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a plain surrounded by mountains, respecting which a story is told by Herodotus (iii. 117). Geographers are not agreed as to the locality. It seems to be somewhere in Central Asia, E. of tie Caspian. It is pretty clear, at all events, that the Aces of Herodotus is not the Indian river Acesines. [P. S.]

ACESINES ('AMffbut), a river of Sicily, which flows, into the sea to the south of Tauromenium. Its name occurs only in Thucydides (iv. 25) on occasion of the attack made on Naxos by the Alessenians in B. c. 425: but it is evidently the same river which is called by Pliny (iii. 8) Aslnes, and by Vibius Sequester (p. 4) Asnnus. Both these writers place it in the immediate neighbourhood of Tauromenium, and it can be no other than the river now called by the Arabic name of Caniara, a considerable stream, which, after following throughout its course the northern boundary of Aetna, discharges itself into the sea immediately to the S. of Capo Schizo, the site of the ancient Naxos. The Onobalas of Appian (2J. C. v. 109) is probably only another name for the same river. Cluverius appears to be mistaken in regarding the Fiume Freddo as the Acesines :■ it is a very small stream, while the Caniara is one of the largest rivers in Sicily, and could hardly have been omitted by Pliny. (Cluvcr. SicU. p. 93; Mannert, vol. ix. pt. ii. p. 284.) [E. H. B.]

ACESINES OA'""'"**: Chenab: Dionysins Periegetes, v. 1138, makes the i long, if any choose to consider this an authority), the chief of the five great tributaries of the Indus, which give the name of Panjab (i. e. Five Watert) to the great plain of NW. India. These rivers are described, in their connection with each other, under India. The Acesiues was the second of them, reckoning from the W., and, after receiving the waters of all the rest, retained its name to its junction with the Indus, in lat. 28° 55' N., long. 70° 28' E. Its Sanscrit name was Cluindrabhaga, which would have been Hellemzed into Sai/bpotpdyos, a word so like to 'AvtipoQdyos, or ,AKt^cwSpo(p6yos, that the followers of Alexander changed the name to avoid the evil omen, the more so perhaps on account of the disaster which befell the Macedonian fleet at the turbulent junction of the river with the Hydaspes (Ritter, Erdkunde von Asien, vol. iv. pt. i. p. 456: for other references see India.) [P. S.]

ACESTA. [segesta.]

ACHAEI ('Ax«uoi), one of the four races into which the Hellenes are usually divided. In the heroic age they are found in that part of Thessaly in which Phthia and Hellas were situated, and also in the eastern part of Peloponnesus, more especially in Argos and Sparta. Argos was frequently called the Achaean Argos ("A/rvos 'Axauiciv, Horn. II. ix. 141) to distinguish it from the Pelasgian Argos in Thessaly; but Sparta is generally mentioned as the head-quarters of the Achaean race in Peloponnesus. Thessaly and Peloponnesus were thus the two chief abodes of this people; but there were various traditions respecting their origin, and a difference of opinion existed among the ancients, whether the Thessalian or the Peloponncsian Achaeans were the more ancient. They were usually represented as descendants of Achaeus, the ton of Xuthus and Creusa, and consequently the brother of Ion and grandson of Hellcn. Pausanias (vii. 1) related that Achaeus went back to Thessaly, and recovered the dominions of which his father, Xuthus, had been deprived; and then, in order to

