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vol. iii. pp. 222—232; Orelli, Inscr. 146, 3940; } cultivation of vineyards, while the other was higher Craven's Abruzzi, vol. i. pp. 117-122; Hoare's and more abrupt. (See the Plan.) Between them Classical Tour, vol. i. p. 339, &c.; Kramer, Der was a deep ravine, down which a mischievous torrent Fuciner See, p. 54, note.)

[E.H.B.] ran in winter (Phyrminus or Parmenius, Toll Púakos ANTIOCHEIA or -EA('Artióxera: Eth. 'Artio- | TOû neyouévou pupuivov, Mal. p. 346; Tapuevlov Xejs, ’APTócelos, Antiochensis: Adj. 'APT10XRos, | xetupbox, pp. 233, 339; f, Procop. de Aedit. Antiochenus), the capital of the Greek kings of ii. 10). Along the crags on these heights broken Syria, situated in the angle where the southern coast masses of ancient walls are still conspicuous, while of Asia Minor, running eastwards, and the coast of the modern habitations are on the level near the Phoenicia, running northwards, are brought to an river. The appearance of the ground has doubtless abrupt meeting, and in the opening formed by the been much altered by earthquakes, which have been river Orontes between the ranges of Mount Taurus / in all ages the scourge of Antioch. Yet a very good and Mount Lebanon. Its position is nearly where notion may be obtained, from the descriptions of the 36th parallel of latitude intersects the 36th me- modern travellers, of the aspect of the ancient city. ridian of longitude, and it is about 20 miles distant The advantages of its position are very evident. By from the sea, about 40 W. of Aleppo, and about its harbour of SELEUCEIA, it was in communication 20 S. of Scanderoon. (See Map, p. 115.] It is with all the trade of the Mediterranean; and, through now a subordinate town in the pachalik of Aleppo, the open country behind Lebanon, it was couveand its modern name is still Antakich. It was an niently approached by the caravans from Mesopociently distinguished as Antioch by the Orontes tamia and Arabia. To these advantages of mere ('A. en 'Opovt), because it was situated on the position must be added the facilities afforded by its left bank of that river, where its course turns ab river, which brought down timber and vegetable ruptly to the west, after running northwards between produce and fish from the lake (Liban. Antioch. pp. the ranges of Lebanon and Antilebanon [ORONTES]; 360, 361), and was navigable below the city to and also Antioch by Daphne ('A. el acon, Strab. the mouth, and is believed to be capable of being xvi. pp. 749–751: Plut. Lucull.21: o apos Adorny, made navigable again. (Roy. Geog. Soc. vol. viii. Hierocl. p. 711; A. Epidaphnes, Plin, v. 18. s. 21), p. 230; cf. Strab. I. c.; Paus. viii. 29. $ 3.) The because of the celebrated grove of Daphne which fertility of the neighbourhood is evident now in its was consecrated to Apollo in the immediate neigh- unassisted vegetation. The Orontes has been combourhood. (DAPHNE.]

