38). They exterminated the Zamzam-
Reland, Palaest. p. 105.) Their capital was Rabbath
or Rabbah, afterwards called PHILADELPHIA, now Ammin. They were constantly engaged in con
federations with other Bedouin tribes against the AMITERNUM ('Auit epvov, Strab.; 'Aultepva, Israelites (Ps. Ixxxiii. 6—8), and were subdued by Dionys: Amiterninus), a city of the Sabines of Jephthah (Judges si.), Saul (1 Sam. xi., xiv. 47),
David (2 Sam. viii. 12, x. xi. 1. xii. 26, &c.), Je- We learn from several inscriptions that Milians hoshaphat (2 Chron. xx.), Uzziah (ib. xxvi. 8), and were settled in Minoa and Aegiale, and that they Jotham (xxvii. 5), and subsequently by Nebuchad-formed in the latter town a separate community. nezzar. (Jerem. xxvii. 1, &c.) They renewed their (Böckh, Corp. Inscr. vol. ï. No. 2264; Ross, Inscr. opposition to the Jews after the captivity (Nehem. Gr. Ined. vol. ï. No. 112, 120_122.) The island iv. 3, 7, 8), and were again conquered by Judas contains at present 3,500 inhabitants. (TourneMaccabaeus. (1 Macc. v. 6, &c.) Justin Martyr fort, Voyage, &c. vol. ii. p. 182, seq. ; Fiedler, speaks of a great multitude of Ammonites existing | Reise, &c. vol. ii. p. 325, seq.; and more especially in his day (Dial. p. 272); but Origen shortly after Ross, Reisen auf den Griech. Inseln, vol. i. p. 173, speaks of the name as being merged in the common seq., vol. ii. p. 39, seq.) appellation of Arabs, under which the Idumaeans AMORITES, one of the seven Canaanitish tribes and the Moabites were comprehended together with (Gen. x. 16) who held possession of the Promised the Ishmaelites and Joctanites. (Orig. in Jobum, Land, during the times of the Patriarchs, until the lib. i.)
[G. W.] coming in of the Children of Israel. It appears to AMMOʻNIUM. [Oasis.]
have been one of the most powerful tribes, and the AMNIAS ("Auvias, Auvelos), a river in Pontus. name is used as a general term for all the CanaanIn the broad plain on the banks of this stream the ites. (Gen. xv. 16.) Their original seat was at generals of Mithridates defeated Nicomedes, king of the south-west of the Dead Sea, between the AMALEBithynia, and the ally of the Romans, B. C. 88. KITAE and the Vale of Siddim, and their principal (Appian. Mithridat. c. 18; Strab. p. 562.) The city was Hazezon-Tamar, or Engedi ('Ain-Jidi). plain through which the river flowed is called by (Gen. xiv. 7, and 2 Chron. xx. 2.) At the time of Strabo Domanitis. Hamilton (Researches, &c. vol. the exodus, however, they had seized and occupied i. p. 362) identifies the Amnias with an affluent of the country on the east side of the Dead Sea and of the Halys, now called Costambol Chai, and some- | the Valley of the Jordan, where they had established times Giaour Irmak. It appears that the river is two powerful kingdoms, the capitals of which were also called Kara Sú.
[G.L.] HESHBON and BASAN. Heshbon, the southern part AMNI'SUS ('Aurioos), a town in the N. of of this extensive country, had been taken from the Crete, and the harbour of Cnossus in the time of Moabites and Ammonites by Sihon, and extended Minos, was situated at the mouth of a river of the from the Arnon (Mojeb) to the Jabbok (Zerka) same name (the modern Aposelemi). It possessed (Numb. xxi. 26), and this was the plea on which a sanctuary of Eileithyia, and the nymphs of the the Ammonites grounded their claim to that country river, called 'Auviorades and 'Auvioiôes, were sacred in the days of Jephthah. (Judges, xi.) This disto this goddess. (Hom. Od. xix. 188; Strab. p. 476; trict comprehended Mount Gilead, and was settled A poll. Rhod. ii. 877; Callim. Hymn. in Dian. 15; by the Tribes of Reuben and Gad. The northern Steph. B. 8. v.)