explain the existence of the Achaeans in Peloponnesus, he adds that Archander and Architeles, the sons of Achaeus, came back from Phthiotis to Argos, married the two daughters of Danaus, and acquired such influence at Argos and Sparta, that they called the people Achaeans after their father Achaeus. On the other hand, Strabo in one passage says (p. 383), that Achaeus having fled from-Attica, where his father Xuthus had settled, settled in Lacedaemon and gave to the inhabitants the name of Achaeans. In another passage, however, he relates (p. 365), that Pelops brought with him into Peloponnesus the Phthiotan Achaeans, who settled in Laconia. It would be unprofitable to pursue further the variations in the legends; but we may safely believe that the Achaeans in Thessaly were more ancient than those in Peloponnesus, since all tradition points to Thessaly as the cradle of the Hellenic race. There is a totally different account, which represents the Achaeans as of Pelasgic origin. It is preserved by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i. 17), who relates that Achaeus, Phthius, and Pelasgus were sons of Poseidon and Larissa; and that they migrated from Peloponnesus to Thessaly, where they divided the country into three parts, called after them Achaia, Phthiotis and Pelasgiotis. A modern writer is disposed to accept this tradition so far, as to assign a Pelasgic origin to the Achaeans, though he regards the Phthiotan Achaeans as more ancient than their brethren in the Peloponnesus. (Thirlwall, Hut. of Greece, vol. i. p. 109, seq.) The only fact known in the earliest history of the people, which we can admit with certainty, is their existence as the predominant race in the south of Thessaly, and on the eastern side of Peloponnesus. They are represented by Homer as a brave and warlike people, and so distinguished were they that he usually calls the Greeks in general Achaeans or Panachaeans (Jlavaxautl, II. ii. 404, vii. 73, &«.). In the same manner Peloponnesus, and sometimes the whole of Greece, is called by the poet the Achaean land. ('Abatis you, Horn. II. i. 254, Od. xiii. 249.) On the conquest of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, 80 years after the Trojan war, the Achaeans were driven out of Argos and Laconia, and those who remained behind were reduced to the condition of a conquered people. Most of the expelled Achaeans, led by Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, proceeded to the land on the northern coast of Peloponnesus, which was called simply Aegialus (ArviaAiii) or the "Coast," and was inhabited by Ionians. The latter were defeated by the Achaeans and crossed over to Attica and Asia Minor, leaving their country to their conquerors, from whom it was henceforth called Achaia. (Strab. p. 383; Paus. vii. 1; Pol. ii. 41; comp. Herod, i. 145.) The further history of the Achaeans is given under Achaia. The Achaeans founded several colonies, of which the most celebrated were Crotou and Sybaris. [cboton; Sybaris.]

ACHA'IA ('Axo'o, Ion. 'Aya:i7j: EtK. 'Axeud't, Achaeus, Achlvus, fan. and adj. Vj;oidi, Aehaias, AchSis: Adj. 'Axat'wta, Achaicus, Achaius). 1. A district in the S. of Thessaly, in which Phthia and Hellas were situated. It appears to have been the original abode of the Achaeans, who were hence called Phthiotan Achaeans ('Axatol oi ♦fliaTcu) to distinguish them from the Achaeans in the Peloponnesus. [For details see Achaei.] It was from this part of Thessaly that Achilles came, and Homer says that the subjects of this hero were ailed Myrmidons, and Hellenes, and Achaeans. (II. ii. 684.) This district continued to retain the same of Achaia in the time of Herodotus (vii. 173, 197), and the inhabitants of Phthia were called Ffctiiotan Achaeans till a still later period. (Time. T>. 3.) An account of this part of Thessaly is given under Thessaua.

2. Originally called Aegiaixs or Aegialeia (AfyoAJj, Arfid\€ta, Horn. II. ii. 575; Paus. vii. 1. § I; Strab. p. 383), that is, "the Coast," a pronnce in the N. of Peloponnesus, extended along the Corinthian gulf from the river Larissus, a little S. of the promontory Araxus, which separated it from His, to the river Sythas, which separated it from Sicyonia. On the S. it was bordered by Arcadia, and on the SW. by Elis. Its greatest length along the coast is about 65 English miles: its breadth from about 12 to 20 miles. Its area was probably about 650 square miles. Achaia is thus coiy a narrow slip of country, lying upon the slope of toe northern range of Arcadia, through which are deep and narrow gorges, by which alone Achaia can be invaded from the south. From this mountain range descend numerous ridges running down into the sea, or separated from it by narrow levels. The plains an the coast at the foot of these mountains and the vallies between them are generally very fertile. At the present day cultivation ends with the plain of Patra, and the whole of the western part of Achaia is forest or pasture. The plains ire drained by numerous streams; but in consequence of the proximity of the mountains to the sea the tonne of these torrents is necessarily short, and most of them are dry in summer. The coast is centrally low, and deficient in good harbours. Cdonel Leake remarks, that the level along the coast of Achaia " appears to have been formed in the entrse of ages by the soil deposited by the torrents which descend from the lofty mountains that rise immediately at the back of the plains. W"hcrever tie rivers are largest, the plains are most extensive, and each river has its correspondent promontory proportioned in like manner to its volume. These pronientories are in general nearly opposite to the openings at which the rivers emerge from the Mnritains." (Feloponnesiaca, p. 390.)