pared to the Wye. It does not, like many Eastern The physical characteristics of this situation may rivers, vary between a winter-toitent and a dry be briefly described. To the south, and rather to watercourse; and its deep and rapid waters are dethe west, the cone of Mount Casius (Jebel-el-Akrab; scribed as winding round the bases of high and see Col. Chesney, in the Journal of the Roy. Geog. precipitous cliffs, or by richly cultivated banks, Soc. vol. viii. p. 228) rises syinmetrically from the where the vine and the fig-tree, the myrtle, the bay, sea to the elevation of more than 5000 feet. [CA- the ilex, and the arbutus are mingled with dwarf SIUS.] To the north, the heights of Mount AMA- | oak and sycamore. For descriptions of the scenery, NUS are connected with the range of Taurus; and with views, the reader may consult Carne's Syria the Beilan pass [AMANIDES PYLAE] opens a com- (i. 5, 19, 77, ii. 28.). We can well understand the munication with Cilicia and the rest of Asia Minor. charming residence which the Seleucid princes and In the interval is the valley (aŭawv, Malala, p. 136), the wealthy Romans found in “ beautiful Antioch * or rather the plain of Antioch (TÒ TWW 'Artioxéwv ('A. kann, Athen. i. p. 20; Orientis apex pulcher, Trédlov, Strab. I. c.), which is a level space about Amm. Marc. xxii. 9), with its climate tempered with 5 miles in breadth between the mountains, and the west wind (Liban. p. 346; cf. Herodian. vi. 6) about 10 miles in length. Through this plain the and where the salubrious waters were so abundant, river Orontes sweeps from a northerly to a westerly that not only the public baths, but, as in modern course, receiving, at the bend, a tributary from a Damascus, almost every house, had its fountain. lake which was about a mile distant from the an- Antioch, however, with all these advantages of cient city (Gul. Tyr. iv. 10), and emptying itself situation, is not, like Damascus, one of the oldest into the bay of Antioch near the base of Mount Ca-cities of the world. It is a mere imagination to sius.“ The windings (from the city to the mouth) identify it (as is done by Jerome and some Jewish give a distance of about 41 miles, whilst the journey commentators) with the Riblah of the Old Testaby land is only 16miles." (Chesney, l. c. p. 230.) ment. Antioch, like Alexandreia, is a monument of Where the river passes by the city, its breadth is the Macedonian age, and was the most famous of said by the traveller Niebuhr to be 125 feet; but sixteen Asiatic cities built by Seleucus Nicator, and great changes hare taken place in its bed. An called after the name of his father or (as some say) important part of ancient Antioch stood upon an of his son Antiochus. The situation was evidently island; but whether the channel which insulated well chosen, for communicating both with his possesthat section of the city was artificial, or changessions on the Mediterranean and those in Mesopotamia, have been produced by earthquakes or more gradual with which Antioch was connected by a road leading causes, there is now no island of appreciable magni- to Zeugma on the Euphrates. This was not the first tude, nor does there appear to have been any in the city founded by a Macedonian prince near this place. time of the Crusades. The distance between the Antigonus, in B. c. 307, founded Antigonia, a short bend of the river and the mountain on the south is distance further up the river, for the purpose of from one to two miles; and the city stood partly on commanding both Egypt and Babylonia. (Diod. the level, and partly where the ground rises in ab- xx. p.758.) But after the battle of Ipsus, B.C. 301 rupt and precipitous forms, towards Mount Casius. the city of Antigonus was left unfinished, and An. The heights with which we are concerned are the tioch was founded by his successful rival. The two summits of Mount Silpius (Mal. passim; and sanction of auguries was sought for the establishSuid. 8. v. 'IÓ.), the easternmost of which fell in a ment of the new metropolis. Like Romulus on the more gradual slope to the plain, so as to admit of the Palatine, Seleucus is said to have watched the flight of birds from the summit of Mount Casius. An There is no doubt that the city built by Seleucas eagle carried a fragment of the flesh of the sacrifice was on & regular and magnificent plan; but we to a point on the sea-shore, a little to the north of possess no details. Some temples and other buildthe mouth of the Orontes; and there Seleuceia was ings were due to his son Antiochus Soter. Seleucus built. Soon after, an eagle decided in the same Callinicus built the New City (Thy véav, Liban, pp. manner that the metropolis of Seleucus was not to 309, 356; The Kalvnv, Evag. Hist. Eccl. ii. 12) be Antigonia, by carrying the flesh to the hill Sile on the island, according to Strabo (l. c.), though pias. Between this bill and the river the city of Libanius assigns it to Antiochus the Great, who Antioch was founded in the spring of the year 300 brought settlers from Greece during his war with B. C., the 12th of the era of the Seleucidae. This the Romans (about 190 B.C.). To this writer, and legend is often represented on coins of Antioch by an to Evagrius, who describes what it suffered in the eagle, which sometimes carries the thigh of a victim. earthquake under Leo the Great, we owe a particular On many coins (as that engraved below) we see a account of this part of the city. It was on an ram, which is often combined with a star, thus indi- island (see below) which was joined to the old city cating the vernal sign of the zodiac, under which by five bridges. Hence Polybius (v. 69) and Pliny the city was founded, and reminding us at the same (v. 21. s. 18) rightly speak of the Orontes as flow time of the astrological propensities of the people of ing through Antioch. The arrangement of the Antioch. (See Eckhel, Descriptio Numorum Antio- streets was simple and symmetrical. At their inchiae Syriae, Vienna, 1786 ; Vaillant, Seleuci- tersection was a fourfold arch (Tetrapylum). The darum Imperium, sive Historia Regum Syriae, ad magnificent Palace was on the north side, close fidem numismatum accommodata. Paris, 1681.) upon the river, and commanded a prospect of the