division of Basan, of which Og was the king, exAMORGOS ('Auopyós: Eth. 'Auopyivos, also tended from the Jabbok to the northern extremity of 'Ajópylos, 'Auopyítns: Amorgo), an island of the the Promised Land, to Mount Hermon, which the Sporades in the Aegean sea, SE. of Naxos. It is Ammonites named Shenir. This country was giren rarely mentioned in history, and is chiefly celebrated to the half tribe of Manasseh. (Numb. xxi.; Deut. as the birthplace of the iambic poet Simonides. | ii, iii.; 1 Chron. v. 23.) All this region was compre(Strab. p. 487.) There was in Amorgos a manu- hended in PERAEA. The Amorites are also found factory of a peculiar kind of linen garments, which on the western coast of Palestine, in the vicinity of bore the name of the island, and which were dyed the Tribe of Dan (Judges, i. 34), and in the borders red. (Steph. B. 8. v.; Eustath. ad Dionys. 526; of the Tribe of Ephraim (v. 35). Still the southPollux, vii. 16.) In dyeing them use appears to eastern extremity of Canaan is recognised as their have been made of a kind of lichen, which is still proper seat (v. 36; comp. Numb. xxxiv. 4, and found in the island, and of which Tournefort has Joshua, xv. 3), and the practice of using this name given an account. The soil of Amorgos is fertile. It as a general designation of all the Canaanitish produces at present corn, oil, wine, figs, tobacco, and tribes renders it difficult to determine their exact cotton, all of good quality. Hence it was considered limits.
[G.W.] under the Roman empire one of the most favourable AMO’RIUM ('Auópiov: Eth. 'Auopieus), a city places for banishment. (Tac. Ann. iv. 30.) We learn of Phrygia, according to Strabo (p. 576). Its profrom Scylax (p. 22) that Amorgos contained three | bable position can only be deduced from the Peotowns, the names of which, according to Stephanus tinger Table, which places it between Pessinus (8. v. 'Auoprós), were Minoa (Mivwa, Muvia, Ptol. (Bala Hissar) and Laodicea. Hamilton ( Researches, V. 2. $ 33), the birthplace of Simonides, Arcesine | &c. vol. i. p. 451) identities it with Hergan Kalék, ('Apkeolvn), and Aegiale (Aiyaan, Beylanis, Ptol.). where there are the ruins of a large city; but the Remains of all these cities have been discovered, and present remains appear to belong to the fourth or a minute description of them is given by Ross, who fifth centuries of our aera. This determination spent several days upon the island. They are all would place Amorium in Galatia. [G. L.) situated on the western side of ibc island opposite AMPE ("Auan: Eth. 'Auraios), a place where Naxos, Aegiale at the N., and Arcesine at the S., Darius settled the Milesians who were made prisonwhile Minoa lies more in the centre, at the head of ers at the capture of Miletus, B. C. 494. (Herod. vi. a large and convenient harbour, now called Ta 20.) Herodotus describes the place as on the Erf. Katapola, because it is kaTà TTV Tódiv. It appears, thraean sea (Persian Gulf); he adds that the Tigris from the inscriptions found in the island, that it flows past it. This description does not enable us possessed other demes besides the above mentioned to fix the place. It has been supposed to be the Cowns. It is probable that Melania (Medavía), lamba of Ptolemy, and the Ampelone of Pliny (ri. which Stephanus in another passage (s. v. 'Apresivn) 28), who calls it " Colonia Milesiorum." Tzetzes mentions as one of the three towns of Amorgos in has the name Ampe. (Harduin's note on Plin. place of Aegiale, may have beea one of these demes. vi. 28.)
