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APERRAE. [APERLAE.]

great confusion, no unusual thing with Pliny. APESAS ('Améras: Fuka), a mountain in Pe- | The site of Aphle is supposed to have been at loponnesus above Nemea in the territory of Cleonae, Ahwaz (Ru.). It is supposed to be the Aginis of where Perseus is said to have been the first person, Nearchus (p. 73, Hudson), and the Agorra of who sacrificed to Zeus Apesantius. (Leake, Morea, Ptolemy.

[P. S.] Fol iii. p. 325; Ross, Peloponnes, p. 40.) . ] APÉNITIS. (DASCYLITIS.]

A'PHACA ("Apaka: Afka), a town of Syria, APHRODISIAS ('Appodioids : Eth. 'A$po midway between Heliopolis and Byblus. (Zosim. i. Sioleús, Aphrodisiensis)." 1. (Ghera) an ancient 58.) In the neighbourhood was a marvellous lake. town of Caria, situated at Ghera or Geyra, south (Camp. Senec. Quaest. Nat. iii. 25.) Here was a of Antiocheia on the Maeander, as is proved by intemple of Aphrodite, celebrated for its impure and scriptions which have been copied by several traabominable rites, and destroyed by Constantine. vellers. Drawings of the remains of Aphrodisias (Euseb. de Vita, iii. 55; Sozom. u. 5.) Aphek in have been made by the order of the Dilettanti Sothe land assigned to the tribe of Asher (Joshua, xix. ciety. There are the remains of an Ionic temple of 30), but which they did not occupy (Judges, i. 31), Aphrodite, the goddess from whom the place took has been identified with it. (Winer, Real Wort. the name of Aphrodisias; fifteen of the white marble art. Aphek.) Burckhardt (Travels, p. 25) speaks columns are still standing. A Greek inscription on of a lake Liemoun, 3 hours' distance from Afka, a tablet records the donation of one of the columns but could hear of no remains there. (Comp. paper to Aphrodite and the demus. Fellows (Lycia, p. by Rev. W. Thomson, in Am. Bibliotheca Sacra, 32) has described the remains of Aphrodisias, and yol. v. p. 5.)

[E. B. J.] given a view of the temple. The route of Fellows APHEK. TAPHACA.]

was from Antiocheia on the Maeander up the valley A'PHETAE ('Apetal or 'Apérai: Eth. 'Ape- of the Mosynus, which appears to be the ancient Taios), a port of Magnesia in Thessaly, said to have name of the stream that joins the Maeander at Anderived its name from the departure of the Argonauts tiocheia; and Aphrodisias lies to the east of the head from it. The Persian fleet occupied the bay of of the valley in which the Mosynus rises, and at a Aphetae, previous to the battle of Artemisium, from considerable elevation. which Aphetae was distant 80 stadia, according to | Stephanus (8. v. Meyalórolis), says that it was Herodotus. Leake identifies Aphetae with the first a city of the Leleges, and, on account of its modern harbour of Trikeri, or with that between magnitude, was called Megalopolis; and it was also the island of Paleá Trikeri and the main. (Herod. called Ninoe, from Ninus (see also 8. v. Nivon), - a vü. 193, 196, viii. 4; Strab. p. 436; Apoll. Rhod. i. confused bit of history, and useful for nothing except 591; Steph. B. s. 6.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. to show that it was probably a city of old foundation. is. p. 397, Demi of Attica, p. 243, seq.)

