« السابقةمتابعة »
a plain surrounded by mountains, respecting which | explain the existence of the Achaeans in Pelopona story is told by Herodotus (iii. 117). Geographers nesus, he adds that Archander and Architeles, the are not agreed as to the locality. It seems to be sons of Achaeus, came back from Phthiotis to Argos, somewhere in Central Asia, E. of the Caspian. It married the two daughters of Danaus, and acquired is pretty clear, at all events, that the Aces of He- such influence at Argos and Sparta, that they called rodotus is not the Indian river Acesines. [P.S.] the people Achaeans after their father Achaeus.
ACESINES ('Areoirns), a river of Sicily, which On the other hand, Strabo in one passage says (p. flows, into the sea to the south of Tauromnenium. 383), that Achaeus having fled from Attica, where Its name occurs only in Thucydides (iv. 25) on his father Xuthus had settled, settled in Laceoccasion of the attack made on Naxos by the Mes- daemon and gave to the inhabitants the name of senians in B. C. 425 : but it is evidently the same Achaeans. In another passage, however, he relates river which is called by Pliny (iii. 8) Asines, and (p. 365), that Pelops brought with him into Pelo by Vibius Sequester (p. 4) ASINIUS. Both these ponnesus the Phthiotan Achaeans, who settled in writers place it in the immediate neighbourhood of Laconia. It would be unprofitable to pursue furTauromenium, and it can be no other than the river ther the variations in the legends; but we may now called by the Arabic name of Cantara, a con- safely believe that the Achaeans in Thessaly were siderable stream, which, after following throughout more ancient than those in Peloponnesus, since all its course the northern boundary of Aetna, dis-tradition points to Thessaly as the cradle of the charges itself into the sea immediately to the S. of Hellenic race. There is a totally different account, Capo Schizò, the site of the ancient Naxos. The which represents the Achaeans as of Pelasgic origin. ONOBALAS of Appian (B. C. v. 109) is probably It is preserved by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i.17), only another name for the same river. Cluverius who relates that Achaeus, Phthius, and Pelasgus appears to be mistaken in regarding the Fiume were sons of Poseidon and Larissa; and that they Freddo as the Acesines :: it is a very small stream, migrated from Peloponnesus to Thessaly, where while the Cantara is one of the largest rivers in they divided the country into three parts, called Sicily, and could hardly have been omitted by after thein Achaia, Phthiotis and Pelasgiotis. A Pliny. (Cluver. Sicil. p. 93; Mannert, vol. ix. pt. modern writer is disposed to accept this tradition so ii. p. 284.)
[E. H. B.] | far, as to assign a Pelasgic origin to the Achaeans, ACESINES ('Akerivns : Chenab: Dionysius though he regards the Phthiotan Achacans as more Periegetes, v, 1138, makes the i long, if any choose ancient than their brethren in the Peloponnesus. to consider this an authority), the chief of the (Thirlwall, Hist. of Greece, vol. i. p. 109, seq.) five great tributaries of the Indus, which give the The only fact known in the earliest history of the name of Panjab (i. e. Five Waters) to the great people, which we can adınit with certainty, is their plain of NW. India. These rivers are described, existence as the predominant race in the south of in their connection with each other, under INDIA. Thessaly, and on the eastern side of Peloponnesus. The Acesines was the second of them, reckoning They are represented by Homer as a brave and from the W., and, after receiving the waters of all warlike people, and so distinguished were they tbat the rest, retained its name to its junction with the he usually calls the Greeks in general Achaeans or Indus, in lat. 28° 55' N., long. 70° 28' E. Its Panachaeans (llavaxawi, I. ij. 404, vii. 73, &c.). Sanscrit name was Chandrabhaga, which would | In the same manner Peloponnesus, and somehave been Hellenized into Lavspodáros, a word so times the whole of Greece, is called by the poet the like to 'Avòpodáyos, or 'Arefavopopáyos, that the Achaean land. ('Axaiis gaia, Hom. Il. i. 254, followers of Alexander changed the name to avoid Od. xiii. 249.) On the conquest of Peloponnesus the evil omen, the more so perhaps on account of the by the Dorians, 80 years after the Trojan war, the disaster which befell the Macedonian fleet at the | Achaeans were driven out of Argos and Laconia, turbulent junction of the river with the Hydaspes and those who remained behind were reduced to the (Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien, vol. iv. pt. i. p. 456: condition of a conquered people. Most of the exfor other references see INDIA.)
