« السابقةمتابعة »
tween Caesarea and Joppa. (Steph. B.; Ptol. | foot of the Eaganean hills, about 6 miles SW. of V. 16; Plin. v. 14; Peat. Tab.) The origin of Patavium, on which account the springs were often its name is not known, but was probably owing to termed AQUAE PATAVINAE (Plin. ü. 103. s. 106, the Macedonian kings of either Aegypt or Syria xxxi. 6. s. 32.) After having suffered in their wars, it was repaired The proper name of these springs was supposed by Gabinius, proconsul of Syria. (Joseph. B.J. to be derived from the Greek (à and móvos), and is i. 6.) Arsúf on the coast, a deserted village upon retained with little change in their modern name of the Nahr Arsúf, represents the ancient Apollonia. | Bagni d'Abano. They appear to have been exten(Robinson, Bibl. Res. vol. ii. p. 46; Irby and sively resorted to for their healing properties, not Mangles, Trav. p. 189; Chesney, Exped. Euphrat. only by the citizens of the neighbouring Patavium, vol. i. p. 490.) Arsúf was famous in the time of but by patients from Rome and all parts of Italy; the Crusades. (Wilken, die Kreuzz, vol. ij. pp. 17, and are alluded to by Martial as among the most 39, 102, vol. iv. p. 416, vol. vii. pp. 325, 400, popular bathing places of his day. (Mart. ri. 42. 425.) The chroniclers confounded it with Antipatris, | 4; Lucan, vii. 193; Sil. Ital. xii. 218.) At a later which lies further inland.
period we find them described at considerable length 8. A town of Syria. The name attests its Mace- by Claudian (Idyll. 6), and by Theodoric in a letter donian origin. (Appian. Syr. 57.) Strabo (p. 752) addressed to Cassiodorus (Var. ii. 39), from mentions it as tributary to Apamea, but its position which we learn that extensive Thermae and other is uncertain.
[E. B. J.] edifices had grown up around the spot. Besides APOLLOʻNIA (Marsa Sousah), in Africa, one their medical influences, it appears that they were of the five cities of the Libyan Pentapolis in Cyre resorted to for purposes of divination, by throwing naica. It was originally the port of Cyrene, and tali into the basin of the source, the numbers of is mentioned by Scylax (p. 45) simply as such, which, from the extreme clearness of the water, without any proper name; but, like the other ports could be readily discerned. In the immediate neighon this coast, it grew and flourished, especially under bourhood was an oracle of Geryon. (Suet. Tib. 14.) the Ptolernies, till it eclipsed Cyrene itself. It was From an epigram of Martial (i. 61. 3), it would the birthplace of Eratosthenes. (Strab. xvii. p. 837; appear that the historian T. Livius was born in the Mela, i. 8; Plin. v. 5; Ptol. iv. 4; Diod. xviii. 19; neighbourhood of this spot, rather than at Patavium Steph. B. 3. v.) It is almost certainly the Soznsa itself; but it is perhaps more probable that the poet (Eucovoa) of later Greek writers (Hierocl. p. 732; uses the expression “ Apona tellus” merely to desigEpiphan. Haeres. 73. 26); and this, which was very nate the territory of Patavium (the ager Patarinus) probably its original name, has given rise to its mo in general. (See Cluver. Ital. p. 154.) [E. H. B. dern appellation. The name Apollonia was in honour A'PPIA ('Anna: Eth. Appianus), a town of of the patron deity of Cyrene. The site of the city Phrygia, which, according to Pliny (v. 29), belonged
splendid, though greatly shattered to the conventus of Synnada. Cicero (ad Fam. iii. ruins, among which are those of the citadel, temples, 7) speaks of an application being made to him by a theatre, and an aqueduct. (Barth, Wanderungen, the Appiani, when he was governor of Cilicia, about gc., pp. 452, foll.).