Strabo (p.576) assigns it to the division of Phrygia; APHIDNA, or APHIDNAE ("Aqidva, 'Aqidvai : but in Pliny (v. 29) it is a Carian city, and a free Eth. 'Aqidvaios), one of the twelve ancient towns of city (Aphrodisienses liberi) in the Roman sense of Attica (Strab. ix. p. 397), is celebrated in the myth- that period. In the time of Tiberius, when there ical period as the place where Theseus deposited was an inquiry about the right of asyla, which was Helen, entrusting her to the care of his friend claimed and exercised by many Greek cities, the Aphidnus. When the Dioscuri invaded Attica in Aphrodisienses relied on a decree of the dictator search of their sister, the inhabitants of Deceleia in- Caesar for their services to his party, and on a recent formed the Lacedaemonians where Helen was con- decree of Augustus. (Tac. Ann. iii. 62.) Sherard, cealed, and showed them the way to Aphidna. The in 1705 or 1716, copied an inscription at AphroDioscuri thereapon took the town, and carried off disias, which he communicated to Chishull, who pubtheir sister. (Herod. ix. 73; Diod. iv. 63; Plut. Thes. lished it in his Antiquitates Asiaticae. This Greek 32; Paus. i. 17. & 5, 41. $ 3.) We learn, from a inscription is a Consultum of the Roman senate, decree quoted by Demosthenes (de Coron. p. 238), which confirms the privileges granted by the Dicthat Aphidna was, in his time, a fortified town, and tator and the Triumviri to the Aphrodisienses. The at a greater distance than 120 stadia from Athens. Consultum is also printed in Oberlin's Tacitus, and As an Attic demus, it belonged in succession to the elsewhere. This Consultum gives freedom to the tribes Aeantis (Plut. Quaest. Symp. i. 10; Har- demus of the Plaraseis and the Aphrodisieis. It pocrat. s. 0. Oupravidaı), Leontis (Steph. B.; Har- also declares the temenos of the goddess Aphrodite pocrat. 1. c.), Ptolemais (Hesych.), and Hadrianis in the city of the Plaraseis and the Aphrodisieis to (Böckh, Corp. Inscr. 275).

have the same rights as the temple of the Ephesia at Leake, following Finlay, places Aphidna between Ephesus; and the temenos was declared to be an Deceleia and Rhamnus, in the upper valley of the asylum. Plarasa then, also a city of Caria, and river Marathon, and supposes it to have stood on a Aphrodisias were in some kind of alliance and intistrong and conspicuons height named Kotróni, upon | mate relation. There are coins of Plarasa; and which are considerable remains indicating the site of coins with a legend of both names are also not a fortified demus. Its distance from Athens is about very uncommon.” (Leake.) 16 miles, half as much from Marathon, and something less from Deceleia. (Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 19, seq.)

APHLE, or APLE, a town of Susiana, 60 M. P. below Susa, on a lake which Pliny (vi. 27. s. 31) calls the lacus Chaldaicus, apparently a lake formed by the Pasitigris. He speaks elsewhere (vi. 23. s. 26) of a lake formed by the Eulaeus and Tigris, near Charax, that is at the head of the Persian Gulf; but this cannot be the lacus Chaldaicus of the other passage, unless there is some COIN OF APHRODISIAS IN CARIA.

[graphic]

2. A city of Cilicia. Stephanus (8. v. 'Appo-, on the E. side of the Nile; capital of the Nomos doiás) quotes Alexander Polyhistor, who quotes Aphroditopoltes. (Strab. xvii. p. 809; Ptol.) [t Zopyrus as an authority for this place, being so called was an episcopal see, down to the Arab conquest. from Aphrodite, a fact which we might assume. Its coins are extant, of the reigns of Trajan and The Stadiasmus states that Aphrodisias is nearest to Hadrian, with the epigraph ARPOAEITONOAI. Cyprus, and 500 stadia north of Aulion, the NE. (Rasche, 8. v.) — 3. In Upper Egypt, or the Thebais. extremity of Cyprus. It is mentioned by Diodorus 4. (Tachta) on the W. side of the Nile, but at (xix. 61); and by Livy (xxxiii. 20) with Cora- some distance from the river, below Ptolemais and cesium, Soli, and other places on this coast. It Panopolis; capital of the Nomos Aphroditopolites seems from Pliny (v. 27, who calls it “ Oppidum (Plin. v. 9, 10. 8. 11, Veneris iterum, to distinVeneris ") and other authorities (it is not mentioned | guish it from No. 5; Strab. xvii. p. 813; Agatharch. by Strabo) to have been situated between Celenderes de Rub. Mar. p. 22; Prokesch, Erinnerungen, and Sarpedon. It was on or near a promontory also vol. i. p. 152.) 5. (Deir, Ru.), on the W. side of called Aphrodisias. The site is not certain. Leake the Nile, much higher up than the former, and, supposes that the cape near the Papadula rocks was like it, a little distance from the river; in the the promontory Aphrodisias, and that some vestiges Nomos Hermonthites, between Thebes and Apolof the town may be found near the harbour behind lonopolis Magna; and a little NW. of Latopolis. the cape. (See also Beaufort's Karamania, p. 211.) | (Plin. v. 10. s. 11.)