The city of Seleucus was built in the plain (lv | suburbs and the open country. Passing by Seleucus

TEDido! Toû aúnavos, Mal. p. 200) between the Philopator, of whose public works nothing is known, river and the hill, and at some distance from the we come to the eighth of the Seleucidae, Antiochus latter, to avoid the danger to be apprehended from Epiphanes. He was notoriously fond of building; the torrents. Xenaeus was the architect who raised and, by adding a fourth city to Antioch, he comthe walls, which skirted the river on the north, and pleted the Tetrapolis. (Strab. I. c.) The city of did not reach so far as the base of the hill on the Epiphanes was between the old wall and Mount south. This was only the earliest part of the city. Silpius; and the new wall enclosed the citadel with Three other parts were subsequently added, each many of the cliffs. (Procop. de Aedif. I. c.) This surrounded by its own wall: so that Antioch be- monarch erected a senate-house (Bovaeuthplov), came, as Strabo says (l. c.), a Tetrapolis. The and a temple for the worship of Jupiter Capitolinus, first inhabitants (as indeed a great part of the which is described by Livy as magnificent with gold materials) were brought from Antigonia. Besides (Liv. xli. 20); but his great work was a vast street these, the natives of the surrounding district were with double colonnades, which ran from east to west received in the new city; and Seleucus raised the for four miles through the whole length of the city, Jews to the same political privileges with the Greeks. and was perfectly level, though the ground originally (Joseph. Antiq. xii. 31, c. Ap. ii. 4.) Thus a second was rugged and uneven. Other streets crossed it city was formed contiguous to the first. It is probable at right angles, to the river on one side, and the that the Jews had a separate quarter, as at Alex- groves and gardens of the hill on the other. At the andreia. The citizens were divided into 18 tribes, intersection of the principal street was the Omphalus, distributed locally. There was an assembly of the with a statue of Apollo; and where this street people (Iñuos, Liban. p. 321), which used to meet in touched the river was the Nymphaeum (Nuugaior, the theatre, even in the time of Vespasian and Titus. Evag. Hist. Eccl. l. c.; Tpivuupov, Mal. p. 244). (Tac. Hist. ii. 80; Joseph. B. J. vii. 5. § 2, 3. The position of the Omphalus is shown to have been $3.) At a later period we read of a senate of two opposite the ravine Parmenius, by some allusions in hundred. (Jul. Misopog. p. 367.) The character the reign of Tiberius. No great change appears to of the inhabitants of Antioch may be easily de- have been made in the city during the interval bescribed. The climate made them effeminate and tween Epiphanes and Tigranes. When Tigranes laxurious. A high Greek civilisation was mixed was compelled to evacuate Syria, Antioch was rewith various Oriental elements, and especially with stored by Lucullus to Antiochus Philopator (Asiatithe superstitions of Chaldaean astrology, to which cus), who was a mere puppet of the Romans. He Chrys tom complains that even the Christians of built, near Mount Silpius, a Museum, like that in his day were addicted. The love of frivolous amuse- | Alexandreia; and to this period belongs the literary ments became a passion in the contests of the Hippo- eminence of Antioch, which is alluded to by Cicero droine. On these occasions, and on many others, in his speech for Archias. (Cic. pro Arch. 3, 4.) the violent feelings of the people broke out into open At the beginning of the Roman period, it is profactions, and caused even bloodshed. Another fault bable that Antioch covered the full extent of ground should be mentioned as a marked characteristic of which it occupied till the time of Justinian. In Antioch. Her citizens were singularly addicted to magnitude it was not much inferior to Paris (C.O. ridicule and scurrilous wit, and the invention of Müller, Antiq. Antioch.; see below), and the numnicknames. Julian, wbo was himself a sufferer from ber and splendour of the public buildings were very this cause, said that Antioch contained inore buf- | great; for the Seleucid kings and queens (Mal. p. foons than citizens. Apollonius of Tyana was treated 312) had vied with each other in embellishing their in the same way; and the Antiochians provoked metropolis. But it received still further embellishtheir own destruction by ridiculing the Persians in ment from a long series of Roman emperors. In the invasion of Chosroes. (Procop. B. P. ii. 8.) B. C. 64, when Syria was reduced to a province, To the same cause must be referred the origin of Pompey gave to Antioch the privilege of autonomy. the name “ Christian," which first came into exist- | The same privilege was renewed by Julius Caesar ence in this city. (Acts, xi. 26; Life, &c. of St. in a public edict (B. C. 47), and it was retained till Paul, vol. i. p. 130. See page 146.)

