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and precipitous mountains, in the profundity of the the waters have united again, the river is called narrow fissure between them, in the rapidity and Pasitigris." There was a place near Seleuce called magnitude of the river, in the single narrow path Coche (Amm. Marc. xxiv. 5, and the notes of Var along the bank, the two places are exactly alike. lesius and Lindebrog); and the site of Seleuceia Hence it is difficult for an army to pass under any is below Bagdad. These are the only points in the circumstances, and impossible when the place is description that are certain. It seems difficult to defended by an enemy." (Quoted by Leake, vol. i. explain the passage of Pliny, or to determine the p. 389.) It is true that Plutarch in this passage probable site of Apameia. It cannot be at Korna, calls the river Apsus, but the Aous is evidently as some suppose, where the Tigris and Euphrates meant. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. pp. 31, meet, for both Stephanus and Pliny place Apameia seq., 383, seq. vol. iv. p. 116.)

at the point where the Tigris is divided. Pliry APAMEIA, -EA, or -IA ('Anduela: Eth. 'Arra places Digba at Korna, “ in ripa Tigris circa conueús, Apameensis, Apamensis, Apamenus, Apamēus), Auentes," — at the junction of the Tigris and the 1. (Kūlat el-Mudik), a large city of Syria, situated Euphrates. in the valley of the Orontes, and capital of the province But Pliny has another Apameia (vi. 31), which of Apamene. (Steph. B. 3. v. ; Strab. xvi. p. 752; was surrounded by the Tigris; and he places it in Ptol. v. 15. $ 19; Festus Avienus, v. 1083; An- Sittacene. It received the name of Apameia from ton. Itin.; Hierocles.) It was fortified and enlarged the mother of Antiochus Soter, the first of the Seby Seleucus Nicator, who gave it its name after his leucidae. Pliny adds: “ haec dividitur Archoo," as wife Apama (not his mother, as Steph. B. asserts; if a stream flowed through the town. D'Anville comp. Strab. p. 578). In pursuance of his policy (L'Euphrate et le Tigre) supposes that this Apameia of " Hellenizing ” Syria, it bore the Macedonian was at the point where the Dijeil, now dry, branched name of Pella. The fortress (see Groskurd's note off from the Tigris. D'Anville places the bifurcation on Strabo, p. 752) was placed upon a hill; the wind near Samarrah, and there he puts Apameia. But ings of the Orontes, with the lake and marshes, gave Lynch (London Geog. Journal, vol. ix. p. 473) it a peninsular form, whence its other name of shows that the Dijeil branched off near Jibbarah, a Xeppóungos. Seleucus had his commissariat there, little north of 34° N. lat. He supposes that the Djeil 500 elephants, with 30,000 mares, and 300 stallions. once swept the end of the Median wall and flowed The pretender, Tryphon Diodotus, made Apamea between it and Jibbarah. Somewhere, then, about the basis of his operations. (Strab. I. c.) Josephus this place Apameia may have been, for this point of (Ant. xiv. 3. & 2) relates, that Pompeius marching | the bifurcation of the Tigris is one degree of latitude south from his winter quarters, probably at or near N. of Seleuceia, and if the course of the river is Antioch, razed the fortress of Apamea. In the measured, it will probably be not far from the disrevolt of Syria under Q. Caecilius Bassus, it held tance which Pliny gives (cxxy. M. P.). The Meout for three years till the arrival of Cassius, B. C. sene then was between the Tigris and the Dijeil; or 46. (Dion. Cass. xlvii. 26–28; Joseph. B. J. i. a tract called Mesene is to be placed there. The 10. $ 10.)