[P.S.] 3. A promontory on the SW.coast of Caria (Mela, APHTHI'TES NOMOS (D'Apoions vouós), a i. 16; Plin. v. 28), between the gulfs of Schoenus nomos of Lower Egypt, in the Delta, mentioned by and Thymnias. The modern name is not mentioned Herodotus, between those of Bubastis and Tanis; by Hannilton, who passed round it (Researches, but neither he nor any other writer mentions such vol. ii. p. 72). It has sometimes been confounded a city as Aphthis. The name seems to point to with the Cynos Sema of Strabo, which is Cape a chief seat of the worship of Phthah, the Egyptian Volpo. [G. L.] | Hephaestus. (Herod. ii. 166.)

[P. S.7. APHRODI'SIAS ('Appodioids), an island ad-/ APHYTIS ("AQUTIS, also 'apútn, "ADUTOS: Ēth. jacent to the N. coast of Africa, marking the 'Aputaios, more early 'APUTLEÚS, 'ADUTEÚS, 'AQUthextent westward of the people called Giligammae rios: A'thyto, Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. (Herod. iv. 169). Ptolemy mentions it as one of 156), a town on the eastern side of the peninsula the islands off the coast of Cyrenaica, calling it Pallene, in Macedonia, a little below Potidaea. also Laca (Maià n'Aqpodirns vñoos, iv. 4. § 14; (Herod. vii. 123: Thuc. i. 64; Strab, vii. p. 330.) Steph. B. . v.) Scylax (p. 45, Hudson, p. 109, Xenophon (Hell. v. 3. § 19) says that it possessed Gronov.) places it between the Chersonesus Magna a temple of Dionysius, to which the Spartan king (the E. headland of Cyrenaïca) and Naustathmus Agesipolis desired to be removed before his death; (near its N. point), and mentions it as a station but it was more celebrated for its temple of Ammon, for ships. The anonymous Periplus gives its po- whose head appears on its coins. (Plut. Lys. 20; sition more definitely, between Zephyrium and Paus. iii. 18. $3; Steph. B. 8. v.) Chersis; and calls it a port, with a ternple of A'PIA. (PELOPONNESUS.] Aphrodite. It may, perhaps, correspond with the API'DANUS. [ENIPEUS. island of Al Hiera. (Mannert, vol. x. pt. 2. p. APILA (Platamona), a river in Pieria in Mace80.)

[P. S.] donia, rising in Mt. Olympus, and flowing into the sea APHRODI'SIAS, in Spain. 1. [Gaves.] 2. near Heraclcia. (Plin. iv. 10. s. 17; Leake, Northern [Portus VENERIS.]

Greece, vol. ij. pp. 405, 406.) APHRODI'SIAS ('A¢podlolas), a town in the APIOLAE ('Amiodai: Eth. 'Amavós), an anS. of Laconia, on the Boeatic gulf, said to have cient city of Latium, which took the lead among the been founded by Aeneas. (Paus. iii. 12. $ 11, viii. Latin cities in the war against Tarquinius Priscus, 12. § 8.)

and was in consequence besieged and taken by that APHRODI'SIUM. 1. ('Appodionov, Strab. p. 682; | monarch. We are told that it was razed to the Ptol. v. 14; 'Appodloies, Steph. B. 8. v. : Eth.ground, and its inhabitants sold into slavery ; and 'Aopodigieus), a city of Cyprus, situated at the it is certain that we find no subsequent mention of narrowest part of the island, only 70 stadia from it in history. Yet it appears to have been preSalamis. (D'Anville, in Mém. de Litt. vol. xxxii. | viously a place of some importance, as Livy tells us p. 541.)

(E. B. J.] the spoils derived from thence enabled Tarquin 2. A small place in Arcadia, not far from Mega- to celebrate the Ludi Magni for the first time ; lopolis, on the road to Megalopolis and Tegea. (Paus. while, according to Valerius of Antium, they furviii. 44. & 2.)

nished the funds with which he commenced the con3. CARDEA.]

struction of the Capitol. (Liv. i. 35; Dion. Hal APHRODI'SIUS MONS (TO 'Appodlo v opos), / ü. 49; Valerius, ap. Plin. üi. 5. 1. 9.) a mountain in Spain, mentioned by Appian as a The site of a city destroyed at so early a period, stronghold of Viriathus; but in a manner insuffi- and not mentioned by any geographer, can scarcely cient to define its position (Iber. 64, 66). [P.S.] be determined with any certainty; but Gell and