[P.S. | the taxes with which they were burdened, and about APOLLONIA'TIS. (APOLLONIA.]
some matter of building in their town. At this APOLLO'NIS ('Amoraris: Eth, 'Arolwvions, time then it was included in the Province of Cilicia. Apollonidensis), a town the position of which is con- The site does not seem to be known. (G.L.] nected with that of Apollonia in Mysia South of APRILIS LACUS, an extensive marshy lake this Apollonia is a ridge of hills, after crossing which in Etruria, situated near the sea-shore between the road to Sardis had on the left Thyatira, and Populonium and the mouth of the Umbro, now on the right Apollonis, which is 300 stadia from called the Lago di Castiglione. It communicated Pergamum, and the same distance from Sardis. with the sea by a narrow outlet, where there was (Strab. 625.) A village Bullene, apparently the a station for shipping, as well as one on the Via same place that Tournefort calls Balamont, seems to Aurelia. (Itin. Ant. pp. 292, 500.) The “ amnis retain part of the ancient name. The place was Prille," mentioned by Pliny (iii. 5. s. 8), between named after Apollonis, a woman of Cyzicus, and the Populonium and the Umbro, is evidently a corrupwife of Attalus, the first king of Pergamum. Cicero tion of Prilis, and it is probable that the Prelins mentions the place (pro Flacc. c. 21, 32, ad Q. Lacus noticed by Cicero (pro Mil. 27), is only Fr. i. 2). It was one of the towns which suffered another form of the same name. [PRELIUS LAin the great earthquake in these parts in the time cus.]
(E. H. B.1 of Tiberius. (Tac. Ann. ii. 47.) It is mentioned APRUSTUM, a town in the interior of Bruttium, Dy Pliny (v. 30) as a small place. It was subse- mentioned by Pliny (iü. 11. $ 98), who tells us quently the see of a bishop. There are both autono- that it was the only inland city of the Bruttians mous and imperial coins of Apollonis with the mediterranei Bruttiorum Aprustani tantum). It epigraph 'Amomwviðewv.
[G. L.] l is evidently the same place called in our texts of APOLLONOS HIERON ('ATOMwvos iepov : Ptolemy (iii. 1. $ 75), "Avotpov, for which we Eth. Apollonos hieritae), is mentioned by Pliny (v. should probably read "Apvorov: he associates it 29). It seems to be the same place as Apollonia in with Petelia, and it has been conjectured that its Mysia. Mannert conjectures that the name Apol site is marked by the village of Argusto, near Jonia or Apollonos Hieron was afterwards changed Chiaravalle, on a hill about 5 miles from the Gulf of into Hierocaesarea, which is mentioned by Tacitus Squillace. (Romanelli, vol. i. p. 189.) [E. H. B.]
Ann. ii. 47) as one of the towns of Asia that suf A'PSARUS ( "Avapos, "Ayoppos), or ABSARUM fered from the earthquake in the time of Tiberius; (Plin. vi. 4), a river and a fort, as Pliny calls it, but if this be so, it is not easy to understand why " in faucibus," 140 M. P. east of Trapezus (TrebiPliny does not mention it by that name. [G. L.] zond). Arrian (Peripl. p. 7) places this military
A'PONUS, or A'PONI FONS, a celebrated source station 1000 stadia from Trapezus, and 450 or 490 of mineral and thermal waters, situated near the stadia south of the Phasis, and about the point
where the coast turns north. The distance of 127 APSY'RTIDES. [ABSYRTIDES.] miles in the Peutinger Table agrees with Arrian. APTA JULIA (Apt), a city of the Vulgientes, Accordingly several geographers place Absarum near on the road from Arelate (Arles), on the Rhone, a town called Gonieh. Its name was connected with along the valley of the Durance, to Augusta Taurithe myth of Medea and her brother Absyrtus, and norum (Turino). The name Julia implies that it its original name was Absyrtus. (Stephan. 8. v. was a colonia, which is proved by inscriptions, though 'Ayuprides.) Procopius (Bell. Goth. iv. 2) speaks Pliny (üi. 4; and the note in Harduin's edition) of the remains of its public buildings as proving that calls it a Latin town, that is, a town which had the it was once a place of some importance.
Jus Latium. The modern town of Apt, on the Arrian does not mention a river Apsarus. He Calavon or Caulon, a branch of the Durance, conplaces the navigable river Acampsis 15 stadia from tains some ancient remains.