name Sellas in Stephanus is probably corrupt, and In the Crusades it was still a flourishing and the last editor of Stephanus may have done wrong important: place under the Arabic name of Famieh, in preferring it to the reading Delas, which is nearer and was occupied by Tancred. (Wilken, Gesch. | the name Dijeil. Pliny may mean the same place der Ks. vol. ii. p. 474; Abulfeda, Tab. Syr. pp. 114, Apameia in both the extracts that have been given; 157.) This name and site have been long forgotten though some suppose that he is speaking of two in the country. Niebuhr heard that Fåmieh was different places. now called Külat el-Mudik. (Reise, vol. iii. p. 3. In Osrhoëne, & town on the left bank of the 97.) And Burckhardt (Travels, p. 138) found the Euphrates opposite to Zeugma, founded by Seleucus castle of this name not far from the lake El Takah; Nicator. (Plin. v. 21.) A bridge of boats kept up and fixes upon it as the site of Apamea.

a communication between Zeugma and Apameia. Ruins of a highly ornamental character, and of The place is now Rum-kala. an enormous extent, are still standing, the re- 4. (Medania, Mutania), in Bithynia, was origimains, probably, of the temples of which Sozomen nally called Múpaela (Steph. B. s. v. 'Aráceia), speaks (vii. 15); part of the town is enclosed in an and was a colony from Colophon. (Plin. v. 32.) ancient castle situated on a hill; the remainder is Philip of Macedonia, the father of Perseus, took the to be found in the plain. In the adjacent lake town, as it appears, during the war which he carried are the celebrated black fish, the source of much on against the king of Pergamus, and he gave the wealth.

[E. B. J.] place to Prusias, his ally, king of Bithynia. Pru2. A city in Mesopotamia. Stephanus (8. v. sias gave to Myrlea, which thus became a Bithy'Anduela) describes Apameia as in the territory | nian town, the name of his wife Apameia. The of the Meseni, " and surrounded by the Tigris, at place was on the S. coast of the Gulf of Cius, and NW. which place, that is Apameia, or it may mean, in of Prusa. The Romans made Apameia a colony, which country, Mesene, the Tigris is divided ; on apparently not earlier than the time of Augustus, the right part there flows round a river Sellas, and or perhaps Julius Caesar; the epigraph on the coins on the left the Tigris, having the same name with of the Roman period contains the title Julia. The the large one.” It does not appear what writer he coins of the period before the Roman dominion have is copying; but it may be Arrian. Pliny (vi. 27) the epigraph Atauewy Mupacarw. Pliny (Ep. says of the Tigris, " that around Apameia, a town | x. 56), when governor of Bithynia, asked for the of Mesene, on this side of the Babylonian Seleuceia, directions of Trajan, as to a claim made by this co125 miles, the Tigris being divided into two channels, lonia, not to have their accounts of receipts and esby one channel it flows to the south and to Seleuceia, penditure examined by the Roman governor. From Washing all along Mesene; by the other channel, a passage of Ulpian (Dig. 50. tit. 15. s. 11) we turning to the north at the back of the same nation learn the form Apamena: “est in Bithynia colonia (Mesene), it divides the plains called Cauchae: when | Aramena.”

5. ('H Kibwtós), a town of Phrygia, built nearblished here, and even that St. Paul visited the Celaenae by Antiochus Soter, and named after his place, for he went throughout Phrygia. But the mother Apama. Strabo (p. 577) says, that “the mere circumstance of the remains of a church at town lies at the source (exbonais) of the Marsyas, Apameia proves nothing as to the time when Chrisand the river flows through the middle of the city, tianity was established there. haring its origin in the city, and being carried down to the suburbs with a violent and precipitous current

ANAMEN it joins the Maeander.” This passage may not be free from corruption, but it is not improved by Groskurd's emendation (German Transl. of Strabo, vol. ii. p. 531). Strabo observes that the Maeander receives, before its junction with the Marsyas, a stream called Orgas, which flows gently through a

PAOK PATOY level country (MAEANDER]. This rapid stream is

APZTEN called Catarrčactes by Herodotus (vii. 26). The site of Apameia is now fixed at Denair, where there