APHRODI'TES PORTUS. [Myos HORMUS.] | Nibby are disposed to place it at a spot about 11

APHRODITO'POLIS, APHRODITO, VENE- miles from Rome, and a mile to the S. of the Appian RIS OPPIDUM ('Appoőítns molis, 'Appoditó- Way, where there are some remains which indicate Tomis, 'Appoitw: Eth. 'Aopodifotodítns), the the site of an ancient city, as well as others of later name of several cities in Egypt. I. In Lower | Roman date. The position was (as usual) a parEgypt. 1. [ATARBECHIS.] 2. A town of the tially isolated hill, rising immediately above a small Nomos Leontopolites. (Strab. xvii. p. 802.) – II. stream, now called the Fosso delle Fratocchie, In the Heptanomis, or Middle Egypt. 3. AFRO- which was crossed by an ancient bridge (destroyed in DITO (Itin. Ant. p. 168: A opodítw, Hieroc. p. 730, 1832), known as the Ponte delle Streghe. Its Alfyeh, mounds, but no Ru.), a considerable city position would thus be intermediate between Bo

ville on the E., and Politorium and Tellenae on Steph. Byzant. 8. V.; 'Arollwriés, Hierocl. p.732; the W. (Nibby, Dintorni, vol. i. p. 211 ; Topo- It. Ant. p. 160, 174; Not. Iinp. Orient. c. 143. grany of Rome, p. 87; Abeken, Mittel-Italien, | Apollonos Superioris surbs ]), the modern Edfoo. 69.)

(E. H. B.) was a city of the Thebaid, on the western bank of APIS (ATS), a sea port town (Polyb. Exc. Leg. the Nile, in Lat. 25° N., and about thirteen miles 115) on the N. coast of Africa, about 11 or 12 miles below the lesser Cataract. Ptolemy (l. c.) assigns W.a Paraetonium, sometimes reckoned to Egypt, Apollinopolis to the Hermonthite nome, but it was and sometimes to Marmarica. Scylax (p. 44) places more commonly regarded as the capital town of it at the W. boundary of Egypt, on the frontier of the nome Apollopolites. Under the Roman em. the Mannaridae Ptolemy (iv. 5. $ 5) mentions it perors it was the seat of a Bishop's see, and the as in the Libyae Nomos; and so does Pliny, who head-quarters of the Legio II. Trajana. Its incalls it robilis religione Aegypti locus (v. 6, where habitants were enemies of the crocodile and its the common text makes its distance W. of Paraeto worshippers. den 72 Roman miles, but one of the best MSS. gives Both the ancient city and the modern hamlet, 12, which agrees with the distance of 100 stadia in however, derived their principal reputation from Strabe, xvi. p. 799). It seems very doubtful two temples, which are considered second only whether the Apis of Herodotus (i. 18) can be the to the Temple of Denderah as specimens of the sitne place.

(P.S.) sacred structures of Egypt. The moderni Edfoo is APOBATHMI (Arófaðuoi), a small place in contained within the courts, or built upon the platArgolis, near the frontiers of Cynuria, was said to form of the principal of the two temples at Apollihave been so called from Danaus landing at this nopolis. The larger temple is in good preservation, spa. (Paus. ii. 38. & 4.) The surrounding country but is partially buried by the sand, by heaps of was also called Pyramia (Ilupáuia), from the rubbish, and by the modern town. The smaller pontments in the form of pyramids found here. temple, sometimes, but improperly, called a Typho(Plat. Pyrrh. 32; Ross, Reisen im Peloponnes, nium, is apparently an appendage of the latter, and p. 152.)

its sculptures represent the birth and education APOʻCOPA ('ARÓKOTQ, Steph. B. 8. V.; Peripl. of the youthful deity, Horus, whose parents Noum, 3. Eryth. p. 9; Ptol. i. 17.8 7), Magna and Parva, or Kneph and Athor, were worshipped in the larger respectively Bandel d Agoa and Cape Bedouin were edifice. The principal temple is dedicated to Noum, two mall towns in a bay of similar name (Ptol. i. 17. whose symbol is the disc of the sun, supported by $9), on the coast of Africa Barbaria, between the two asps and the extended wings of a vulture. Its bea dlands of Raptum and Prasum. Their inhabitants sculptures represent (Rosellini, Monum. del Culto, ere Aethiopians (Aldíores 'Páyiot, Ptol. iv. 8. p. 240, tav. xxxviii.) the progress of the Sun,

[W. B. D.] Phre-Hor-Hat, Lord of Heaven, moving in his bark APODOTI. [AETOLIA, p. 65, a.