Antoninus Pius made it a colonia. The era of

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PLAN OF ANTIOCH. AA. City of Seleucus Nicator. ff. Wall of Theodosius. BB. New City of Seleucus Calli- gg. Wall of Justinian. nicus.

hh. Justinian's Ditch. CC. City of Antiochus Epiphanes. ii. Godfrey's Camp. DD. Mount Silpius.

1. Altar of Jupiter. EE. Modern Town.

2. Amphitheatre. aa. River Orontes.

3. Theatre. bb. Road to Seleuceia.

4. Citadel. cc. Road to Daphne.

5. Castle of the Crusaders. dd. Ravine Parmenius.

6. Caesarium. ee. Wall of Epiphanes and Ti- 7. Omphalus. berius.

8. Forum.

9. Senate House.
10. Museum.
11. Tancred's Castle.
12. Trajan's Aqueduct.
13. Hadrian's Aqueduct.
14. Caligula's Aqueduct.
15. Caesar's Aqueduct.
16. Xystus.
17. Herod's Colonnade.
18. Nymphaeum.
19. Palace.
20. Circus.

Pharsalia was introduced at Antioch in honour of who also established there public stores and manufacCaesar, who erected many public works there : tures of arms. At Antioch two of the most striking among others, a theatre under the rocks of Silpius calamities of the period were the earthquake of (Únd õpet Seatpor), and an amphitheatre, Trajan's reign, during which the emperor, who was besides an aqueduct and baths, and a basilica called then at Antioch, took refuge in the Circus: and the Caesarium. Augustus showed the same favour to capture of the city by the Persians under Sapor in the people of Antioch, and was similarly flattered 260 A. D. On this occasion the citizens were inby them, and the era of Actium was introduced into tently occupied in the theatre, when the enemy surtheir system of chronology. In this reign Agrippa prised them from the rocks above. (Amm. Marc. built a suburb, and Herod the Great contributed a xxiii. 5.) road and a colonnade. (Joseph. Ant. xvi. 5. § 3, The interval between Constantine and Justinian B. J. i. 21. § 11.) The most memorable event of may be regarded as the Byzantine period of the histhe reign of Tiberius, connected with Antioch, was tory of Antioch. After the founding of Constantithe death of Germanicus. A long catalogue of works nople it ceased to be the principal city of the East. erected by successive emperors might be given; but At the same time it began to be prominent as a it is enough to refer to the Chronographia of Ma- Christian city, ranking as a Patriarchal see with Conlala, which seems to be based on official documents*, stantinople and Alexandreia. With the former of these and which may be easily consulted by means of the cities it was connected by the great road through Asia Index in the Bonn edition. We need only instance Minor, and with the latter, by the coast road through the baths of Caligula, Trajan, and Hadrian, the Caesarea. (See Wesseling, Ant. Itin. p. 147; Itin. paving of the great street with Egyptian granite by Hieros. p. 581.) Ten councils were held at Antioch Antoninus Pius, the Xystus or public walk built between the years 252 and 380; and it became disby Commodus, and the palace built by Diocletian, tinguished by a new style of building, in connection