[G. L.] Absarum, and Pliny makes the Apsarus and Acam A'PTERA ('Artepa, Steph. B. 8. v.; 'Artepia psis two different rivers. The Acampsis of Arrian Ptol. iii. 17. $. 10; Apteron, Plin. iv. 20; Eth. 'Anteis generally assumed to be the large river Joruk, paios: Palaeókastron), a city of Crete situated to which rises NW. of Erzerum, and enters the the E. of Polyrrhenia, and 80 stadia from Cydonia Euxine near Batun. Pliny (vi. 9) says that the (Strab. x. p. 479). Here was placed the scene of the Absarus rises in the Paryadres, and with that | legend of the contest between the Sirens and the mountain range forms the boundary in those parts Muses, when after the victory of the latter, the between the Greater and Less Armenia. This de- Sirens lost the feathers of their wings from their scription can only apply to the Joruk, which is one shoulders, and having thus become white cast themof the larger rivers of Armenia, and the present selves into the sea, — whence the name of the city boundary between the Pashalicks of Trebizond and Aptera, and of the neighbouring islands Leucae. Kars. (Brant, London Geog. Journ. vol. vi. p. 193.) (Steph. B. 8. v.) It was at one time in alliance Ptolemy's account of his Apsorrus agrees with that with Cnossus, but was afterwards compelled by the of Pliny, and he says that it is formed by the union Polyrrhenians to side with them against that city. of two large streams, the Glaucus and Lycus ; and (Pol. iv. 55.) The port of Aptera according to the Joruk consists of two large branches, one called Strabo was Cisamos (p. 479; comp. Hierocles, p. the Joruk and the other the Ăjerah, which unite at 650; and Peutinger Tab.). Mr. Pashley (Travels, Do great distance above Batun. It seems, then, that vol. i. p. 48) supposes that the ruins of Palaeókasthe name Acampsis and Apsarus has been applied tron belong to Aptera, and that its port is to be to the same river by different writers. Mithridates, found at or near Kalyves. Diodorus (v. 64) places in his flight after being defeated by Cn. Pompeius, Berecynthos in the district of the Apteraeans. came to the Euphrates, and then to the river Apsa (The old reading was emended by Meursius, Creta, rus. (Mithrid. c. 101.) It is conjectured that the p. 84.) This mountain has been identified with the river which Xenophon (Anab. iv. 8, 1) mentions modern Maláza, which from its granitic and schistose without a name, as the boundary of the Macrones basis complies with the requisite geological conditions and the Scythini, may be the Joruk; and this is for the existence of metallic veins; if we are to believe probable.
[G. L.] that bronze and iron were here first discovered, and APSILAE, ABSILAE, APSILII ("Aytai, 'Ayin bestowed on man by the Idaean Dactyls. [E. B.J] A10x), a people of Colchis, on the coast of the Euxine, subject successively to the kings of Pontus, the Ro. mans, and the Lazi. They are mentioned by Procopius as having long been Christians. In their territory were the cities of Sebastopolis, Petra, and Tibeleos. (Arrian, Periph. Pont. Eux.; Steph. B.; Pin, p.4; Justinian. Novell. 28; Procop B. G. it. 2; Agathias, iii. 15, iv. 15.)
(P.S.] APSI'NTHII or APSY'NTHII ('Aylvbios, 'Avv. Bor), a people of Thrace, bordering on the Thracian
COLN OF APTERA. Chersonesus. (Herod. vi. 34, ix. 119.) The city of Aenus was also called Apsynthus (Steph. B. 8. vo. APUA'NI, a Ligurian tribe, mentioned repeatedly Alvos, 'Ayurdos); and Dionysius Periegetes (577) by Livy. From the circumstances related by him, it speaks of a river of the same name.