COIN OF APAMEIA, IN PHRYGIA. is a river corresponding to Strabo's description (Hamilton, Researches, fc. vol. ii. p. 499). Leake 6. A city of Parthia, near Rhagae (Rey) (Asia Minor, p. 156, &c.) has collected the ancient Rhagae was 500 stadia from the Caspiae Pylae. testimonies as to Apameia. Arundell (Discoveries, (Strab. p. 513.) Apameia was one of the towns $c., vol. i. p. 201) was the first who clearly saw | built in these parts by the Greeks after the Macethat Apameia must be at Denair; and his conclu donian conquests in Asia. It seems to be the same sions are confirmed by a Latin inscription which he Apameia which is mentioned by Ammianus Marfound on the fragment of a white marble, which re cellinus (xxiii. 6).

[G. L.] corded the erection of some monument at Apameia APANESTAÉ, or APENESTAE (ATEVÉOTA), by the negotiatores resident there. Hamilton copied a town on the coast of Apulia, placed by Ptolemy several Greek inscriptions at Denair (Appendix, among the Daunian Apulians, near Sipontum. vol. i.). The name Cibotus appears on some coins Pliny, on the contrary, enumerates the APAENESof Apameia, and it has been conjectured that it was TINI, probably the same people, among the “ Calaso called from the wealth that was collected in this brorum Mediterranei.” But it has been plausibly great emporium; for Kibwtós is a chest or coffer. conjectured that - Arnesto," a name otherwise unPliny (v. 29) says that it was first Celaenae, then known, which appears in the Itin. Ant. (p. 315), Cibotus, and then Apameia; which cannot be quite between Barium and Egnatia, is a corruption of the correct, because Celaenae was a different place from same name. If this be correct, the distances there Apameia, though near it. But there may have given would lead us to place it at S. Vito, 2 miles been a place on the site of Apameia, which was | W. of Polignano, where there are some remains of called Cibotus. There are the remains of a theatre an ancient town. (Plin. iii. 11, 16; Ptol, iii. 1. and other ancient ruins at Denair.

$ 16; Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 155.) [E. H. B.] When Strabo wrote Apameia was a place of great APARNI. [PARNI.) trade in the Roman province of Asia, next in im- APATUÖRUM, or APATU’RUS ('Arátovpoy, portance to Ephesus. Its commerce was owing to Strab.; 'ATátovpos, Steph. B., Ptol.), a town of its position on the great road to Cappadocia, and it the Sindae, on the Pontus Euxinus, near the Buswas also the centre of other roads. When Cicero porus Cimmerius, which was almost uninhabited in was proconsul of Cilicia, B. c. 51, Apameia was Pliny's time. It possessed a celebrated temple of within his jurisdiction (ad Fam. xiii. 67), but the Aphrodite Apaturus (the Deceiver); and there was dioecesis, or conventus, of Apameia was afterwards also a temple to this goddess in the neighbouring attached to the province of Asia. Pliny enumerates town of Phanagoria. (Strab. xi. p. 495; Plin. six towns which belonged to the conventus of Apa- vi. 6; Ptol. v. 9. & 5; Steph. B. 8. v.) meia, and he observes that there were nine others APAVARCTICE'NE ('AravapkTiknuh, Isid. of little note.