[P. S.] pelled Achaeans, led by Tisamenus, the son of ACESTA. (SEGESTA.]
Orestes, proceeded to the land on the northern coast ACHAEI ('Axawi), one of the four races into of Peloponnesus, which was called simply Aegialus which the Hellenes are usually divided. In the (Aivanós) or the “ Coast," and was inhabited by heroic age they are found in that part of Thessaly Ionians. The latter were defeated by the Achaeans in which Phthia and Hellas were situated, and also and crossed over to Attica and Asia Minor, leaving in the eastern part of Peloponnesus, more especially their country to their conquerors, from whoin it was in Argos and Sparta. Argos was frequently called henceforth called Achaia. (Strab. p. 383; Paus. the Achaean Argos ("Apyos 'Axalikov, Hom. Il. vii. l; Pol. ii. 41; comp. Herod. i. 145.) The ix. 141) to distinguish it from the Pelasgian further history of the Achacans is given under Argos in Thessaly; but Sparta is generally men- ACHAIA. The Achaeans founded several colonies, tioned as the head-quarters of the Achaean race of which the most celebrated were Croton and in Peloponnesus. Thessaly and Peloponnesus were Sybaris. [CROTON; SYBARIS.] thus the two chief abodes of this people; but ACHA'IA ('Axaia, Ion. 'Axa:in: Eth. 'Agarós, there were various traditions respecting their origin, Achaeus, Achivus, fem. and adj. '- xaids, Achăias, and a difference of opinion existed among the an- Achais: Adj. 'Ayairós, Achăicus, Achāius). 1. cients, whether the Thessalian or the Peloponnesian A district in the S. of Thessaly, in which Phthia Achaeans were the more ancient. They were and Hellas were situated. It appears to have been usually represented as descendants of Achaeus, the the original abode of the Achacans, who were hence Eon of Xuthus and Creusa, and consequently the called Phthiotan Achaeans ('Axalol oi poi@tai) to brother of lon and grandson of Hellen. Pausanias distinguish them from the Achaeans in the Pelo(vii. 1) related that Achaeus went back to Thessaly, ponnesus. [For details see ACHAEI.] It was and recovered the dominions of which his father, from this part of Thessaly that Achilles came, and duthus, had been deprived; and then, in order to Homer says that the subjects of this hero were called Myrmidons, and Hellenes, and Achaeans. of Molycreium. These two promontories formed (IL Ü. 684.) This district continued to retain the the entrance of the Corinthian gulf. The breadth name of Achaia in the time of Herodotus (vii. 173, of the strait is stated both by Dodwell and Leake 197), and the inhabitants of Phthia were called to be about a mile and a half; but the ancient Phthiotan Achaeans till a still later period. (Thuc. | writers make the distance less. Thucyilides makes riii. 3.) An account of this part of Thessaly is it 7 stadia, Strabo 5 stadia, and Pliny nearly a given under THESSALIA.