The highest mountain in Achaia is situated behind Patrae; it is called Moss Pahachaicus by Pdybius, and is, perhaps, the same as the Scio&a of Pliny (to naraxafeov Spoj, Pol. v. 30; Plin. it. 6: Voidhia). It is. 6322 English feet in height. (Leake, Travels in Morea, vol. ii. p. 138, Pdopoancsiaca, p. 204.) There are three conspicuous promontories on the coast. 1. Drepanum (A^Toi-on; C. Dhrepano), the most northerly pant in Peloponnesus, is confounded by Strabo with the neighbouring promontory of Rhium, but it is the low sandy point 4 miles eastward of the latter. Its name is connected by Pausanias with the sickle of Crones; but we know that this name was often applied by the ancients to low sandy promontories, which assume the form of a tpewavov, or sickle. (Strab. p. 335; Paus. vii. 23. §.4; Leake, Morea, vii 51 p. 415.) 2. Ruivm ( P(o»: Cuttle of the Mcrrea), 4 miles westward of Drepanum, as mentioned above, is opposite the promontory of AntirEhiiu, sometimes also called Rhium ('Awfp^oi': Cattle of Rumili), on the borders of Aetolia and Lxris- In order tc distinguish them from each other the former was called To 'ax<u"ov, and the latter To MoAvicpurd* from its vicinity to the town

ot Molyereium. These two promontories formed the entrance of the Corinthian gulf. The breadth of the strait is stated both by Dodwell and Leake to be about a mile and a half; but the ancient writers make the distance less. Thucydides makes it 7 stadia, Strabo 5 stadia, and Pliny nearly a Roman mile. On the promontory of Rhium there was a temple of Poseidon. (Thuc. ii. 86; Strab. pp. 335, 336; Plin. iv. 6; Steph. 1!. *. v.; Dodwell, Classical Tour, vol. i. p. 126; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 147.) 3. AitAXfs ("Apajos: Kalogria), W. of Dyme, formerly the boundary between Achaia and Elis, but the confines were afterwards extended to the river Larissus. (Pol. iv. 65; Strab. pp. 335, 336; Paus. vi. 26. § 10.)