Char. pp. 2, 7, ed. Hudson; 'Aptunnuh, or TapaukThe country about Apameia has been shaken by Tuenuh, Ptol. vi. 5. 81; APAVORTENE, Plin. vi. earthquakes, one of which is recorded as having | 16. s. 18; ZAPAORTENE, Justin. xli. 5), a district happened in the time of Claudius (Tacit. Ann. of Parthia, in the south-eastern part of the country, xi. 58); and on this occasion the payment of taxes with a strongly fortified city, called Dareium, or to the Romans was remitted for five years. Nico-Dara, built by Arsaces I., situated on the mountain laus of Damascus (Athen. p. 332) records a violent of the Zapaorteni. (Justin. I.c.) earthquake at Apameia at a previous date, during APENNI'NUS MONS (d'ATÉVVIVOS, TO 'ATévthe Mithridatic war: lakes appeared where none vivov öpos. The singular form is generally used, in were before, and rivers and springs; and many which Greek as well as Latin, but both Polybius and existed before disappeared. Strabo (p. 579) speaks Strabo occasionally have tá 'Amévviva opn. In of this great catastrophe, and of other convulsions | Latin the singular only is used by the best writers). at an earlier period. Apameia continued to be a The Apennines, a chain of mountains which traverses prosperous town under the Roman empire, and is almost the whole length of Italy, and may be conenumerated by Hierocles among the episcopal cities sidered as constituting the backbone of that counof Pisidia, to which division it had been transferred. try, and determining its configuration and physical The bishops of Apameia sat in the councils of Ni characters. The name is probably of Celtic origin, caea. Arundell contends that Apameia, at an early and contains the root Pen, a head or height, which period in the history of Christianity, had a church, is found in all the Celtic dialects. Whether it may and he confirms this opinion by the fact of there originally have been applied to some particular mass being the ruins of a Christian church there. It is or group of mountains, from which it was subseprobable enough that Christianity was early esta-quently extended to the whole chain, as the singular form of the name might lead us to suspect, is un- , markable uniformity: the long ranges of hills which certain: but the more extensive use of the name is descend from the central chain, nearly at right fully established, when it first appears in history. angles to its direction, constantly approaching within The general features and direction of the chain are a few miles of the straight line of the Via Aemilia well described both by Polybius and Strabo, who throughout its whole length from Ariminum to speak of the Apennines as extending from their Placentia, but without ever crossing it. On its junction with the Alps in an unbroken range almost southern side, on the contrary, it sends ont several to the Adriatic Sea; but turning off as they ap- detached arms, or lateral ranges, some of which proached the coast (in the neighbourhood of Arimi attain to an elevation little interior to that of the num and Ancona), and extending from thence central chain. Such is the lofty and rugged range throughout the whole length of Italy, through which separates the vallies of the Macra and Auser Samnium, Lucania, and Bruttium, until they ended (Serchio), and contains the celebrated marble quarat the promontory of Leucopetra, on the Sicilian ries of Carrara; the highest point of which the Sea. Polybius adds, that throughout their course Pizzo d Uccello) is not less than 5800 feet above from the plains of the Padus to their southern ex the sea. Similar ridges, though of somewhat less tremity they formed the dividing ridge between the elevation, divide the upper and lower vallies of the waters which flowed respectively to the Tyrrhenian | Arnus from each other, as well as that of the Tiber and Adriatic seas. The same thing is stated by from the former. Lucan, whose poetical description of the Apennines But after approaching within a short distance of is at the same time distinguished by geographical the Adriatic, so as to send down its lower slopes accuracy. (Pol. ii. 16, üi. 110;. Strab. ii. p. 128, within a few miles of Ariminuin, the chain of the v. p. 211; Ptol. iii. 1. $ 44; Lucan. ii. 3964438; Apennines suddenly takes a turn to the SSE., and Claudian. de VI. Cons. Hon. 286.) But an accu- assumes a direction parallel to the coast of the rate knowledge of the course and physical characters Adriatic, which it preserves, with little alteration, of this range of mountains is so necessary to the to the frontiers of Lucania. It is in this part of the clear comprehension of the geography of Italy, and range that all the highest summits of the Apennines the history of the nations that inhabited the diffe- are found: the Monti della Sibilla, in which are rent provinces of the peninsula, that it will be de- the sources of the Nar (Nera) rise to a height of sirable to give in this place a more detailed account 7200 feet above the sea, while the Monte Corno, of the physical geography of the Apennines.