Roman mile. On the promontory of Rhium there 2. Originally called AEGIALUS or AEGIALEIA was a temple of Poseidon. (Thuc. i. 86; Strab. (Aiyaass, Algideia, Hom. Il. ii. 575; Paus. vii. pp. 335, 336; Plin. iv. 6; Steph. B. 8. v.; Dod1. $ 1; Strab. p. 383), that is, “the Coast," a well, Classical Tour, vol. i. p. 126; Leake, Voren, province in the N. of Peloponnesus, extended along vol. ï. p. 147.) 3. ARAXUS ("Apaços: Kalogria), the Corinthian gulf from the river Larissus, a little W. of Dyme, formerly the boundary between Achaia S. of the promontory Araxus, which separated it and Elis, but the confines were afterwards extended fron Elis, to the river Sythas, which separated it to the river Larissus. (Pol. iv. 65; Strab. pp. 335, from Sicyonis. On the S. it was bordered by Ar- 336; Paus. vi. 26. $ 10.) cada, and on the SW. by Elis. Its greatest length The following is a list of the rivers of Achaia along the coast is about 65 English miles: its from E. to W. Of these the only two of any inn. breadth from about 12 to 20 miles. Its area was portance are the Crathis (No. 3) and the Peirus probably about 650 square miles. Achaia is thus (No. 14). 1. Sytuas, or Sys (Zútus, Xus), form. only a narrow slip of country, lying upon the slope ing the boundary between Achaia and Sicyonia. of the northern range of Arcadia, through which We may infer that this river was at no great disare deep and narrow gorges, by which alone Achaia tance from Sicyon, from the statement of Pausanias, can be invaded from the south. From this moun- that at the festival of Apollo there was a procession tain range descend numerous ridges running down of children from Sicyon to the Sythas, and back into the sea, or separated from it by narrow levels. again to the city. (Paus. ii. 7. § 8, ii. 12. $ 2, The plains on the coast at the foot of these moun- vii. 27. $ 12; Ptol. ii. 16. § 4; coinp. Leake, tains and the vallies between them are generally Morea, vol. iii. p. 383, Peloponnesiaca, p. 403.) very fertile. At the present day cultivation ends 2. Crius (Kpbs), rising in the mountains above with the plain of Patra, and the whole of the west- Pellene, and flowing into the sea a little W. of ern part of Achaia is forest or pasture. The plains Aegeira. (Paus. vii. 27. $ 11.) 3. CRATHIS are drained by numerous streams; but in consequence (Kpaois: Akrata), rising in a mountain of the same of the proximity of the mountains to the sea the name in Arcadia, and falling into the sea near course of these torrents is necessarily short, and Aegae. It is described as åévvaos, to distinguish most of them are dry in summer. The coast is it from the other streams in Achaia, which were generally low, and deficient in good harbours. mostly dry in summer, as stated above. The Styx, Colonel Leake remarks, that the level along the which rises in the Arcadian mountain of Aroania, coast of Achaia “ appears to have been formed in the is a tributary of the Crathis. (Herod. i. 145; Calcause of ages by the soil deposited by the torrents | lim. in Jov. 26; Strab. p. 386; Paus. vii. 25. which descend from the lofty mountains that rise § 11, viii. 15. SS 8, 9, viii. 18. § 4; Leake, Morca, immediately at the back of the plains. Wherever vol. iii. pp. 394, 407.) 4. BURAICUS (F07 au's the rivers are largest, the plains are most extensive, Bovparkós: river of Kalarryta, or river of Bura), and each river has its correspondent promontory rising in Arcadia, and falling into the sea E. of proportioned in like manner to its volume. These Bura. It appears from Strabo that its proper name promontories are in general nearly opposite to the was Erasinus. (Paus. vii. 25. $ 10; Strab. p. 371; openings at which the rivers emerge froin the Leake, I. c.) 5. CERYNITES (Kepuvitys: Bokmountains." (Peloponnesiaca, p. 390.)