appears that they were the most easterly of the Ligurian APSUS (Agos), a considerable river of Illyria, tribes, and occupied the upper valley of the Macra rising in Mount Pindus and flowing into the sea be- | about Pontremoli, the tract known in the middle ages tween the rivers Genusus on the N. and the Aous on as the Garfagnana. They are first mentioned in B.C. the S. It flows in a north-western direction till it | 187, when we are told that they were defeated and is joined by the Eordaicus (Devól), after which it reduced to submission by the consul C. Flaminius; takes a bend, and flows towards the coast in a south- but the next year they appear again in arms, and Festern direction through the great maritime plain defeated the consul Q. Marcius, with the loss of of Myria. Before its union with the Devól, the 4000 men and three standards. This disaster was river is now called Uzimi, and after its union Bera- | avenged the next year, but after several successive tinós. The country near the mouth of the Apsus is campaigns the consuls for the year 180, P. Cornefrequently mentioned in the memorable campaign of lius and M. Baebius, had recourse to the expedient Caesar and Pompey in Greece. Caesar was for of removing the whole nation from their abodes, some time encamped on the left bank of the river, and transporting them, to the number of 40,000, and Pompey on the right bank. (Strab. p. 316; | including women and children, into the heart of Liv. xxxi. 27; Caes. B. C. iii. 13, 19, 30; Dion Samnium. Here they were settled in the vacant Cass. xli. 47; Appian, B. C. ii. 56, where the river plains, which had formerly belonged to Taurasia is erroneously called "Armpe ; Leake, Northern Chence called Campi Taurasini), and appear to Greece, vol. i. pp. 336, 342, vol. iv. pp. 113, 123.) have become a flourishing community. The next
year 7000 more, who had been in the first instance of the territory inhabited by the Poediculi, or suffered to remain, were removed by the consul Peucetians (Lib. Colon. I. c.), and the extent of Fulvius to join their countrymen. We meet with Apulia proportionally diminished. But this arrangethem long afterwards among the “ populi” of Sam- ment does not appear to have been generally nium, subsisting as a separate community, under adopted. Towards Lucania, the river Bradanus the name of " Ligures Corneliani et Baebiani,” as appears to have formed the boundary, at least in late as the reign of Trajan. (Liv. xxxix. 2, 20, the lower part of its course; while on the W., to32, xl. 1, 38, 41; Plin. iii. 11. 8. 16; Lib. Colon. wards the Hirpini and Samnium, there was no p. 235; Henzen. Tab. Alim. p. 57.) There is no au- natural frontier, but only the lower slopes or underthority for the existence of a city of the name of Apua, falls of the Apennines were included in Apulia; all as assumed by some writers. [E. H. B.] the higher ridges of those mountains belonging to
APU'LIA ('Arovnía), a province, or region, in Samnium. On the N. the river Tifernus appears the SE. of Italy, between the Apennines and the to have been the recognised boundary of Apulia in Adriatic Sea, which was bounded by the Frentani the time of Mela and Pliny (Mela, I. c.; Plin. Üï. on the N., by Calabria and Lucania on the S., and 11. 8. 16), though the territory of Larinum, exby Samnium on the W. It is stated by most mo- tending from the Tifernus to the Frento, was, by dern geographers (Mannert, Cramer, Forbiger) that many writers, not included in Apulia, but was the name was sometimes applied to the whole SE. either regarded as constituting a separate district portion of Italy, including the peninsula of Mes- (Caes. B. C. i. 23), or included in the territory of sapia, or, as the Romans termed it, Calabria. But the Frentani. (Ptol. iii. 1. $ 65.) Apnlia, as thus though this extension was given in the middle ages, defined, comprehended nearly the same extent with as well as at the present day, to the term of Puglia, the two provinces of the kingdom of Naples now it does not appear that the Romans ever used the called the Capitanata and Terra di Bari. name with so wide a signification; and even when The physical features of Apulia are strongly united for administrative purposes, the two regions marked, and must, in all ages, have materially inpreserved their distinct appellations. Thus we find, fluenced its history. The northern half of the pro. even under the later periods of the Roman Empire, vince, from the Tifernus to the Aufidus, consists the provincia Apuliae et Calabriae "(Lib. Colon. p. almost entirely of a great plain, sloping gently from 261; Treb. Poll. Tetric. 