(Bari) through the circle of the Hours. The local APOLLINIS PROMONTORIUM ('Amówvos name of the district round Apollinopolis was Hat, Expor), in N. Africa. 1. Also called 'Atomlávior and Noum was styled Hor-hat-kah, or Horus, the (Strab, xii. p. 832), a promontory on the N. coast tutelary genius of the land of Hat. This deity of Africa Propria, near Utica, and forming the W. forms also at Apollinopolis a triad with the goddess headland, as the Mercurii Pr. formed the E., of the Athor and Hor-Senet. The members of the triad great galf of Utica or Carthage. (Strab. l. c.) This are youthfu: gods, pointing their finger towards description, and all the other references to it, identify their mouths, and before the discovery of the it with C. Farina or Ras Sidi Ali-al-Mekhi, and hieroglyphic character were regarded as figures of not the more westerly C. Zibeeb or Ras Sidi Bor Harpocrates. Shaska (It is to be observed, however, that Shaw The entrance into the larger temple of Apolliapplies the name Zibeeb to the former). Livy nopolis is a gateway (TTVAÚv) 50 feet high, flanked (IIX. 24) mentions it as in sight of Carthage, which by two converging wings (ittepá) in the form of will apply to the former cape, but not to the latter. truncated pyramids, rising to 107 feet. The wings Mela (i. 7) mentions it as one of the three great contain ten stories, are pierced by round loop-holes teadlands on this coast, between the other two, Can for the admission of light, and probably served as didam and Mercurii. It is a high pointed rock, re chambers or dormitories for the priests and servitors markable for its whiteness. (Shaw, p. 145; Barth, of the temple. From the jambs of the door project Wanderungen, g'c., vol. i. p. 71).

two blocks of stone, which were intended, as Denon It is almost certain that this cape was identical supposes, to support the heads of two colossal with the PULCHRUM PR., at which Scipio landed on figures. This propylaeon leads into a large square, his espedition to close the Second Punic War; and surrounded by a colonnade roofed with squared which had been fixed, in the first treaty between the granite, and on the opposite side is a pronaos or Romans and Carthaginians, as the boundary of the portico, 53 feet in height, and having a triple row Tuyages of the former towards the W. (Polyb. iï. of columns, sis in each row, with variously and 22; Liv. xxix. 27; Mannert, vol. x. pt. 2, pp. 293, gracefully foliaged capitals. The temple is 145 boll.)

feet wide, and 424 feet long from the entrance to 2. A promontory of Mauretania Caesariensis, adja- the opposite end. Every part of the walls is covered cent to the city of Julia Caesarea. (Plin. v. 2. s. 1; with hieroglyphics, and the main court ascends Ptol.)

P.S.] gradually to the pronaos by broad steps. The APOLLINOʻPOLIS ('ATÓAwvos móis: Eth. whole area of the building was surrounded by a 'AroWVOTOAITTS), the name of several cities in wall 20 feet high, of great thickness. Like so many Egypt.

of the Egyptian temples, that of Apollinopolis was 1. APOLLINOPOLIS MAGNA (Tónis megráan capable of being employed as a fortress. “It stood 'Arbravos, Strab. xvii. p. 817; Agartharch. p. 22; about a third of a inile from the river. The sculpPlin. 5. 9. s. 11; Plut. 1s. et Osir. 50; Aelian. tures, although carefully and indeed beautifully Hist. An. . 2; Ptol. iv. 5. § 70; 'Atomwvia, executed, are of the Ptolemaic era, the earliest portion of the temple having been erected by Ptolemy | Cnossus (Steph.B. 8. v.), the inhabitants of which were Philometor B. c. 18).

most treacherously treated by the Cydoniatae, who The temple of Apollinopolis, as a sample of were their friends and allies. (Polyb. xxvii. 16.) Egyptian sacred architecture, is minutely described | The site is on the coast near Armyro, or perhaps in the Penny Cyclopedia, art. Edfu, and in the 1st approaching towards Megalo Kastron, at the Ghivolume of British Museum, Egyptian Antiquities, ofero. (Pashley, Crete, vol. i. p. 261.) The site where also will be found a ground plan of it. See of the other city, which was once called Eleuthera also Belzoni, and Wilkinson's Egypt and Thebes, ('Eneúdepa, Steph. B.), is uncertain. The philosopp. 435-438.