husia), flowing from the mountain Ccryneia, in The highest mountain in Achaia is situated be- Arcadia, and falling into the sea probably E. of hind Patrae ; it is called Moxs PANACHAICUS Helice. (Paus. vii. 25. § 5; Leake, l. c.) 6. by Polybius, and is, perhaps, the same as the Scio-SELINUS (Leivolls: river of Vostitza), flowing into essa of Pliny (tDavaxaikov opos, Pol. v. 30 ; the sea between Helice and Aegium. Strabo erroPlin. iv. 6: Voidhia). It is. 6322 English feet in neously describes it as fowing through Aegium. beight. (Leakc, Travels in Morea, vol. ii. p. 138, (Paus. vii. 24. § 5; Strab. p. 387; Leake, I. c.) Peloponnesiaca, p. 204.) There are three consti- 7, 8. MEGANITAS (Megavitas) and PHOENIX cuous promontories on the coast. 1. DREPANUM (Poive), both falling into the sea W. of Aegium. (Apétaror: C. Dhrepano), the most northerly (Paus. vii. 23. & 5.) 9. BOLINAEUS (BoAivaius), print in Peloponnesus, is confounded by Strabo with Nowing into the sea a little E. of the promontory the neighbouring promontory of Rhium, but it is Drepanum, so called froin an ancient town Bolina, the low sandy point 4 miles eastward of the latter. which had disappeared in the time of Pausanias. Its name is connected by Pausanias with the sickle (Paus, vii. 24. $ 4.) 10. SELEMNUS (éneuvos), of Crone3; but we know that this name was often flowing into the sea between the promontories Dreapplied by the ancients to low sandy promontories, panum and Rhium, a little E. of Argyra. (Paus. which assume the form of a Opetuvov, or sickle. vii. 23. $ 1.) 11, 12. CHARADRUS (Xápadpos: (Strab. p. 335; Paus. vii. 23. $. 4; Leake, Morea, river of Velvitzi) and MEILICHUS (Meirixos: river vol. ïi. p. 415.) 2. RHIM ('Plov: Castle of the of Sykena), both falling into the sea between the Morea), 4 miles westward of Drepanum, as men- promontory Rhium and Patrae. (Paus. vii. 22. tioned above, is opposite the promontory of ANTIR- $ 11, vii. 19. § 9, 20. § 1.) 13. GLAUCUS PHITM, sometimes also called Rhium ('Artipp.ov: (raukos : Lefka, or Lafka), falling into the sea, Castle of Rumili), on the borders of Aetolia and a little S. of l'atrae. (Paus. vii. 18. § 2; Leake, Locris. In order to distinguish them from each vol. ii. p. 123.) 14. PEIRUS (Ileipos : Kameother the former was called TÒ 'Axaikov, and the nitza), also called Achelous, falling into the sea latter TÒ MOAUKpuKÓv froin its ricinity to the town near Olenus. This river was mentioned by Hesiod under the name of Peirus, as we learn from Strabo. I good reasons for believing that there were more than It is described by Leake as wide and deep in the twelve independent cities in Achaia (Grote, Hist. of latter end of February, although no rain had fallen Greece, vol. ii. p. 614), yet the ancient writers alfor some weeks. Into the Peirus flowed the Teu- ways recognize only 12, and this seems to have been theas (Teudéas), which in its turn received the regarded as the established number of the confedeCaucon. The Peirus flowed past Pharae, where it ration. These cities continued to be governed by the was called Piërus (Iliepos ), but the inhabitants of the descendants of Tisamenus down to Ogygus, after coast called it by the foriner name. (Strab. p. 342; whose death they abolished the kingly rule and esHerod. i. 145; Paus. vii. 18. § 1, 22. $ 1; Leake, tablished a democracy. Each of the cities formed a vol. ii. p. 155.) Strabo in another passage calls it separate republic, but were united together by peMelas 'Médas), but the reading is probably cor- riodical sacrifices and festivals, where they arranged rupt. Dionysius Periegetes mentions the Melas along their disputes and settled their common concerns. with the Crathis among the rivers flowing from Mt. In the time of Herodotus (i. 145) the twelve cities Erymanthus. (Strab. p. 386 ; Dionys. 416.) 15. were Pellene, Aegeira, Aegae, Bura, Helice, Aegium, LARISUS (AápioUS: Mana), forming the boundary Rhypes, Patreis (ae), Phareis (ae), Olenus, Dyrne, between Achaia and Elis, rising in Mt. Scollis, Tritaeeis (Tritaea)." This list is copied by Strabo and falling into the sea 30 stadia from Dyme. (pp. 385. 386): but it appears from the list in (Paus, vii, 17. $ 5; Strab. p. 387; Liv. xxvii. 31.) Polybius (ii. 41), that Leontium and Ceryneia were