[graphic]

or Gran Sasso d'Italia, near Aquila, the loftiest There was much difference of opinion among summit of the whole chain, attains to an elevation ancient, as well as modern, geographers, in regard of 9500 feet. A little further S. is the Monte to the point they assigned for the commencement Majella, a huge mountain mass between Sulmo and of the Apennines, or rather for their junction with the coast of the Adriatic, not less than 9000 feet in the Alps, of which they may, in fact, be considered height, while the Monte Velino, N. of the Lake only as a great offshoot. Polybius describes the Fucinus, and nearly in the centre of the peninsula, Apennines as extending almost to the neighbourhood attains to 8180 feet, and the Monte Terminillo, of Massilia, so that he must have comprised under near Leonessa, NE, of Rieti, to above 7000 feet. this appellation all that part of the Maritime Alps, It is especially in these Central Apennines that the which extend along the sea-coast to the west of peculiar features of the chain develope themselves. Genoa, and even beyond Nice towards Marseilles. Instead of presenting, like the Alps and the more Other writers fixed on the port of Hercules Monoecus northern Apennines, one great uniform ridge, with (Monaco) as the point of demarcation: but Strabo transverse vallies leading down from it towards the extends the name of the Maritime Alps as far E. as sea on each side, the Central Apennines constitute a Vada Sabbata (Vado), and says that the Apennines | mountain mass of very considerable breadth, combegin about Genoa: a distinction apparently in ac- posed of a number of minor ranges and groups of cordance with the usage of the Romans, who fre mountains, which, notwithstanding great irregulaquently apply the name of the Maritime Alps to the rities and variations, preserve a general parallelism country of the Ingauni, about Albenga. (Liv. | of direction, and are separated by upland vallies, xxviii. 46; Tac. Hist. ii. 12.) Nearly the same some of which are themselves of considerable eledistinction has been adopted by the best modern vation and extent. Thus the basin of Lake Fucinus, geographers, who have regarded the Apennines as in the centre of the whole mass, and almost exactly cominencing from the neighbourhood of Savona, im- midway between the two seas, is at a level of 2180 mediately at the back of which the range is so low feet above the sea; the upper valley of the Aternus, that the pass between that city and Carcare, in the near Amiternum, not less than 2380 feet; while valley of the Bormida, does not exceed the height between the Fucinus and the Tyrrhenian Sea we of 1300 feet. But the limit must, in any case, be find the upper vallies of the Liris and the Anio an arbitrary one: there is no real break or inter- running parallel to one another, but separated by ruption of the mountain chain. The mountains be lofty mountain ranges from each other and from the hind Genoa itself are still of very moderate elevation, basin of the Fucinus. Another peculiarity of the but after that the range increases rapidly in height, Apennines is that the loftiest summits scarcely ever as well as breadth, and extends in a broad unbroken form a continuons or connected range of any great mass almost in a direct line (in an ESE. direction) | extent, the highest groups being frequently separated till it approaches the coast of the Adriatic. Through- by ridges of comparatively small eleration, which out this part of its course the range forms the afford in consequence natural passes across the southern limit of the great plain of Northern Italy, chain. Indeed, the two loftiest mountain masses of which extends without interruption from the foot of the whole, the Gran Sasso, and the Majella, do the Apennines to that of the Alps. Its highest not belong to the central or main range of the Apensunmits attain an elevation of 5000 or 6000 feet, nines at all, if this be reckoned in the customary while its average height ranges between 3000 and manner along the line of the water-shed between 4000 feet. Its northern declivity presents a re- the two seas. As the Apemines descend into Samminm they diminish in height, though still forming approaches very near to the Tyrrhenian Sea, in the a vast mass of mountains of very irregular form and neighbourhood of the Gulf of Policastro (Buxentum), structure.