| with Christian worship. One church especially, * Gibbon says: “We may distinguish his au- begun by Constantine, and finished by his son, dethentic information of domestic facts from his gross mands our notice. It was the same church which ignorance of general history." Ch. li. vol. ix. p. 414, Julian closed and Jovian restored to Christian use, ed. Milman.

| and the same in which Chrysostom preached. He describes it as richly ornamented with Mosaic and with the whole of Syria, by the Saracens in the first statues. The roof was dorical (opaipoeides), and burst of their military enthusiasm. It was recoverd of great height; and in its octagonal plan it was in the 10th century under Nicephorus Phocas, by a similar to the church of St. Vitalis at Ravenna. surprise similar to that by which the Persians be(See Euseb. Vit. Const. Üï. 50.) From the preva came masters of it; and its strength, population, lence of early churches of this form in the East, we and magnificence are celebrated by a writer of the must suppose either that this edifice set the example, period (Leo Diac. p. 73), though its appearance had or that this mode of church-building was already in doubtless undergone considerable changes during use. Among other buildings, Antioch owed to four centuries of Mahomedan occupation. It reConstantine & basilica, a praetorium for the resi- mained subject to the emperor of Constantinopl dence of the Count of the East, built of the ma- the time of the first Comneni, when it was taken by terials of the ancient Museum, and a xenon or the Seljuks (A. D. 1084). Fourteen years later bospice near the great church for the reception of (A. D. 1098) it was besieged by the Latins in the travellers. Constantius spent much time at An- | first Crusade. Godfrey pitched his camp by the tioch, so that the place received the temporary name ditch which had been dug under Justinian, and of Constantia. His great works were at the har- | Tancred erected a fort near the western wall. (See bour of Seleuceia, and the traces of them still remain. the Plan.) The city was taken on the 3d of June, Julian took much pains to ingratiate himself with 1098. Boemond I., the son of Robert Guiscard, the people of Antioch. His disappointment is ex- became prince of Antioch; and its history was again pressed in the Misopogon. Valens undertook great Christian for nearly two centuries, till the time of improvements at the time of his peace with the Per- Boemond VI., when it fell under the power of the sians, and opposite the ravine Parmenius he built a Sultan of Egypt and his Mamelukes (A. D. 1268). sumptuous forum, which was paved with marble, From this time its declension seems to have been and decorated with Illyrian columns. Theodosius rapid and continuous: whereas, under the Franks, was compelled to adopt stringent measures against it appears to have been still a strong and splendid the citizens, in consequence of the sedition and the city. So it is described by Phocas (Acta Sanct. breaking of the statues (A. D. 387, 388), and An- Mai. vol. v. p. 299), and by William of Tyre, who is tioch was deprived of the rank of a metropolis. We the grent Latin authority for its history during this are now brought to the time of Libanius, from whom period. (See especially iv. 9—14, v. 23, vi. 1, 15; we have so often quoted, and of Chrysostom, whose and compare xvi. 26, 27.) It is unnecessary for SETTOns contain so many incidental notices of his our purpose to describe the various fortunes of the native city. Chrysostom gives the population at families through which the Frankish principality of 200,000, of which 100,000 were Christians. In Antioch was transmitted from the first to the seventh these numbers it is doubtful whether we are to in- Boemond. A full account of them, and of the coins elnde the children and the slaves. (See Gibbon, ch. xv. by which they are illustrated, will be found in De and Milman's note, vol. ii. p. 363.) For the detailed Saulcy, Numismatique des Croisades, pp. 1–27. description of the public and private buildings of We may consider the modern history of Antioch the city, we must refer the reader to Libanius. The as coincident with that of European travellers in the increase of the suburb towards Daphne at this period Levant. Beginning with De la Brocquière, in the induced Theodosius to build a new wall on this side. | 15th century, we find the city already sunk into a (See the Plan.) Passing over the reigns of Theo state of insignificance. He says that it contained dosius the Younger, who added new decorations to only 300 houses, inhabited by a few Turks and the city, and of Leo the Great, in whose time it was Arabs. The modern Antakieh is a poor town, desolated by an earthquake, we come to a period situated in the north-western quarter of the ancient which was made disastrous by quarrels in the Hippo- city, by the river, which is crossed by a substantial drome, massacres of the Jews, internal factions and bridge. No accurate statement can be given of its Far froin without. After an earthquake in the population. One traveller states it at 4000, another reign of Justin, A. D. 526, the city was restored by at 10,000. In the census taken by Ibrahim Pasha Ephrem, who was Count of the East, and after- in 1835, when he thought of making it again the wards Patriarch. The reign of Justinian is one of capital of Syria, it was said to be 5600. The the most important eras in the history of Antioch. Christians have no church. The town occupies only It was rising under him into fresh splendour, when a small portion (some say , some }, some of the it was again injured by an earthquake, and soon ancient enclosure; and a wide space of unoccupied afterwards (A. D. 538) utterly desolated by the in- ground intervenes between it and the eastern or vasion of the Persians under Chosroes. The ruin of Aleppo gate (called, after St. Paul, Bab-Boulous), the city was complete. The citizens could scarcely near which are the remains of ancient pavement. find the sites of their own houses. Thus an entirely | The walls (doubtless those of Justinian) may be new city (which received the new name of Thew traced through a circuit of four miles. They are polis) rose under Justinian. In dimensions it was built partly of stone, and partly of Roman tiles, and considerably less than the former, the wall retiring were flanked by strong towers; and till the earthfroin the river on the east, and touching it only at quake of 1822 some of them presented a magnione point, and also including a smaller portion of ficent appearance on the cliffs of Mount Silpius. The the cliffs of Mount Silpius. This wall evidently height of the wall differs in different places, and tracorresponds with the notices of the fortifications in vellers are not agreed on the dimensions assigned to the times of the crusaders, if we make allowance for them. Among the recent travellers who have dethe inflated language of Procopius, who is our au- scribed Antioch, we may make particular mention of thority for the public works of Justinian.