The original inhabitants of Achaia are said to afterwards substituted in the place of Rhypes and have been Pelasgians, and were called Aegialeis Aegae, which had fallen into decay. Pausanias (vii. (Aiyaleis), or the “Coast-Men," from Aegialus, 6. $ 1) retains both Rhypes and Aegae, and substithe ancient name of the country, though some tutes Ceryneia for Patrae; but his authority is of no writers sought a mythical origin for the name, and value in opposition to Polybius. The bond of union derived it from Aegialeus, king of Sicyonia. (Herod. between these cities was very loose, and their connecvii. 94; Paus. vii. 1.) The lonians subsequently tion was of a religious rather than of a political settled in the country. According to the mythical nature. Thus we find them sometimes acting quite account, Ion, the son of Xuthus, crossed over from independently of one another. Pellene alone joined Attica at the head of an army, but concluded an al- the Lacedaemonians at the commencement of the liance with Selinus, the king of the country, married Peloponnesian war, while the rest remained neutral; his daughter Helice, and succeeded him on the throne. and at a later period of the war Patrae alone esFrom this time the land was called Ionia, and the in- | poused the Athenian cause. (Thuc. ii. 9, v. 52.) habitants Ionians or Aegialian Ionians. The Ionians | Their original place of meeting was at Helice, where remained in possession of the country till the invasion they offered a common sacrifice to Poseidon, the tute. of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, when the Achacans, lary god of the place; but after this city had been who had been driven out of Argos and Lacedaemon by swallowed up by the sea in B. c. 373 (HELICE), the invaders, marched against the Ionians in order they transferred their meetings to Aegium, where to obtain new homes for themselves in the country they sacrificed to Zeus Homagyrius, or Homarius, of the latter Under the command of their king and to the Panachacan Demeter. (Paus. vii. 24; Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, they defeated the Pol. v. 94.) Ionians in battle. The latter shut themselves up in The Achaeans are rarely mentioned during the Helice, where they sustained a siege for a time, but flourishing period of Grecian history. Being equally they finally quitted the country and sought refuge unconnected with the great Ionian and Doric races, in Attica. The Achaeans thus became masters of they kept aloof for the most part from the struggles the country, which was henceforth called after between the Greek states, and appear to have enthem Achaia. (Herod. i. 145; Pol. ii. 41; Paus. joyed a state of almost uninterrupted prosperity down vii. l; Strab. p. 383.) This is the common legend, to the time of Philip. They did not assist the other but it should be observed that Homer takes no no- Greeks in repelling the Persians. In B. C. 454 they tice of Ionians on the northern coast of Pelopon- forined an alliance with the Athenians, but the latter nesus; but on the contrary, the catalogue in the were obliged to surrender Achaia in the truce far Niad distinctly includes this territory under the do- thirty years, which they concluded with Sparta and minions of Agamemnon. Hence there seems reason her allies in B. C. 445. (Thuc. i. 111, 115.) In för questioning the occupation of northern Pelopon- | the course of the Peloponnesian war they joined the nesus by the lonians and their expulsion from it by Lacedaemonians, though probably very reluctantly. Tisamenus; and it is more probable that the histo-(Thuc. ii. 9.) They retained, however, a high cha. rical Achaeans in the north part of Peloponnesus are racter among the other Greeks, and were esteemed a small undisturbed remnant of the Achacan popu on account of their sincerity and good faith. So lation once distributed through the whole peninsula. highly were they valued, that at an carly age some (Grote, History of Greece, vol. ï. p. 17.)