The following is a list of the rivers of Achaia from E. to W. Of these the only two of any importance are the Crathis (No. 3) and the Peirus (No. 14). 1. Sythas, or Sys (2i/0as, 2i"s), forming the boundary between Achaia and Sicyonia. We may infer that this river was at no great distance from Sicyon, from the statement of Pausanias, that at the festival of Apollo there was a procession of children from Sicyon to the Sythas, and back again to the city. (Paus. ii 7. § 8, ii. 12. § 2, vii. 27. § 12; Ptol. iii. 16. § 4; coinp. Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 383, Peloponnesiaca, p. 403.) 2. Cmus (Kpios), rising in the mountains above Pellene, and flowing into the sea a little W. of Aegcira, (Paus. vii. 27. § 11.) 3. Ckathis (KpSflis: Akratd), rising in a mountain of the same name in Arcadia, and falling into the sea near Aegae. It is described as etcVpaos, to distinguish it from the other streams in Achaia, which were mostly dry in summer, as stated above. The Styx, which rises in the Arcadian mountain of Aroania, is a tributary of the Crathis. (Herod, i. 145; Callim. in Jov. 26; Strab. p. 386; Pans. vii. 25. § 11, viii. 15. §§ 8, 9, viii. 18. § 4; Leake, Morea, voL iii. pp. 394, 407.) 4. Blhaicls (woTa/ibt BovpaTkos: river of KaJavrgta, or river of Burn), rising in Arcadia, and falling into the sea E. of Bum It appears from Strabo that its proper name was Erasmus. (Paus. vii. 25. § 10; Strab. p. 371; Leake, /. c.) 5. Cerykites (KepuwTris: Bokhutia), flowing from the mountain Ccryneia, in Arcadia, and falling into the sea probably E. of Helice. (Pans. vii. 25. § 5; Leake, J. c.) 6. Selinus (2f \tvovs: river of Vostitzd), flowing into the sea between Helice and Aegium. Strabo erroneously describes it as flowing through Aegium. (Paus. vii. 24. § 5; Strab. p. 387; Leake, /. c.) 7, 8. Meoamitas (Mt7oj'iTos) and Phoexix (towl), both falling into the sea W. of Aegium. (Paus. vii. 23. § 5.) 9. Bolinaeus (BoAii-afos), flowing into the sea a little E. of the promontory Drepanum, so called from an ancient town Bolina, which had disappeared in the time of Pausanias. (Paus. vii. 24. § 4.) 10. Selemsus (SeAeyuros), flowing into the sea between the promontories Drepanum and Rhium, a little E. of Argyra. (Paus. vii. 23. § 1.) 11, 12. Chabadrus (XtipoSpos: river of Ke/ritet')and Meiliculs (MeiAixos: river of St/kena), both falling into the sea between the promontory Rhium and Patrae. (Paus. vii. 22. 6 11, vii. 19. § 9, 20. § 1.) 13. Glaucus (VXavuos : Ltfka, or Lafka'), falling into the sea, a little S. of l'atrae. (l'aus. vii. 18. § 2; Leake, vol. ii. p. 123.) 14. Peikus (IleTpos: KameniUd), also called Achelous, falling into the sea [ near Olenus. This river was mentioned by Ilcsiod under the name of Pen-as, as we leam from Strabo. It is described by Leake as wide and deep in the latter end of February, although no rain had fallen for some weeks. Into the Peirus flowed the Teutheas (Teu9«'o5), which in its turn received the Caucou. The Peirus flowed past Pharae, where it was called Pierus(n/f/WMf), but the inhabitants of the coast called it by the former name. (Strab. p. 342; Herod, i. 145; Paus. vii. 18. § 1, 22. § 1; Leake, vol. ii. p. 155.) Strabo in another passage calls it Helas 'Me'Aaj), but the reading is probably corrupt. Dionysius Periegetes mentions the Melas along with the Crathis among the rivere flowing from ML Erymanthus. (Strab. p. 386; Dionys. 416.) 15. Lakisus (Aipiavi: Mana), forming the boundary between Achaia and Klis, rising in ML Scollis, and falling into the sea 30 stadia from Dyme. (Paus. vii. 17. § 5; Strab. p. 387; Liv. xxvii.31.)

The original inhabitants of Achaia are said to have been Pelasgians, and were called Aegialeis (AiyiaAeis), or the "Coast-Men," from Aegialus, the ancient name of the country, though some writers sought a mythical origin for the name, and derived it from Aegialeus, king of Sicyonia. (Herod, vii. 94; Paus. vii. 1.) The lonians subsequently settled in the country. According to the mythical account, Ion, the sou of Xuthus, crossed over from Attica at the head of an army, but concluded an alliance with Selhws, the king of the country, married his daughter Helice,and succeeded him on the throne. From this time the land was called Ionia, and the inhabitants lonians or Aegialian lonians. The lonians remained in possession of the country till the invasion of Peloponnesus by the Dorians, when the Achaeans, who had been driven out of Argos andLacedaemon by the invaders, marched against the lonians in order to obtain new homes for themselves in the country of the latter Under the command of their king Tisamenus, the son of Orestes, they defeated the lonians in battle. The latter shut themselves up in Helice, where they sustained a siege for a time, bat they finally quitted the country and sought refuge in Attica. The Achaeans thus became masters of the country, which was henceforth called after them Achaia. (Herod, i. 145; Pol. ii. 41; Paus. vii. I; Strab. p: 383.) This is the common legend, but it should be observed that Homer takes no notice of lonians on the northern coast of Peloponnesus; but on the contrary, the catalogue in the Iliad distinctly includes this territory under the dominions of Agamemnon. Hence there seems reason for questioning the occupation of northern Peloponnesus by the lonians and their expulsion from it by Tisamenus; and it is more probable that the historical Achaeans in the north part of Peloponnesus are a small undisturbed remnant of the Achaean popu. lation once distributed through the whole peninsula. (Grote, History of Greece, vol. ii. p. 17.)