24), “Corrector Apuliae et the Apennines to the sea, and extending between the Calabriae” (Notit. Dign. ii. p. 64.), &c. The Greeks mountain ranges of the former — of which only sometimes used the name of lapygia, so as to in- some of the lower slopes and offshoots were included clude Apulia as well as Messapia (Herod. iv. 99; in Apulia, and the isolated mountain mass of Pol. ij. 88); but their usage of this, as well as all Mt. Garganus, which has been not inaptly termed the other local names applied to this part of Italy, the Spur of Italy. This portion is now commonly was very fluctuating. Strabo, after describing the known as “ Puglia piana,” in contradistinction to Messapian peninsula (to which he confines the name the southern part of the province, called “ Puglia of lapygia) as inhabited by the Salentini and Cala petrosa," from a broad chain of rocky hills, which bri, adds that to the north of the Calabri were the branch off from the Apennines, near Venusia, and tribes called by the Greeks Peucetians and Daunians, extend eastward towards the Adriatic, which they but that all this tract beyond the Calabrians was reach near the modern Ostuni, between Egnatia and called by the natives Apulia, and that the appel- Brundusium. The whole of this hilly tract is, at lations of Daunians and Peucetians were, in his the present day, wild and thinly inhabited, great time, wholly unknown to the inhabitants of this part of it being covered with forests, or given up to part of Italy (vi. pp. 277, 283). In another pas pasture, and the same seems to have been the case sage he speaks of the "Apulians properly so called," in ancient times also. (Strab. vi. p. 283.) But as dwelling around the gulf to the N. of Mt. Gar- between these barren hills and the sea, there interganus: but says that they spoke the same language venes a narrow strip along the coast extending about with the Daunians and Peucetians, and were in no 50 miles in length (from Barletta to Monopoli), respect to be distinguished from them.” (p. 285.) and 10 in breadth, remarkable for its fertility, and The name of Daunians is wholly unknown to the which was studded, in ancient as well as modern Roman writers, except such as borrowed it from the times, with a number of small towns. The great Greeks, while they apply to the Peucetians the plains of Northern Apulia are described by Strabo name of PEDICULI or POEDICULI, which appears, as of great fertility (Tidupopós te kal hoiúpopos, from Strabo, to have been their national appellation. vi. p. 284), but adapted especially for the rearing Ptolemy divides the Apulians into Daunians and of horses and sheep. The latter appear in all ages Peucetians (Απουλοι Δαύνιοι and 'Απουλοι Πευ- | to have been one of the chief productions of Apulia, KÉT10L, iii. 1. $$ 15, 16, 72, 73), including all the and their wool was reckoned to surpass all others southern Apulia under the latter head; but it ap- in fineness (Plin. viii. 48. s. 73), but the pastures pears certain that this was a mere geographical become so parched in summer that the flocks can arrangement, not one founded upon any national no longer find subsistence, and hence they are driven differences still subsisting in his time.
at that season to the mountains and upland vallies Apulia, therefore, in the Roman sense, may be of Samnium; while, in return, the plains of Apulia considered as bounded on the SE. by a line drawn afford abundant pasturage in winter to the flocks of from sea to sea, across the isthmus of the Messapian Samnium and the Abruzzi, at a season when their peninsula, from the Gulf of Tarentum, W. of that own mountain pastures are covered with snow. city, to the nearest point of the opposite coast be- This arrangement, originating in the mutual netween Egnatia and Brundusium. (Strab, vi. p. 277; cessities of the two regions, probably dates from a Mela, ü. 4.) According to a later distribution of very early period (Niebuhr, vol. üi. p. 191); it is the provinces or regions of Italy (apparently under alluded to by Varro (de R. R. i. 1) as customary Vespasian), the limits of Calabria were extended so in his day; and under the Roman empire became as to include the greater part, if not the whole the subject of legislative enactment - a vectigal, or
tax, being levied on all sheep and cattle thus mi- | pletely blended into one as were the two component grating. The calcareous nature of the soil renders elements of the Latin nation. 3. The PEUCETIANS, these Apulian plains altogether different in character or PoEDICULI (IleuKÉT101, Strab. et al.: Moídikioi, from the rich alluvial tracts of the North of Italy; Id.), - two names which, however different in apthe scarcity of water resulting from this cause, and pearance, are, in fact, only varied forms of the same, the parched and thirsty aspect of the country in - appear, on the contrary, to have retained a summer, are repeatedly alluded to by Horace (Pau- separate nationality down to a comparatively late per aquae Daunus, Carm. iii. 30. 11; Siticulosae period. Their Pelasgian origin is attested by the Apuliae, Epod. 3. 16), and have been feelingly de- legend already cited; another form of the same scribed by inodern travellers. But notwithstanding tradition represents Peucetius as the brother of its aridity, the soil is well adapted for the growth Oenotrus. (Pherecyd. ap. Dion. Hal. i. 13; Plin. iii. of wheat, and under a better system of irrigation 11. s. 16.) The hypothesis that the inhabitants of and agriculture may have fully merited the en the south-eastern extremity of Italy should have comium of Strabo. The southern portions of the come directly from the opposite coast of the Adriatic, province, in common with the neighbouring region from which they were separated by so narrow a of Calabria, are especially favourable to the growth of sea, is in itself a very probable one, and derives the olive.