of the powerful Greek colonies in Italy applied for The lonians are said to have dwelt in villages, their mediation and adopted their institutions, and and the cities in the country to have been first built at a later time they were chosen by the Spartans and by the Achaeans. Several of these villages were Thebans as arbiters after the battle of Leuctra. united to form a town ; thus Patrae was formed by (Pol. ii. 39.) The first great blow which the an union of seven villages, Dyine of eight, and Achaeans experienced was at the battle of ChaeroAegium also of seven or eight. The Achaeans pos- neia (B. C. 338), when they fought with the Athesessed twelve cities, the territory of each of which nians and Boeotians against Philip and lost some of was divided into seven or eight demi. (Strab. p. their bravest citizens. Eight years afterwards (B. C. 386.) This number of 12 is said to have been 330) all the Achaean towns, with the exception of borrowed from the lonians, who were divided into Pellene, joined the Spartans in the cause of Grecian 12 parts (uépen), when they occupied the country, freedom, and shared in the disastrous defeat at Man. and who accordingly refused to allow of more than tineia, in which Agis fell. This severe blow left twelve cities in their league. Although there are them so prostrate that they were unable to render any Assistance to the confederate Greeks in the La- first 25 years there were two Strategi; but at the mian wir after the death of Alexander. (Paus. vii. end of that time (B.C. 255) only one was appointed. 6.) But their independent spirit had awakened the Marcus of Ceryneia was the first who held the sole jealousy of the Macedonian rulers, and Demetrius, office. (Pol. ii. 43; Strab. p. 385.) It was proCassander, and Antigonus Gonatas placed garrisons bably at this time that an Ilipparchus (innap xos) in their cities, or held possession of them by means or commander of the cavalry was then first appointed of tyrants. Such a state of things at length be- in place of the Strategus, whose office had been came insupportable, and the commotions in Mace- abolished. We also read of an Under-Stratexus donia, which followed the death of Lysimachus (B. C. (ÚTOO Tpatnyós), but we have no account of the 281), afforded them a favourable opportunity for extent of his powers or of the relation in which he throwing off the yoke of their oppressors; and the stood to the chief Strategus. 2. A Secretary of Gaulish invasion which shortly followed effectually State (ypaupatei's). 3. Ten Demiurgi (önusovpyou), presented the Macedonians from interfering in the who formed a kind of permanent committee, and affairs of the Peloponnesus. Patrae and Dyine were who probably represented at first the 10 Achaean the first two cities which expelled the Macedonians. cities, of which the League consisted. The numTheir example was speedily followed by Tritaea ber of the Demiurgi, however, was not increased, and Pharie ; and these four towns now resolved to when new cities were subsequently added to the renew the ancient League. The date of this League. All these officers were elected for one erent was B. C. 280. Five years afterwards (B. C. year at the spring meeting of the assembly, and the 275) they were joined by Aegium and Bura, and Strategus was not eligible for re-election till a year the accession of the former city was the more im- had elapsed after the expiration of his office. If the portant, as it had been the regular place of meeting Strategus died under the period of his office, his of the earlier League after the destruction of Helice, place was filled up by his predecessor, until the as has been already related. The main principles of time for the new elections arrived. the constitution of the new League were now fixed, and! It remains to give a brief sketch of the history of a column was erected inscribed with the names of the the League. At the time of its revival its numbers confederate towns. Almost immediately afterwards were so inconsiderable, that the collective population Ceryneia was added to the League. There were now of the confederate states was scarcely equal to the only three remaining cities of the ancient League, inhabitants of a single city according to Plutarch. which had not joined the new confederation, namely, (Arat. 9) Its greatness may be traced to its conLeontium, Aegeira, and Pellene; for Helice had been nection with Aratus. Up to this time the League swallowed up by the sea, and Olenus was soon after- | was confined to the Achaean cities, and the idea wards abandoned by its inhabitants. The three cities does not seem to have been entertained of incormentioned above soon afterwards united themselves porating foreign cities with it. But when Aratus to the League, which thus consisted of ten cities. had delivered his native city Sicyon from its tyrant, (Pol. i. 41; Strab. p. 384; Paus. vii. 18. § 1.) and had persuaded his fellow-citizens to unite them