AMPELOS (AUTEROS), a promontory at the Kokala. (Paus. iv. 5. $ 9; Leake, Morea, vol. i. extremity of the peninsula Sithonia in Chalcidice in p. 461; Boblaye, Recherches, p. 109.) Macedonia, called by Herodotus the Toronaean pro- | AMPHI'ALE. [AEGALEOS.] montery. It appears to correspond to the modern | AMPHICAEA or AMPHICLEIA ('Aupikala, C. Kartáli, and Derrhis, which is nearer to the Herod., Steph. B.; 'Aupikaera, Paus.: Eth. 'Aucity of Torone, to C. Dhrépano. (Herod. vii. 122; Pikaleús, 'Aupiklereus), a town in the N. of Phocis, Steph. B. 8. v.; Ptol. iii. 13. $ 12.)
distant 60 stadia from Lilaea, and 15 stadia from AMPELU'SLA, or COTES PROM. (ai KÚTEIS, Tithronium. It was destroyed by the army of Strab. p. 825; Kútnis akpov, Ptol. iv. 1. $ 2: ap- Xerxes in his invasion of Greece. Although Herodoparently also the Cotta of Plin. xxxii. 2. s. 6: tus calls it Amphicaea, following the most ancient C. Spartel, or Espartel, a corruption of the Arabic traditions, the Amphictyons gave it the name of Achbertil, or Chbertil; also Ras- or Tarf- esh- Amphicleia in their decree respecting rebuilding the Skalkar), the NW. headland of Mauretania Tingi- town. It also bore for some time the name of Ophitana and of the whole continent of Africa; about TEIA ('Opiteia), in consequence of a legend, which 10 miles W. of Tingis (Tangier). Cotes was its | Pausanias relates. The place was celebrated in the mtive name, of which the Greek Ampelusia (vine | time of Pausanias for the worship of Dionysus, to clod) was a translation (Strab. l. c.; Plin. v. 1 ; / which an inscription refers, found at Dhadhi, the Mela. i. 5). It is a remarkable object; a precipitous site of the ancient town. (Herod. viii. 33; Paus. rock of grey freestone (with basaltic columns, ac- | 8. 3. $ 2, x. 33. $ 9, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, cording to Drummond Hay, but this is doubtful), vol. ï. pp. 75, 86.) pierced with many caves, among which one in par AMPHI'DOLI ('Aupido201), a town in Pisatis in ticular was shown in ancient times as sacred to Elis, which gave its name to the small district of Hercules (Mela, Lc.); from these caves mill-stones Amphidolis or Amphidolia ('Aupidoxis, 'Aupidonia). Fere and still are obtained. Its height is 1043 feet The town of Marganeae or Margalae was situated in above the sea. Strabo describes it as an offset this district. The site of Amphidoli is uncertain, (TTPÓTOVS) of M. Atlas ; and it is, in fact, the western but its territory probably lay to the west of Acroprint, as ABYLA is the eastern, of the end of that reia. [ACROREIA.] (Xen. Hell. iii. 2. $ 30; Strab. great NW. spur of the Atlas, which divides the pp. 341, 349; Leake, Pelponnesiaca, p. 219.) Atlantic from the Mediterranean. The two hills AMPHIGENEIA ('Aupoyévela : Eth. 'Ajoiyeforto the extremities of the S. shore of the Fretum veus), one of the towns belonging to Nestor (Hom. Gaditanum (Straits of Gibraltar), the length of the Il. ii. 593), was placed by some ancient critics in Strait from the one to the other being 34 miles. Messenia, and by others in Macistia, a district in The W. extremity of the Strait on the European Triphylia. Strabo assigns it to Macistia near the river share, opposite to Ampelusia, at a distance of 22 miles, Hypsoeis, where in his time stood a temple of Leto. was Junonis Pr. (C. Trafalgar). Mela is very (Steph. B. 3. v.; Strab. p. 349.) explicit in drawing the line of division between the AMPHILO'CHIA ('Auoinoxia: Eth. 'AupinoAtlantic and the Straits through these points (i. 5, xos), a small district at the eastern end of the Ame i. 6, iii. 10; his last words are, Ampelusia in braciot gulf, bounded on the N. by Ambracia and on metrum jam fretum vergens, operis hujus atque the S. by the territory of the Agraei. It did not exAtlantici litoris terminus ; so Plin. v. 1, Fromones tend far inland. It is a mountainous district, and torium Oceani extimum Ampelusia). The erroneous the rocks along the coast rise in some parts to 450 or Mtion of the ancients respecting the shape of this 500 feet high. The Amphilochi were a non-Hellenic part of Africa (see LIBYA) led them to make