The lonians are said to have dwelt in villages, and the cities in the country to have been first built by the Achaeans. Several of these villages were united to form a town ; thus Patrae was formed by an union of seven villages, Dyme of eight, and Aegium also of seven or eight. The Achaeans possessed twelve cities, the territory of each of which was divided into seven or eight demi. (Strab. p. 386.) This number of 12 is said to have been borrowed from the lonians, who were divided into 12 parts (jitpea), when they occupied the country, and who accordingly refused to allow of more than twelve cities in their league. Although there are

good reasons for believing that there were more than twelve independent cities in Achaia (Grote, Hist, of Greece, vol. ii. p. 614), yet the ancient writers always recognize only 12, and this seems to have been regarded as the established number of the confederation. These cities continued to be governed by the descendants of Tisamenus down to Ogygus, after whose death they abolished the kingly rule and established a democracy. Each of the cities formed a separate republic, but were united together by periodical sacrifices and festivals, where they arranged their disputes and settled their common concerns. In the time of Herodotus (i. 145) the twelve cities were Pellene, Aegeira, Aegae, Bum, Helice, Aegium, Rhypes, Patreis (ae), Phareis (ae), Olenus, Dyme, Tritaeeis (Tritaea). This list is copied by Strabo (pp. 385, 386) ; but it appears from the list in Polybius (ii. 41), that Leontium and Ceryneia were afterwards substituted in the place of Khypes and Aegae, which had fallen into decay. Pausanias (vii. 6. § 1) retains both Rhypes and Aegae, and substitutes Ceryneia for Patrae; but his authority is of no value in opposition to Polybius. The bond of union between these cities was very loose, and their connection was of a religious rather than of a political nature. Thus we find them sometimes acting quite independently of one another. Pellene alone joined the Lacedaemonians at the commencement of the Peloponncsian war, while the rest remained neutral; and at a later period of the war Patrae alone espoused the Athenian cause. (Thuc. ii. 9, v. 52.) Their original place of meeting was at Helice, where they offered a common sacrifice to Poseidon, the tutelary god of the place; but after this city had been swallowed up by the sea in B.C. 373 [heuce], they transferred their meetings to Aegium, where they sacrificed to Zeus Homagyrius, or Homarius, and to the Panachaean Demeter. (Paus. vii. 24; Pol. v. 94.)