The Achaean League thus renewed eventually selves to the League (B. C. 251), a new impulse became the most powerful political body in Greece ; was given to the latter. Aratus, although only 20 and it happened by a strange coincidence that the years of age, became the soul of the League. The people, who had enjoyed the greatest celebrity in the great object of his policy was to liberate the Peloheroic age, but who had almost disappeared from ponnesian cities from their tyrants, who were all history for several centuries, again became the more or less dependent upon Macedonia, and to greatest among the Greek states in the last days incorporate them with the League; and under his of the nation's independence. An account of the able managerhent the confederacy constantly reconstitution of this League is given in the Dictionary ceived fresh accessions. Antigonus Gonatas, kmg of Antiquities (art. Achaicum Foedus), and it is of Macedonia, and his successor Demetrius II., used therefore only necessary to give here a brief re- every effort to crush the growing power of the capitulation of its fundamental laws. The great Achaeans, and they were supported in their efforts object of the new League was to effect a much by the Aetolians, who were equally jealous of the closer political union than had existed in the former confederacy. Aratus however triumphed over their one. No city was allowed to make peace or war or opposition, and for many years the League enjoyed to treat with any foreign power apart from the entire an uninterrupted succession of prosperity. In B. c. nation, although each was allowed the undisturbed 243 Aratus surprised Corinth, expelled the tyrant, control of its internal affairs. This sovereign power and united this important city to the League. The resided in the federal assembly (oúvodos, ekkinoia, neighbouring cities of Megara, Troezen, and Epicvréplor) which was held twice a year originally daurus followed the example thus set them, and at Aerium, afterwards at Corinth or other places, joined the League in the course of the saine year. though extraordinary meetings might be convened | A few years afterwards, probably in B. c. 239, Megaby the officers of the League either at Aegium or lopolis also became a member of the League ; and elsewhere. At all these meetings, every Achaean, | in B.c. 236 it received the accession of the powerful who had attained the age of 30, was allowed to city of Argos. It now seemed to Aratus that the speak ; but questions were not decided by an ab- time had arrived when the whole of Peloponnesus solute majority of the citizens, but by a majority of might be annexed to the League, but he experienced the cities, which were members of the League. In a far more formidable opposition from Sparta than he addition to the general assernbly there was a Council | had anticipated. Cleomenes III., who had lately as. (Bovan), which previously decided upon the ques-cended the Spartan throne, was a man of energy; and tions that were to be submitted to the assembly. | his military abilities proved to be far superior to those The principal officers of the League were: 1. The of Aratus. Neither he nor the Spartan government Strategus or general (tpatnyós), whose duties were was disposed to place themselves on a level with the partly military and partly civil, and who was the Achaean towns; and accordingly when Aratus atacknowledged head of the confederacy. For the teinpted to obtain possession of Orchomenus, Tegea, and Mantineia, which had joined the Aetolian League B. c. 188 by razing the fortifications of the city and and had been ceded by the latter to the Spartans, abolishing the laws of Lycurgus, their conduct was war broke out between Sparta and the Achacan severely censured by the senate; and every succeedLeague, B.C. 227. In this war, called by Polybius ing transaction between the League and the senate the Cleomenic war, the Achaeans were defeated in showed still more clearly the subject condition of the several battles and lost some important places; and Achaeans. The Romans, however, still acknowso unsuccessful had they been, that they at length ledged in name the independence of the Achaeans ; resolved to form a coalition or alliance with Sparta, and the more patriotic part of the nation continued acknowledging Cleomenes as their chief. Aratus to offer a constitutional resistance to all the Roman was unable to brook this humiliation, and in an evil encroachments upon the liberties of the League, hour applied to Antigonus Doson for help, thus whenever this could be done without affording the undoing the great work of his life, and making the Romans any pretext for war. At the head of this Achaean cities again dependent upon Macedonia. party was Philopoemen, and after his death, LyAntigonus willingly promised his assistance; and cortas, Xenon, and Polybius. Callicrates on the the negotiations with Clemcnes were broken off, B.c. other hand was at the head of another party, which 224. The war was brought to an end by the defeat counselled a servile submission to the senate, and of Cleomenes by Antigonus at the decisive battle of sought to obtain aggrandizement by the subjecSellasia, B.C. 221. Cleomenes immediately left the tion of their country. In order to get rid of his country and sailed away to Egypt. Antigonus thus political opponents, Callicrates, after the defeat of became master of Sparta; but he did not annex it Perseus by the Romans, drew up a list of 1000 to the Achaean League, as it was no part of his Achaeans, the best and purest part of the nation, policy to aggrandize the latter.