Pococke, Kinneir, Niebuhr, Buckingham, Richter The history of Antioch during the medieval period (Wallfahrten im Morgenlande), and Michaud et was one of varied fortunes, but, on the whole, of Poujoulat (Correspondance d'Orient, &c.). Since gradual decay. It was first lost to the Roman em- the earthquake which has just been mentioned, the pire in the time of Heraclius (A. D. 635), and taken, | most important events at Antioch have been its occupation by Ibrahim Pasha in 1832, and the Eu- Minor, vol. ii. p. 353), that there are medals with phrates expedition, conducted by Col. Chesney. (See the epigraph AvtioxEWY TWv mpos Twi Lapor, by the recently published volumes, London, 1850.) which the same place is probably meant, though,

The annexed figure represents the Genius of An- according to the medals, it was on the Sarus. tioch, - for so with Ammianus Marcellinus (xxiii. 4. AD CRAGUM ('Artióxela émi Kpáyu, Ptol. 1), a native of the place, we may translate the v. 8. & 2). Strabo (p. 669) mentions a rock Cragus Túxn 'Aytioxelas, or the famous allegorical statue, on the coast of Cilicia, between the river Selinus and which personified the city. It was the work of the fort and harbour of Charadrus. Appian(Mithrid.

c. 96) mentions both Cragus and Anticragus in Cilicia as very strong forts; but there may be some error here. Beaufort (Karamania, p. 193) conjectures that the site may be between Selinty and Karadran (the Charadrus of Strabo): he observed several columns there “ whose shafts were single blocks of polished red granite." A square cliff, the top of which projects into the sea, has been fortified. There is also a flight of steps cut in the rock leading from the landing place to the gates.