strong confirmation from the recent investigations The population of Apulia was of a very mixed of Mommsen, which show that the native dialect kind, and great confusion exists in the accounts spoken in this part of Italy, including a portion of transmitted to us concerning it by ancient writers. Peucetia, as well as Messapia, was one wholly disBut, on the whole, we may distinguish pretty clearly tinct from the Sabellian or Oscan language, and three distinct national elements. 1. The APULI, closely related to the Greek, but yet sufficiently or Apulians properly so called, were, in all proba- different to exclude the supposition of its being
member of the great 0 Oscan, or Ausonian, a mere corruption of the language of the Greek race: their name is considered by philologers to colonists. (Die Unter-Italischen Dialekte, pp. 43 contain the same elements with Opicus, or Opscus. –98. Concerning the origin and relations of the (Niebuhr, Vorträge über Länder u. Völker, p. 489). Apulian tribes generally, see Niebuhr, vol. i. pp. 146 It seems certain that they were not, like their | —-154; Vorträge über Länder u. Völker, p. 489– neighbours the Lucanians, of Sabellian race; on the 498.) contrary, they appear on hostile terms with the We have scarcely any information concerning the Samnites, who were pressing upon them from the history of Apulia, previous to the time when it first interior of the country. Strabo speaks of them as appears in connection with that of Rome. But we dwelling in the northern part of the province, about learn incidentally from Strabo (vi. p. 281), that the the Sinus Urias, and Pliny (iii. 11. s. 16) appears Daunians and Peucetians were under kingly governto indicate the river Cerbalus (Cervaro) as having | ment, and had each their separate ruler. These formed the limit between them and the Daunians, appear in alliance with the Tarentines against the a statement which can only refer to some very early Messapians; and there seems much reason to believe period, as in his time the two races were certainly that the connection with Tarentum was not a casual completely intermixed.* 2. The DAUNIANS were or temporary one, but that we may ascribe to this probably a Pelasgian race, like their neighbours the source the strong tincture of Greek civilization which Peacetians, and the other earliest inhabitants of both people had certainly imbibed. We have no Southern Italy. They appear to have settled in the account of any Greek colonies, properly so called, great plains along the coast, leaving the Apulians in Apulia (exclusive of Calabria), and the negative in possession of the more inland and mountainous testimony of Scylax (8 14. p. 170), who enumerates regions, as well as of the northern district already | all those in Iapygia, but mentions none to the N. mentioned. This is the view taken by the Greek of them, is conclusive on this point. But the expenealorists. who represent lapyx. Daunius, and tent to which the cities of Peucetia, and some of Pencetius as three sons of Lycaon, who settled in those of Daunia also, especially Arpi, Canusium, this part of Italy, and having expelled the Ausonians and Salapia, — had adopted the arts, and even the gave name to the three tribes of the lapygians or language of their Greek neighbours, is proved by Messapians, Daunians, and Peucetians. (Nicander the evidence of their coins, almost all of which have ap. Antonin. Liberal. 31.) The same notion is con- pure Greek inscriptions, as well as by the numerous tained in the statement that Daunus came originally bronzes and painted vases, which have been brought from Myria (Fest. 8.0. Daunia), and is contirmed to light by recent excavations. The number of by other arguments. The legends so prevalent these last which has been discovered on the sites of among the Greeks with regard to the settlement of Canusium, Rubi, and Egnatia, is such as to vie Diomed in these regions, and ascribing to him the with the richest deposits of Campania; but their foundation of all the principal cities, may probably, style is inferior, and points to a declining period of as in other similar cases, have had their origin in Greek art. (Mommsen, I. c. pp. 89, 90; Gerhard, the fact of this Pelasgian descent of the Daunians. Rapporto dei Vasi Volcenti, p. 118; Bunsen, in The same circumstance might explain the facility Ann, dell. Inst. 1834, p. 77.) with which the inhabitants of this part of Italy, at The first mention of the Apulians in Roman hisa later period, adopted the arts and manners of their tory, is on the outbreak of the Second Samnite War, Greek neighbours. But it is certain that, whatever in B. C. 326, when they are said to have concluded distinction may have originally existed between the an alliance with Rome (Liv. viii. 25), notwithstandDaunians and Apulians, the two races were, from ing which, they appear shortly afterwards in arms the time when they first appear in history, as com- against her. They seem not to have constituted
| at this time a regular confederacy or national league * It is, perhaps, to these northern Apulians that like the Samnites, but to have been a mere aggrePliny just before gives the name of “ Teani," but gate of separate and independent cities, among which the passage is hopelessly confused.