pher Diogenes Apolloniates was a native of Apol2. APOLLINOPOLIS PARVA ('ApóXXwvos ń mikpá, loniates in Crete. (Dict. of Biog. 8. v.) [E.B.J.] Steph. B. 8. v.; 'ATÓXwv Mikpós, Hierocl. p. 731; 3. (Pollina, or Pollóna), a city of Illyria, situApollonos minoris (urbs], It. Anton. p. 158), was ated 10 stadia from the right bank of the Aous, a town in Upper Egypt, in Lat. 27° Ñ., upon the and 60 stadia from the sea (Strab. vii. p. 316), or western bank of the Nile. It stood between Hyp- 50 stadia according to Scylax (p. 10). It was sela and Lycopolis, and belonged to the Hypseliote founded by the Corinthians and Corcyraeans in the noine.

seventh century before the Christian era, and is said 3. APOLLINOPOLIS Parva ('Anówvos nódis to have been originally called Gylaceia (rulákera), Mirpá, Ptol. iv. 5. § 70; 'Aróxwvos nós, Strab. from Gylax, the name of its oecist. (Thuc. i. 26; xvii. p. 815; Apollonos Vicus, It. Anton. p. 165), Scymnus, 439, 440; Paus. v. 21. § 12, 22. & 3; was a town of the Thebaid, in the Coptite Nome, Strab. I. c.; Steph. B. 3. v.) Apollonia soon became in Lat. 26° N., situated between Thebes and a flourishing place, but its name rarely occurs in Cuptos. It stood on the eastern bank of the Nile, Grecian history. It is mentioned in the civil wars and carried on an active trade with Berenice and between Caesar and Pompey, as a fortified town Myos Horinos, on the Red Sea Apollinopolis with a citadel; and the possession of it was of great Parva was 22 miles distant from Thebes, and is importance to Caesar in his campaign against Pomthe modern Kuss. It corresponds, probably, to the pey in Greece. (Caes. B. C. iii. 12, seq.) Towards Maximianopolis of the later ein perors.

the end of the Roman republic it was celebrated as 4. APOLLINOPOLIS (Steph. B. 8.0.; Plin. vi. 35), a seat of learning; and many of the Roman nobles was a town of the Megabari, in eastern Aethiopia. were accustomed to send their sons thither for the

5. APOLLONOS HYDREIUM (Plin. vi. 26; It. purpose of studying the literature and philosophy of Anton.), stood upon the high road from Coptos, in Greece. It was here that Augustus spent six the Thebaid, to Berenice on the Red Sea, and was months before the death of his uncle summoned him a watering station for the caravans in their transit to Rome. (Suet. Aug. 10; Vell. Pat. ii. 59.) Cicero between those cities.

(W. B. D.] calls it at this period “ urbs magna et gravis." APOLLO'NIA ('AmoMaría: Eth. Aromwvid- Apollonia is mentioned by Hierocles (p. 653, ed. ans, Apolloniates, Apollinas, -ātis, Apolloniensis), in Wesseling) in the sixth century; but its name does Europe. 1. A city of Sicily, which, according to Steph. not occur in the writers of the middle ages. The Byz., was situated in the neighbourhood of Aluntium village of Aulon, a little to the S. of Apollonia, Calacte. Cicero also mentions it (Or. in Verr. iii.43) appears to have increased in importance in the and in conjunction with Halantium, Capitium, and middle ages, as Apollonia declined. According to Enguium, in a manner that seems to imply that it was Strabo (p. 322), the Via Egnatia commenced at situated in the same part of Sicily with these cities; Apollonia, and according to others at Dyrrhachium; and we learn from Diodorus (xvi. 72) that it was at the two roads met at Clodiana. There are scarcely one time subject to Leptines, the tyrant of Enguium, any vestiges of the ancient city at the present day from whose hands it was wrested by Timoleon, and Leake discovered some traces of walls and of two restored to an independent condition. A little later temples; and the monastery, built near its site, conwe find it again mentioned among the cities reduced tains some fine pieces of sculpture, which were found by Agathocles, after his return from Africa, B.c. in ploughing the fields in its neighbourhood. (Leake, 307 (Diod. xx. 56). But it evidently regained its Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 368, seq.; Tafel, De Via liberty after the fall of the tyrant, and in the days Egnatia, p. 14, seq.) of Cicero was still a municipal town of some importance. (Or. in Verr. üi. 43, v. 33.) From this time it disappears from history, and the name is not found either in Pliny or Ptolemy.