5. AD MAEANDRUM (A. apòs Maidvope), a small city on the Maeander, in Caria, in the part adjacent to Phrygia. There was a bridge there. The city had a large and fertile territory on both sides of the river, which was noted for its figs. The tract was subject to earthquakes. (Strab. p. 630.) Pliny (v. 29) says that the town was surrounded by the Orsinus, or Mosynus, as some read the name, -by which he seems to mean that it is in the angle formed by the junction of this small river with the

Maeander Hamilton (Researches, g'c., vol. i. P. Eutychides of Sicyon, a pupil of Lysippus, whose 529) fixes the position between 4 and 5 miles SE. of school of art was closely connected with the Mace- Kuvuja, " and near the mouth of the rich valley of donian princes. It represented Antioch as a female | the Kara Sú, which it commands, as well as the figure, seated on the rock Silpius and crowned with road to Ghera, the ancient Aphrodisias." The retowers, with ears of corn, and sometimes a palm mains are not considerable. They consist of the branch in her hand, and with the river Orontes at massive walls of the Acropolis, and an inner castle ir her feet. This figure appears constantly on the a rude and barbarous style, without any traces of later coins of Antioch; and it is said to have some- Hellenic character; but there is a stadium built in the times decorated the official chairs of the Roman same style, and this seems to show the antiquity of praetors in the provinces, in conjunction with repre- both East of the acropolis there are many remains sentations of Rome, Alexandreia, and Constantinople. of arches, vaults, and substructions of buildings. The engraving here given is from a statue of the There is also the site of a small theatre. (Comp. time of Septimius Severus in the Vatican. (Visconti, Fellows, Discoveries in Lycia, p. 27.) Museo Pio Clementino, iii. 46.) The original statue Pliny says that Antiocheia is where the towns was placed within a cell of four columns, open on all Seminethes (if the reading is right) and Cranaos sides, near the river Orontes, and ultimately within were. Cranaos is an appropriate name for the site the Nymphaeum.

of Antiocheia. Stephanus (8. v. 'AVTiÓXela) says A conjectural plan of the ancient city is given in that the original name of the place was Pythopolis, Michaud's Histoire des Croisades (vol. ii.). But and that Antiochus son of Seleucus built a town the best is in C. 0. Müller's Antiquitates Antio-|

here, which he named Antiocheia, after his mother chenae (Göttingen, 1839), from which ours is taken. | Antiochis. The consul Cn. Manlius encamped at Müller's work contains all the materials for the his- | Antiocheia (B. c. 189) on his march against the tory of Antioch. A compendious account of this Galatae (Liv. xxxviii. 13). This city was the birthcity is given in Cony beare and Howson's Life and place of Diotrephes, a distinguished sophist, whose Epistles of St. Paul (London, 1850 -92), from pupil Hybreas was the greatest rhetorician of Strabo's which work some part of the present article has been time. There are numerous medals of this town of taken.

[I. S. H.]

the imperial period.

6. MARGIANA ('A. Mapyıávn), a city on both sides of the river Margus, in Margiana. (Pliny, vi. 16; Strab. p. 516.) It is said to have been founded by Alexander, but his city having been destroyed by the barbarians, Antiochus I. Soter restored it, and gave to it his own name. It lay in a fertile plain surrounded by deserts; and, to defend it against the

barbarians, Antiochus surrounded the plain with a COIN OF ANTIOCH,

wall 1500 stadia in circuit (Strabo). Pliny, who

seems to have referred to the same sources as Strabo, ANTIOCHEIA. 1. CALLIRRHOE. [EDESSA.] and perhaps to others also, states that the region is 2. MYGDONIAE. NISIBIS.]

of great fertility, and surrounded by mountains; and 3. CILICIAE, is placed by Stephanus (3. v. 'AVTO- he makes the circuit 1500 stadia, but omits to menxela) on the river Pyramus in Cilicia, and the Stadi- tion this great wall, which is probably a fiction. asmus agrees with him. But Cramer observes (Asia | The city was 70 stadia in circuit. The river which

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