and retains this proximity as it descends through From the Monte Nerone, near the sources of the Bruttium ; but E. of Consentia (Cosenza) lies the Metaurus, to the valley of the Sagrus, or Sangro, great forest-covered mass of the Sila, in some dethe main range of the Apennines continues much gree detached from the main chain, and situated Dearer to tbe Adriatic than the Tyrrhenian Sea; between it and the coast near Crotona. A little so that a very narrow strip of low country intervenes further south occurs a remarkable break in the between the foot of the mountains and the sea on hitherto continuous chain of the Apennines, which their eastern side, while on the west the whole broad appears to end abruptly near the modern village of tract of Etruria and Latium separates the Apennines Tiriolo, so that the two gulfs of Sta Eufemia and from the Tyrrhenian. This is indeed broken by Squillace (the Sinus Terinaeus and Scylletinus) are nunerous minor ranges of hills, and even by moun- separated only by a low neck of land, less than tains of considerable elevation (such as the Monte 20 miles in breadth, and of such small elevation Amiota, near Radicofani), some of which may be that not only did the elder Dionysius conceive the onsidered as dependencies or outliers of the Apen- idea of carrying a wall across this isthmus (Strab. vi. fires; while others are of volcanic origin, and p. 261), but in modern times Charles III., king of

bully independent of them. To this last class Naples, proposed to cut a canal through it. The belong the Mons Ciminus and the Alban Hills; the mountains which rise again to the S. of this rerange of the Volscian Mountains, on the contrary, markable interruption, form a lofty and rugged mass Dow called Monti Lepini, which separates the val- (now called Aspromonte), which assumes a SW. hes of the Trerus and the Liris from the Pontine direction and continues to the extreme southern Marshes, certainly belongs to the system of the point of Italy, where the promontory of Leucopetra Apennines, which here again descend to the shore is expressly designated, both by Strabo and Ptolemy, of the westem sea between Tarracina and Gaieta. as the extremity of the Apennines. (Strab. v. p. From thence the western ranges of the chain sweep 211; Ptol. iii. 1. § 44.) The loftiest summit in roand in a semicircle around the fertile plain of the southern division of the Apennines is the Monte Campania, and send out in a SW. direction the Pollino, near the south frontier of Lucania, which bed and lofty ridge which separates the Bay of rises to above 7000 feet: the highest point of the Naples from that of Salerno, and ends in the pro Sila attains to nearly 6000 feet, and the summit of mootory of Minerva, opposite to the island of Capreae. Aspromonte to above 4500 feet. (For further deOn the E. the mountains gradually recede from the tails concerning the geography of the Apennines, shores of the Adriatic, so as to leave a broad plain especially in Central Italy, the reader may consult between their lowest slopes and the sea, which ex Abeken, Mittel-Italien, pp. 10–17, 80–85 ; Kratends without interruption from the mouth of the mer, Der Fuciner See, pp. 5–11.) Frento (Fortore) to that of the Aufidus (Ofanto): Almost the whole mass of the Apennines consists of the lofty and rugged mass of Mount Garganus, which limestone: primary rocks appear only in the southernhas been generally described from the days of Pto- | most portion of the chain, particularly in the range lemny to our own as a branch of the Apennines, I of the Aspromonte, which, in its geological structure being, in fact, a wholly detached and isolated ridge. and physical characters, presents much inore analogy ĪGARGANUS. In the southern parts of Samnium with the range in the NE. of Sicily, than with the rest (the region of the Hirpini) the Apennines present a of the Apennines. The loftier ranges of the latter very confused and irregular mass; the central point are for the most part bare rocks; none of them at. or knot of which is formed by the group of moun- | tain such a height as to be covered with perpetual tains about the head of the Aufidus, which has the snow, though it is said to lie all the year round in longest course from W. to E. of any of the rivers of the rifts and hollows of Monte Majella and the Italy S. of the Padus. From this point the central Gran Sasso. But all the highest summits, includriige assumes a southerly direction, wbile numerous ing the Monte Velino and Monte Terminillo, both of boots or branches occupy almost the whole of of which are visible from Rome, are covered with Lucania, extending on the W. to the Tyrrhenian snow early in November, and it does not disappear Sea, and on the S. to the Gulf of Tarentum. On before the end of May. There is, therefore, no exthe E. of the Hirpini, and immediately on the fron- | aggeration in Virgil's expression, tiers of Apulia and Lucania, rises the conspicuous

" nivali mess of Mount Vultur, which, though closely ad- Vertice se attollens pater Apenninus ad auras." jcining the chain of the Apennines, is geologically