Its site has been much disputed; but the passages above cited point distinctly to a position in the north-eastern part of Sicily; and it is probable that the modern Pollina, a small town on a hill, about 3 miles from the sea-coast, and 8 or 9 E. from Cefalù,

COIN OF APOLLONIA, IN ILLYRIA. occupies its site. The resemblance of name is cer 4. (Sizeboli), a town of Thrace, on the Pontus tainly entitled to much weight; and if Enguium be Euxinus, a little S. of Mesambria, was a colony of correctly placed at Gangi, the connexion between the Milesians. It had two large harbours, and that city and Apollonia is easily explained. It must the greater part of the town was situated on a small be admitted that the words of Stephanus require, in island. It possessed a celebrated temple of Apollo, this case, to be construed with considerable latitude, and a colossal statue of this god. 30 cubits in height, but little dependence can be placed upon the accu- which M. Lucullus carried to Rome and placed in the racy of that writer.

| Capitol. (Herod. iv. 90; Strab. vii. p. 319, xii. p.541 The coins which have been published as of this Plin, xxxiv. 7 s. 18. § 39; Scymnus, 730; Arrian, city belong either to Apollonia, in Illyria, or to Peripl. p. 24, Anon. Peripl. p. 14.) It was subTauromenium (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 198.) [E. H. B.] scquently called SozopoLIS (Xwtónonis, Anon. Pe

2. The name of two cities in Crete, one near ripl. p. 14) whence its modern name Sizeboli.

ope

5. (Pollina), a town of Mygdonia in Macedonia, / gamum, on the way to Sardis. (Strab. p. 625; S of the lake Bolbe (Athen. viii. p. 334, e.), and Xen. Anab. vii. 8. $ 15.) It seems to have been N. of the Chalcidian mountains, on the road from near the borders of Mysia and Lydia. The site does Thessalonica to Amphipolis, as we learn from the not appear to be determined Acts of the Apostles (xvii. 1) and the Itineraries. 4. Steph. B. (8. v. 'Aroldavía) mentions Apol(Anton. Itin. pp. 320, 330; Itin. Hierosol. p. 605; lonia in Pisidia, and one also in Phrygia; but it Tab. Peuting.) Pliny (iv. 10. s. 17. § 38) men- seems very probable, from comparing what he says tions this Apollonia.

of the two, that there is some confusion, and there 6. (Polighero), the chief town of Chalcidice in was perhaps only one, and in Pisidia. In Strabo Macedonia, situated N. of Olynthus, and a little S. (p. 576) the name is Apollonias. The ruins were of the Chalcidian mountains. That this Apollonia discovered by Arundell (Discoveries, fc. vol. i. p. is a different place from No. 5, appears from Xeno- 236) at a place called Olou Borlon. The acropolis phon, who describes the Chalcidian Apollonia as dis- stands on a lofty crag, from which there is an extan: 10 or 12 miles from Olynthus. (Xen. Hell. v. tensive view of the rich plains to the NW. This 12. § 1, seq.) It was probably this Apollonia place is in 38° 4' N. lat., and in the direct line bewhich strack the beautiful Chalcidian coins, bearing tween Apamea and Antioch, so far as the nature of on the obverse the head of Apollo, and on the re the country will admit. (Hamilton, Researches, g'c. verse his lyre, with the legend Xankidewy.

vol. ii. p. 361.) The Pentinger Table places it 7. A town in the peninsula of Acte, or Mt. Athos | 24 miles from Apameia Cibotus. Several Greek in Macedonia, the inhabitants of which were called inscriptions from Apollonia have been copied by Macrobii. (Plin. iv. 10. s. 17. & 37.)