The Achaeans are rarely mentioned during the flourishing period of Grecian history. Being equally unconnected with the great Ionian and Doric races, they kept aloof for the most part from the struggles between the Greek states, and appear to have enjoyed a state of almost uninterrupted prosperity down to the time of Philip. They did not assist the other Greeks in repelling the Persians. In B. C. 454 they formed an alliance with the Athenians, but the latter were obliged to surrender Achaia in the truce for thirty years, which they concluded with Sparta and her allies in B. c. 445. (Thuc. i. Ill, 115.) In the course of the Peloponnesian war they joined the Lacedaemonians, though probably very reluctantly. (Thuc. ii. 9.) They retained, however, a high character among the other Greeks, and were esteemed on account of their sincerity and good faith. So highly were they valued, that at an early ago some of the powerful Greek colonies in Italy applied for their mediation and adopted their institutions, and at a later time they were chosen by the Spartans and Thebans as arbiters after the battle of Leuctra. (Pol. ii. 39.) The first great blow which the Achaeans experienced was at the battle of Chaeroneia (b. C. 338), when they fought with the Athenians and Boeotians against Philip and lost some of their bravest citizens. Eight years afterwards (b. C 330) all the Achaean towns, with the exception of Pellene, joined the Spartans in the cause of Grecian freedom, and shared in the disastrous defeat at Mantineia, in which Agis fell. This severe blow left them so prostrate that they were unable to render any assistance to the confederate Greeks in the Lamias war after the death of Alexander. (Pans. vii. 6.) But their independent spirit had awakened the jealousy of the Macedonian rulers, and Demetrius, Cassander, and Antigonus Gonatas placed garrisons in their cities, or held possession of them by means of tyrants. Such a state of things at length became insupportable, and the commotions in Macedonia, which followed the death of Lysimachus (b. C. 281), afforded them a favourable opportunity for throwing off the yoke of their oppressors; and the Gaulish invasion which shortly followed effectually prevented the Macedonians from interfering in the a&irs of the Peloponnesus. Patrae and Dyme were the first two cities which expelled the Macedonians. Their example was speedily followed by Tritaea and Pharae ; and these four towns now resolved to renew the ancient League. The date of this event was B. c. 280. Five years afterwards (b. C. 275) they were joined by Aegium and Burn, and the accession of the former city was the more important, as it had been the regular place of meeting of the earlier League after the destruction of Helice, as has been already related. The main principles of the constitution of the new League were now fixed, and t column was erected inscribed with the names of the confederate towns. Almost immediately afterwards Ceryceia was added to the League. There were now only three remaining cities of the ancient League, which had not joined the new confederation, namely, Leontiom, Aegeira, and Pellene; for Helice had been •wallowed up by the sea, and Olenus was soon afterwards abandoned by its inhabitants. The three cities mentioned above soon afterwards united themselves to the League, which thus consisted of ten cities. (Pol. H. 41; Strab. p. 384; Paus. vii. 18. § 1.)

The Achaean League thus renewed eventually became the most powerful political body in Greece; and it happened by a strange coincidence that the people, who had enjoyed the greatest celebrity in the heroic age, but who had almost disappeared from history for several centuries, again became the greatest among the Greek states in the last days of the nation's independence. An account of the constitution of this League is given in the Dictionary oi Antiquities (art. Achaicum Fvedw), and it is therefore only necessary to give here a brief recapitulation of its fundamental laws. The great object of the new League was to effect a much closer political union than had existed in the former one. No city was allowed to make peace or war or to treat with any foreign power apart from the entire natkn, although each was allowed the undisturbed control of its internal affairs. This sovereign power resided in the federal assembly (owooav, AnrAijin'a, cvyttipiov) which was held twice a year originally at Aegium, afterwards at Corinth or other places, though extraordinary meetings might be convened by the officers of the League either at Aegium or elsewhere. At all these meetings, every Achaean, who had attained the age of 30, was allowed to speak ; but questions were not decided by an absolute majority of the citizens, bat by a majority of the cities, which were members of the League. In addition to the general assembly there was a Council (flouAfi), which previously decided upon the questions that were to be submitted to the assembly. The principal officers of the League were: 1. The Strxdetpu or general {Xrpanry6s)t whose duties were partly military and partly civil, and who was the acknowledged head of the confederacy. For the

| first 25 years there were two Strategi; but at tho end of that time (b.c. 255) only one was appointed. Marcus of Ceryneia was the first who held the sole ! office. (Pol. ii. 43; Strab. p. 385.) It was probably at this time that an IHpparchus (twa-aox0') or commander of the cavalry was then first appointed 1 in place of the Strategus, whose office had been abolished. We also read of an Under-Strategus (uiroffTpaTiryos), but we have no account of tho extent of his powers or of the relation in which he stood to the chief Strategus. 2. A Secretary of State(ypanftaTf w$). 3. Ten Dtmiurgi (57jM«wp7oi), who formed a kind of permanent committee, and who probably represented at first the 10 Achaean cities, of which the League consisted. The number of the Demiurgi, however, was not increased, when new cities were subsequently added to the League. All these officers were elected for one year at the spring meeting of the assembly, and the Strategus was not eligible for re-election till a year had elapsed after the expiration of his office. If the Strategus died under the period of his office, hi* place was filled up by his predecessor, until the time for the new elections arrived.