this tribe, although they were supposed to have derived promontory the W. extremity of the continent. (Strab. their name from the Argive Amphilochus, the son of Lc.) Scylax (p. 52, p. 123, Gronov.) mentions a Amphiaraus. Strabo (p. 326) describes them as an large bay called Cotes, between the Columns of Epirot people, but their country is more usually deHercules and the promontory of Hermaeum; but scribed as a part of Acarnania. (Steph. B. 8. v.; whether his Hermaeum is our Ampelusia, or a point Scyl. p 12.) Their lineage, as Grote remarks, was further S. on the W. coast, is doubtful. Gosselin probably something intermediate between the Acar(ap. Bredow, i. 47), and Ritter (Erdkunde, vol. i. nanians and Epirots. At the time of the Peloponp. 336), regard Ampelusia as identical with the nesian war the Amphilochi were in close alliance Soloris of Herodotus (ü. 32) and Hanno (Peripl. with the Acarnanians. After the death of Alexander
[P. S.] the Great the Amphilochi were conquered by the AMPHAXI'TIS ('Aupatitis), the maritime part | Aetolians; and they were at a later time included in of Mygdonia in Macedonia, on the left bank of the the Roman province of Epirus. The only town in Axius, which, according to Strabo, separated Bot- their country was Argos, surnamed Amphilochicum, tiaca from Amphaxitis. The name first occurs in under which the history of the people is more fully Polybias. No town of this name is mentioned by given. There were also a few villages or fortresses, ancient writers, though the Amphaxii are found on which owe their importance simply to their connection cans. (Pol. v. 97; Strab. p. 330; Ptol. iii. 13. with the history of Argos, and which are therefore $$ 10, 14; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 449.) | described in that article. [ARGOS AMPHILO
AMPHEIA ('Augela: Eth. 'Aupeus), a town of CHICUM.] Messenia, situated on the frontiers of Laconia, upon | AMPHIMALLA ('Audiualla, Strab. p. 475; a hill well supplied with water. It was surprised Plin. iv. 20; 'Auoquúrlov, Steph. B. 8. v.), a town and taken by the Spartans at the beginning of the in the N. of Crete, situated on the bay named after Messenian war, and was made their head-quarters it ('Auoruaans KÓRTOS, Ptol. iii. 17. $ 7), which in conducting their operations against the Messe corresponds, according to some, to the bay of Arnians. Its capture was the first act of open hos- miro, and, according to others, to the bay of Suda. tilities between the two people. It is placed by AMPHI'POLIS ('Auditomis : Eth. 'AuditoLeake at the Hellenic ruin, now called the Castle of airns, Amphipolites: Adj. Amphipolitanus, Just. Xuria, and by Boblaye on the mountain called | xiv. sub fin.), a town in Macedonia, situated upon
an eminence on the left or eastern bank of the Stry. Amphipolis soon became an important city, and mon, just below its egress from the lake Cercinitis, was regarded by the Athenians as the jewel of their at the distance of 25 stadia, or about three miles empire. In B. c. 424 it surrendered to the Lacefrom the sea. (Thuc. iv, 102.) The Strymon daemonian general Brasidas, without offering any flowed almost round the town, whence its name resistance. The historian Thucydides, who comAmphi-polis. Its position is one of the most im- manded the Athenian fleet off the coast, arrived in portant in this part of Greece. It stands in a pass, time from the island of Thasos to save Eion, the port which traverses the mountains bordering the Stry- of Amphipolis, at the mouth of the Strymon, but to monic gulf; and it commands the only easy com- late to prevent Amphipolis itself from falling into munication from the coast of that gulf into the great the hands of Brasidas. (Thuc. iv. 103-107.) Macedonian plains. In its vicinity were the gold The loss of Amphipolis caused both indignation and and silver mines of Mount Pangaeus, and large alarm at Athens, and led to the banishment of forests of ship-timber. It was originally called Thucydides. In B. C. 422 the Athenians sent a Ennea Hodoi, or “Nine-Ways” (Evvéa d801), from large force, under the command of Cleon, to attempt the many roads which met at this place; and it be- the recovery of the city. This expedition completely longed to the Edonians, a Thracian people. Aris-failed; the Athenians were defeated with considertagoras of Miletus first attempted to colonize it, but able loss, but Brasidas as well as Cleon fell in the was cut off with his followers by the Edonians, B. c. battle. The operations of the two commanders are 497. (Thuc. l. c.; Herod. v. 126.) The next at- detailed at length by Thucydides, and his account tempt was made by the Athenians, with a body of is illustrated by the masterly narrative of Grote. 