Arundell and Hamilton. One inscription, which 8. A town in Thrace, situated according to Livy's contains the words ń Buvan kai ó Onuos twv 'ATOAnarrative (Xxxviii. 41), between Maroneia and Ab- iwviatwv, decides the question as to the site of this dera, but erroneously placed by the Epitomizer of place. Two Greek inscriptions of the Roman period Strabo (vii. p. 331) and by Pomponius Mela (ü. 2) copied by Arundell give the full title, “ the Boule west of the Nestus.

and Demus of the Apolloniatae Lycii Thraces CoThe four towns last mentioned (Nos. 5—8) are loni,” from which Arundell concludes that "a Thrafrequently confounded, but are correctly distinguished cian colony established themselves in Lycia, and that by Leake, who errs, however, in making the passage some of the latter founded the city of Apollonia;" of Athenaeus (viii. p. 334. e.), refer to No. 6, in- an interpretation that may be not quite correct. stead of to No. 5. (Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. Stephanus says that Apollonia in Pisidia was ori457, seq.)

ginally called Mordiaeon, and was celebrated for its 9. A town on the frontiers of Aetolia, near Nau. quinces. (Athen. p. 81.) It is still noted for its factus. (Liv. Xxviü. 8.)

quinces (Arundell), which have the great recomAPOLLONIA, in Asia. 1. The chief town of mendation of being eatable without dressing. The a district in Assyria, named Apolloniatis. Apollonia coins of Apollonia record Alexander the Great as the is incorrectly placed by Stephanus (s. v. 'Aron founder, and also the name of a stream that flowed María) between Babylon and Susa. Strabo (p. 732, by it, the Hippopharas. (Forbiger, vol. ï. p. 334.) and 524) says that Apolloniatis is that part of 5. Of Mysia ('A, el 'Puvdaka, Strab. p. 575), a Babylonia which borders on Susis, that its original description which misled some travellers and geoname was Sittacene, and it was then called Apollo-graphers, who fixed the site at Ulubad on the Rhynniatis. The names Apollonia and Apolloniatis were dacus. But the site is Abullionte, which is on a evidently given by the Macedonian Greeks. Apollo- lake of the same name, the Apolloniatis of Strabo, niatis is in fact one of the divisions of Assyria in the who says that the town is on the lake. Some high geography of the Greeks; but it is impossible to de- | land advances into the lake, and forms a narrow termine its limits. Polybius (v. 44) makes Meso promontory, “ off the SW. point of which is an potamia and Apolloniatis the southern boundaries of island with the town of Abullionte.” (Hamilton, Melia, and Apolloniatis is therefore east of the Researches, fc. vol. ii. p. 87.) The remains of Tigris. This appears, indeed, from another passage Apollonia are inconsiderable. The Rhyndacus flows in Polybius (v. 51), which also shows that Apollonia | into the lake Apolloniatis, and issues from it a deep was east of the Tigris. The country was fertile, but and muddy river. The lake extends from east to it also contained a hilly tract, that is, it extended west, and is studded with many islands in the NE. sorne distance east of the banks of the Tigris. There part, on one of which is the town of Apollonia. is evidently great confusion in the divisions of As- (Hamilton.) The circuit of the lake is estimated syria by the Greek geographers. If we place Apol- by some travellers at about 50 miles, and its length loniatis south of the district of Arbela, and make it about 10; but the dimensions vary considerably, for extend as far as Bagdad, there may be no great in winter the waters are much higher. It abounds ETTOT. There seems to be no authority for fixing in fish. the site of Apollonia.

1 6. In Lycia, is conjectured by Spratt (Lycia, 2. An island on the coast of Bithynia (Arrian, vol. i. p. 203) to have been at Sarahhajik, where Peripl. p. 13), 200 stadia from the promontory of there are remains of a Greek town. The modern Calpe (Kirpe). It was called Thynias, says Pliny site is in the interior NW. of Phaselis. The author (ri. 12), to distinguish it from another island Apol- discovered an inscription with the letters “ Ap" on lonia. He places it a Roman mile from the coast. it. Stephanus (3. v.) mentions an island of the Tliynias, Thyne, Thynia, or Thynis (Steph. B. 8. v. name belonging to Lycia; but there is no authority Buriás), may have been the original name of this for a town of the name. There are, bowever, coins island, and Apollonia a name derived from a temple with the epigraph 'Atollwviatwv Auk. and 'Amon. of Apollo, built after the Greeks. The other name AwriaTwv Auk. Opak., which might indicate some is evidently derived from the Thyni of the opposite place in Lycia. But these belong to Apollonia of

Pisidia.

(G, L) 3. A town of Mysia, on an eminence east of Per- 7. (Arif), a town of Palestine, situated be

M

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