It remains to give a brief sketch of the history of the League. At the time of its revival its numbers were so inconsiderable, that the collective population of the confederate states was scarcely equal to the inhabitants of a single city according to Plutarch. (Arat. 9) Its greatness may be traced to its connection with Arutus. Up to this time the League was confined to the Aeliaean cities, and the idea does not seem to have been entertained of incorporating foreign cities with it. But when Aratus had delivered his native city Sicyon from its tyrant, and had persuaded his fellow-citizens to unite themselves to the League (b.c. 251), a new impulse was given to the latter. Aratus, although only 20 years of age, became the soul of the League. The great object of his policy was to liberate the Peloponnesian cities from their tyrants, who were all more or less dependent upon Macedonia, and to incorporate them with the League; and under his able management the confederacy constantly received fresh accessions. Antigonus Gonatas, khig of Macedonia, and his successor Demetrius II., u-ed every effort to crush the growing power of the Achaeans, and they were supported in their efforts by the AetoUans, who were equally jealous of the confederacy. Aratus however triumphed over their opposition, and for many years the League enjoyed an uninterrupted succession of prosperity. In B. C. 243 Aratus surprised Corinth, expelled the tyrant, and united this important city to the League. The neighbouring cities of Megara, Troezen, and Kpidaurus followed the example thus set them, and joined the League in the course of the same year. A few years afterwards, probably in B. c.239, Megalopolis also became a member of the League; and in B.C. 236 it received the accession of the powerful city of Argos. It now seemed to Aratus that the time had arrived when the whole of Peloponnesus might be annexed to the League, but he experienced a far more formidable opposition from Sparta than he had anticipated. Cleomenes UL, who had lately ascended the Spartan throne, was a man of energy; and his military abilities proved to be far superior to those of Aratus. Neither he nor the Spartan government was disposed to place themselves on a level with the Achaean towns; and accordingly when Aratus attempted to obtain possession of Orchomenus, Tegea, and Mantineia, which had joined the Aetolian League and had been ceded by the latter to the Spartans, war broke out between Sparta and the Achaean League, B.C. 227. In this war, called by Polybius the Cleomenic war, the Achaeans were defeated in several battles and lost some important places; and so unsuccessful had they been, that they at length resolved to form a coalition or alliance with Sparta, acknowledging Cleomcnes as their chief. Aratus was unable to brook this humiliation, and in an evil hour applied to Antigonus Doson for help, thus undoing the great work of his life, and making the Achaean cities again dependent upon Macedonia. Antigonus willingly promised his assistance; and the negotiations with Clemcnes were broken off, B.c. 224. The war was brought to an end by the defeat of Cleomenes by Antigonus at the decisive battle of Sellasia, B.C. 221. Cleomenes immediately left the country and sailed away to Egypt. Antigonus thus became master of Sparta; but he did not annex it to the Achaean League, as it was no part of his policy to aggrandize the latter.