whom the Romans carried off to Italy (B. c. 167) The next war, in which the Achaeans were en- under the pretext of their having afforded help to gaged, again witnessed their humiliation and de- | Perseus. The Romans never brought these prisoners pendence upon Macedonia. In B.C. 220 commenced to trial, but kept them in the towns of Italy; and the Social war, as it is usually called. The Aetolians it was not till after the lapse of 17 years, and when invaded Peloponnesus and defeated the Achaeans, their number was reduced to 300, that the senate whereupon Aratus applied for aid to Philip, gave them permission to return to Greece. Among who had succeeded Antigonus on the Macedo- those who were thus restored to their country, there nian throne. The young monarch conducted the were some men of prudence and ability, like the war with striking ability and success; and the historian Polybius; but there were others of weak Aetolians having become weary of the contest were judgment and violent passions, who had been exasglad to conclude a peace in B.c. 217. The Achaeans perated by their long and unjust confinement, and now remained at peace for some years; but they had who now madly urged their country into a war with lost the proud pre-emninence they had formerly en- Rome. A dispute having arisen between Sparta and joyed, and had become little better than the vassals the League, the senate sent an embassy into Greece of Macedonia. But the influence of Aratus excited in B. c. 147, and required that Sparta, Corinth, the jealousy of Philip, and it was commonly believed Argos, and other cities should be severed froin the that his death (B.C. 213) was occasioned by a slow League, thus reducing it almost to its original conpoison administered by the king's order. The re- dition when it included only the Achaean towns. generation of the League was due to Philopoemen, This demand was received with the utmost indignaone of the few great men produced in the latter days tion, and Critolaus, who was their general, used of Grecian independence. He introduced great every effort to inflame the passions of the people reforms in the organization of the Achaean army, against the Roinans. Through lis influence the and accustomed them to the tactics of the Mace- | Achaeans resolved to resist the Romans, and declared donians and to the close array of the phalanx. By war against Sparta. This was equivalent to a dethe ascendancy of his genius and character, he claration of war against Rome itself, and was so acquired great influence over his countrymen, and understood by both parties. In the spring of 146 breathed into them a martial spirit. By these means Critolaus marched northwards through Boeotia into he enabled them to fight their own cause, and the S. of Thessaly, but retreated on the approach of rendered them to some extent independent of Mace- Metellus, who advanced against him from Macedonia. His defeat of Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta donia. He was, however, overtaken by Metellus (B. c. 208), both established his own reputation, near Scarphea, a little S. of Thermopylae ; his forces and caused the Achaean arms again to be respected were put to the rout, and he himself was never heard in Greece. In the war between the Romans and of after the battle. Metellus followed the fugitives Philip, the Achaeans espoused the cause of the to Corinth. Diaeus, who had succeeded Callicrates former, and concluded a treaty of peace with the in the office of General, resolved to continue the republic, B.c. 198. About this time, and for several contest, as he had been one of the promoters of the subsequent years, the Achaeans were engaged in war and knew that he had no hope of pardon from hostilities with Nabis, who had succeeded Machani- the Romans. Meantime the consul Mummius ardas as tyrant of Sparta. Nabis was slain by some rived at the Isthinus as the successor of Metellus. Aetolians in B. C. 192 ; whereupon Philopoemen | Encouraged by soine trifling success against the hastened to Sparta and induced the city to join the Roinan outposts, Diaeus ventured to offer battle to League. In the following year (B. c. 191) the the Romans. The Achaeans were easily defeated and Messenians and the Eleans also joined the League. Corinth surrendered without a blow. Signal ven. Thus the whole of Peloponnesus was at length an geance was taken upon the unfortunate city. The nexed to the League ; but its independence was men were put to the sword; the women and children now little more than nominal, and its conduct and were reserved as slaves : and after the city had proceedings were regulated to a great extent by the been stript of all its treasures and works of art, its decisions of the Roman senate. When the Achaeans buildings were committed to the flames, B. c. under Philopoemen ventured to punish Sparta in 146. (CORINTHUS.] Thus perished the Achaean