Aen. xii. 703; see also Sil. Ital. iv. 743. and physically distinct from them, being an iso- The Aanks and lower ridges of the loftier mounlated mountain of volcanic origin. [Vultur.] tains are still, in many places, covered with dense Bat immediately S. of Mt. Vultur there branches woods; but it is probable that in ancient times the od from the central mass of the Apennines a chain forests were far more extensive (see Plin. xxxi. 3. of great hills, rather than mountains, which extends 26): many parts of the Apennines which are now to the eastward into Apulia, presenting a broad wholly bare of trees being known to have been co thart of barren hilly country, but gradually declining vered with forests in the middle ages. Pine trees in height as it approaches the Adriatic, until it ends appear only on tlie loftier summits : at a lower level on that coast in a range of low hills between Egnatia are found woods of oak and beech, while chesnuts and Brundusium. The peninsula of Calabria is and holm-oaks (ilices) clothe the lower slopes and traversed only by a ridge of low calcareous hills of vallies. The mountain regions of Samnium and the tertiary origin and of very trifting elevation, though districts to the N. of it afford excellent pasturago magnified by many maps and geographical writers in summer both for sheep and cattle, on which acinto a continuation of the Apennines. (Cluver. Ital. count they were frequented not only by their own p. 30; Swinburne, Travels in the Two Sicilies, herdsmen, but by those of Apulia, who annually Fol i. pp. 210, 211.) The main ridge of the latter | drove their flucks from their own parched and dusty plains to the upland vallies of the neighbouring natural lines of communication from one district to Apennines. (Varr. de R. R. ii. 1. § 16.) The another. Such are especially the pass from Reate, same districts furnished, like most mountain pas- by Interocrea, to the valley of the Aternus, and turages, excellent cheeses. (Plin. xi. 42. s. 97.) thence to Teate and the coast of the Adriatic; and, We find very few notices of any peculiar natural again, the line of the Via Valeria, from the upper productions of the Apennines. Varro tells us that valley of the Anio to the Lake Fucinus, and thence wild goats (by which he probably means the Bou- across the passage of the Forca Caruso (the Mons quetin, or Ibex, an animal no longer found in Italy) Imeus of the Itineraries) to Corfinium. The dewere still numerous about the Montes Fiscellus and tails of these and the other passes of the Apennines Tetrica (de R. R. ii. 1. 5.), two of the loftiest will be best given under the heads of the respective summits of the range.