The next war, in which the Achaeans were engaged, again witnessed their humiliation and dependence upon Macedonia. In B. c. 220 commenced the Social war, as it is usually called. The Aetolians invaded Peloponnesus and defeated the Achaeans, whereupon Aratus applied for aid to Philip, who had succeeded Antigonus on the Macedonian throne. The young monarch conducted the war with striking ability and success; and the Aetolians having become weary of the contest were glad to conclude a peace in B.c 217. The Achaeans now remained at peace for some years; but they had lost the proud pre-eminence they had formerly enjoyed, and had become little better than the vassals of Macedonia. But the influence of Aratus excited the jealousy of Philip, and it was commonly believed that his death (b.c 213) was occasioned by a slow poison administered by the king's order. The regeneration of the League was due to Philopocmen, one of the few great men produced in the latter days of Grecian independence. He introduced great reforms in the organization of the Achaean array, and accustomed them to the tactics of the Macedonians and to the close array of the phalanx. By the ascendancy of his genius and character, he acquired great influence over his countrymen, and breathed into them a martial spirit. By these means he enabled them to fight their own cause, and rendered them to some extent independent of Macedonia. His defeat of Machanidas, tyrant of Sparta (b. c. 208), both established his own reputation, and caused the Achaean arms again to be respected in Greece. In the war between the Romans and Philip, the Achaeans espoused the cause of the former, and concluded a treaty of peace with the republic, B.C. 198. About this time, and for several subsequent years, the Achaeans were engaged in hostilities with Nabis, who had succeeded Machanidas as tyrant of Sparta. Nabis was slain by some Aetolians in B. c. 192; whereupon Philopoemen hastened to Sparta and induced the city to join the League. In the following year (b.c. 191) the Messenians and the Eleans also joined the League. Thus the whole of Peloponnesus was at length annexed to the League; but its independence was now little more than nominal, and its conduct and proceedings were regulated to a great extent by the decisions of the Roman senate. When the Achaeans under Philopocmen ventured to punish Sparta in

B.C. 188 by razing the fortifications of the city ami ] abolishing the laws of Lycurgus, their conduct was severely censured by the senate; and every succeed1 ing transaction between the League and the senate showed still more clearly the subject condition of the Achaeans. The Romans, however, still acknowledged in name the independence of the Achaeans; and the more patriotic part of the nation continued to offer a constitutional resistance to all the Roman encroachments upon the liberties of the League, whenever this could be done without affording the Romans any pretext for war. At the head of this party was Philopoemen, and after his death, Lycortas, Xenon, and Polybius. Calibrates on the other hand was at the head of another party, which counselled a servile submission to the senate, and sought to obtain aggrandizement by the subjection of their country. In order to get rid of his political opponents, Calibrates, after the defeat of Perse as by the Romans, drew up a list of 1000 Achaeans, the best and purest part of the nation, whom the Romans carried off to Italy (b.c. 167) under the pretext of their having afforded help to Perseus. The Romans never brought these prisoners to trial, but kept them in the towns of Italy; and it was not till after the lapse of 17 years, and when their number was reduced to 300, that the senate gave them permission to return to Greece. Among those who were thus restored to their country, there were some men of prudence and ability, like the historian Polybius; but there were others of weak judgment and violent passions, who had been exasperated by their long and unjust confinement, and who now madly urged their country into a war with Rome. A dispute having arisen between Sparta and the League, tho senate sent an embassy into Greece in B.C. 147, and required that Sparta, Corinth, Argos, and other cities should be severed from tho League, thus reducing it almost to its original condition when it included only the Achaean towns. This demand was received with the utmost indignation, and Critolaus, who was their general, used every effort to inflame the passions of the people against the Romans. Through his influence the Achaeans resolved to resist the Romans, and declared war against Sparta. This was equivalent to a declaration of war against Rome itself, and was so understood by both parties. In the spring of 146 Critolaus marched northwards through Boeotia into the S. of Thessaly, but retreated on the approach of Metellus, who advanced against him from Macedonia. He was, however, overtaken by Metellus j near Scarphea, a little S. of Thermopylae; his forces were put to the rout, and he himself was never heard of after the battle. Metellus followed the fugitives to Corinth. Diaeus, who had succeeded C alii crates in the office of General, resolved to continue the contest, as he had been one of the promoters of the war and knew that he had no hope of pardon from the Romans. Meantime the consul Mummius arrived at the Isthmus as the successor of Metellus. Encouraged by some trifling success against the Roman outposts, Diaeus ventured to offer battle to the Romans. The Achaeans were easily defeated and ; Corinth surrendered without a blow. Signal ven! geance was taken upon the unfortunate city. The | men were put to the sword ; the women and children were reserved as slaves: and after the city had ! been stript of all its treasures and works of art, its ! buildings were committed to the flames, B. c. I 146. [CoBIHTHCS.] Thus perished the Achaean

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