10,000 colonists, consisting of Athenian citizens and (Thuc. v. 6—11; Grote, Hist. of Greece, vol. vi. allies; but they met with the same fate as Aris. p. 634, seq.) tagoras, and were all destroyed by the Thracians at From this time Amphipolis continued independent Drabescus, B. C. 465. (Thuc. i. 100, iv. 102; of Athens. According to the treaty made between Herod. ix. 75.) So valuable, however, was the site, the Athenians and Lacedaemonians in B. C. 421, it that the Athenians sent out another colony in B. c. was to have been restored to Athens; but its in437 under Agnon, the son of Nicias, who drove the habitants refused to surrender to their former masThracians out of Nine-Ways, and founded the city, ters, and the Lacedaemonians were unable to compel to which he gave the name of Amphipolis. On them to do so, even if they had been so inclined. three sides the city was defended by the Strymon; Amphipolis afterwards became closely allied with on the other side Agnon built a wall across, extend-Olynthus, and with the assistance of the latter was ing from one part of the river to the other. South able to defeat the attempts of the Athenians under of the town was a bridge, which formed the great Timotheus to reduce the place in B. C. 360. Philip, means of communication between Macedonia and upon his accession (359) declared Amphipolis a free Thrace. The following plan will illustrate the city; but in the following year (358) he took the preceding account. (Thuc. iv. 102.)
place by assault, and annexed it permanently to his dominions. It continued to belong to the Macedonians, till the conquest of their country by the Romans in B. c. 168. The Romans made it a free city, and the capital of the first of the four districts, into which they divided Macedonia. (Dem. in Aristocr. p. 669; Diod. xvi. 3. 8; Liv. xlv. 29; Plin. iv. 10.)
The deity chiefly worshipped at Amphipolis appears to have been Artemis Tauropolos or Brauronis (Diod. xviii. 4; Liv. xliv. 44), whose head frequently appears on the coins of the city, and the ruins of whose temple in the first century of the Christian era are mentioned in an epigram of Antipater of Thessalonica. (Anth. Pal, vol. i. no. 705.) The most celebrated of the natives of Amphipolis was the grammarian Zoilus.
Amphipolis was situated on the Via Egnatia. It has been usually stated, on the authority of an anonymous Greek geographer, that it was called Chrysopolis under the Byzantine empire; but Tafel has clearly shown, in the works cited below, that this is a mistake, and that Chrysopolis and Am
phipolis were two different places. Tafel has also PLAN OF THE NEIGHBOURHOOD OF AMPHIPOLIS.
pointed out that in the middle ages Amphipolis was 1. Site of Amphipolis.
called Popolia. Its site is now occupied by a village 2. Site of Eion.
called Neokhório, in Turkish Jeni-Keui, or “ New. 3. Ridge connecting Amphipolis with Mt. Town." There are still a few remains of the ancient Pangaeus.
city; and both Leake and Cousinery found among 4. Long Wall of Amphipolis: the three marks them a curious Greek inscription, written in the across indicate the gates.
Ionic dialect, containing a sentence of banishment 5. Palisade (otaúpwma) connecting the Long Wall against two of their citizens, Philo and Stratocles. with the bridge over the Strymon.
The latter is the name of one of the two envoys 6. Lake Cercinitis.
sent from Amphipolis to Athens to request the 7. Mt. Cerdylium.
assistance of the latter against Philip, and he is 8. Mt. Pangaeus.
therefore probably the same person as the Stratocles