regions or provinces to which they belong. Very few distinctive appellations of particular The range of the Apennines is, as remarked by mountains or summits among the Apennines have ancient authors, the source of almost all the rivers been transmitted to us, though it is probable that of Italy, with the exception only of the Padus and in ancient, as well as modern. times. almost every its northern tributaries, and the streams which deconspicuous mountain had its peculiar local name. scend from the Alps into the upper part of the The Mons FISCELLUS of Varro and Pliny, which, Adriatic. The numerous rivers which water the according to the latter, contained the sources of the northern declivity of the Apennine chain, from the Nar, is identified by that circunstance with the foot of the Maritime Alps to the neighbourhood of Monti della Sibilla, on the frontiers of Picenum. | Ariminum, all unite their waters with those of the The Mons TETRICA (Tetricae horrentes rupes, Padus ; but from the time it takes the great turn Virg. Aen. vii. 713) must have been in the same to the southward, it sends off its streams on both neighbourhood, perhaps a part of the same group, sides direct to the two seas, forming throughout the but cannot be distinctly identified, any more than rest of its course the watershed of Italy. Few of the Mons SEVERUS of Virgil, which he also assigns these rivers have any great length of course, and to the Sabines. The Mons CUNARUS, known only not being fed, like the Alpine streams, from perfrom Servius (ad Aen. x. 185), who calls it “a petual snows, they mostly partake much of the namountain in Picenum," has been supposed by Cluver ture of torrents, being swollen and violent in winter to be the one now called Il Gran Sasso d'Italia ; and spring, and nearly dry or reduced to but scanty but this is a mere conjecture. The “ GURGURES, streams, in the summer. There are, however, some alti montes" of Varro (de R. R. ii. 1. § 16) ap- exceptions: the Arnus and the Tiber retain, at all pear to have been in the neighbourhood of Reate. seasons, a considerable body of water, while the All these apparently belong to the lofty central Liris and Vulturnus both derive their origin from chain of the Apennines: a few other mountains of subterranean sources, such as are common in all inferior magnitude are noticed from their proximity limestone countries, and gush forth at once in copious to Rome, or other accidental causes. Such are the streams of clear and limpid water. [E. H. B.] detached and conspicuous height of Mount Soracte APERANTIA ('Arepartia; Eth. 'Arepartos), (SORACTE), the Mons LUCRETILIS (now Monte the name of a district in the NE. of Aetolia, proGennaro), one of the highest points of the range of bably forming part of the territory of the Agraei. Apennines immediately fronting Rome and the Stephanus, on the authority of Polybius, mentions a plains of Latium ; the Mons Tifata, adjoining the town of the same name ('AnepávTela), which applains of Cainpania, and Mons CALLICULA, on the pears to have been situated near the confluence of frontiers of that country and Samnium, both of them the Petitarus with the Achelous, at the modern vilcelebrated in the campaigns of Hannibal ; and the lage of Preventza, which may be a corruption of the Mons TABURNUS, in the territory of the Caudine ancient name, and where Leake discovered some Samnites, near Beneventum, still called Monte Ta- Hellenic ruins. Philip V., king of Macedonia, obburno. In the more southern regions of the Apen- tained possession of Aperantia ; but it was taken nines we find mention by name of the Mons Al from him, together with Amphilochia, by the AetoBURNUS, on the banks of the Silarus, and the Sila lians in B. C. 189. Aperantia is mentioned again in Bruttium, which still retains its ancient appel- | in B. C. 169, in the expedition of Perseus against lation. The Mons Valtur and Garganus, as already Stratus. (Pol. xxii. 8 ; Liv. xxxviii. 3, xliü. 22; mentioned, do not properly belong to the Apennines, Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 141.) any more than Vesuvius, or the Alban hills.

APERLAE ("Anepal: Eth. 'Amepaeitns), a From the account above given of the Apennines place in Lycia, fixed by the Stadiasmus 60 stadia it is evident that the passes over the chain do not west of Somena, and 64 stadia west of Andriace. assume the degree of importance which they do in Leake (Asia Minor, p. 188) supposes Somena to be the Alps. In the northern part of the range from the Simena of Pliny (v. 27). Aperlae, which is Liguria to the Adriatic, the roads which crossed written in the text of Ptolemy “Aperrae," and in them were carried, as they still are, rather over the Pliny “ Apyrae,” is proved to be a genuine name by bare ridges, than along the vallies and courses of the an inscription found by Cockerell, at the head of streams. The only dangers of these passes arise Hassar bay, with the Ethnic name 'ATTEPAEITWY from the violent storms which rage there in the winter, on it. But there are also coins of Gordian with the and which even, on one occasion, drove back Hanni- Ethnic name 'Atreppaitw. The confusion between bal when he attempted to cross them. Livy's the l and the r in the name of an insignificant place striking description of this tempest is, according to is nothing remarkable.

[G. L.] the testimony of modern witnesses, little, if at all, APEROʻPIA ('Aneporia), a sniall island, which exaggerated. (Liv. xxi. 58; Niebuhr, Vorträge Pausanias describes as lying off the promontory über Alte Länder, p. 336.) The passes through Buporthmus in Hermionis, and near the island of the more lofty central Apennines are more strongly Hydrea. Leake identifies Buporthinus with C. Mise marked by nature, and some of them must have záki and Aperopia with Dhokó. (Paus. ii. 34. $ 9, bcen frequented from a very early period as the Plin. iv. 12. s. 19; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 284.)

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