Arpi, Canusium, Luceria, and Teanum, appear to
have stood preeminent. Some of these took part (Plin. üi. 11. s. 16), and this arrangement appears with the Romans, others sided with the Samnites; to have continued till the time of Constantine, and the war in Apulia was carried on in a desultory except that the Hirpini were separated from the manner, as a sort of episode of the greater struggle, other two, and placed in the 1st region with Camtill B.c. 317, when all the principal cities submitted pania and Latium. From the time of Constantine, to Rome, and we are told that the subjection of Apulia and Calabria were united under the same Apulia was completed. (Liv. viii. 37, ix. 12, 13– authority, who was styled Corrector, and consti16, 20.) From this time, indeed, they appear to tuted one province. (Lib. Colon. pp. 260—262; have continued tranquil, with the exception of a Notit. Dign. vol. ii. pp. 64, 125; P. Diac. ii. 21 ; faint demonstration in favour of the Samnites in Orelli, Inscr. 1126, 3764.) After the fall of the B.C. 297 (Liv.x. 15), – until the arrival of Pyrrhus Western Empire, the possession of Apulia was long in Italy; and even when that monarch, in his se- disputed between the Byzantine emperors, the cond campaign B. C. 279, carried his arms into Lombards, and the Saracens. But the former apApulia, and reduced several of its cities, the rest pear to hav
this continued stedfast to the Roman cause, to which part of Italy, and in the 10th century were able to some of them rendered efficient aid at the battle of re-establish their dominion over the greater part of Asculum. (Zonar. vii. 5; Dionys. xx. Fr. nov. ed. the province, which they governed by means of a Didot.)
magistrate termed a Catapan, from whence has been During the Second Punic War, Apulia became, derived the modern name of the Capitanata, for a long time, one of the chief scenes of the con corruption of Catapanata. It was finally wrested test between Hannibal and the Roman generals. In from the Greek Empire by the Normans. the second campaign it was ravaged by the Car. The principal rivers of Apulia, are: 1. the Tithaginian leader, who, after his operations against FERNUS, now called the Biferno, which, as already Fabius, took up his quarters there for the winter; mentioned, bounded it on the N., and separated it and the next spring witnessed the memorable defeat from the Frentani; 2. the FRENTO (now the Forof the Romans in the plains of Cannae, B. c. 216. tore), which bounded the territory of Larinum on After this great disaster, a great part of the Apu- the S., and is therefore reckoned the northern limit lians declared in favour of the Carthaginians, and of Apulia by those writers who did not include opened their gates to Hannibal. The resources thus Larinum in that region; 3. the CERBALUS of Pliny placed at his command, and the great fertility of (iii. 11. s. 16), still called the Cervaro, which rises the country, led him to establish his winter-quarters in the mountains of the Hirpini, and flows into the for several successive years in Apulia. It is im- sea between Sipontum and the lake of Sılapia. It possible to notice here the military operations of is probably this river which is designated by Strabo which that country became the theatre; but the (vi. p. 284), but without naming it, as serving to result was unfavourable to Hannibal, who, though convey corn and other supplies from the interior to uniformly successful in the field, did not reduce a the coast, near Sipontum; 4. the AUFIDUS (Ofanto), single additional fortress in Apulia, while the im- by far the largest of the rivers of this part of Italy. portant cities of Arpi and Salapia successively fell | [AUFIDUS.] All these streams have nearly parallel into the hands of the Romans. (Liv. xxiv. 47, courses from SW. to NE.; and all, except the Tiferxxvi. 38.) Yet it was not till B. C. 207, after the nus, partake more of the character of mountain battle of Metaurus and the death of Hasdrubal, torrents than regular rivers, being subject to sudden that Hannibal finally evacuated Apulia, and with and violent inundations, while in the summer their drew into Bruttium.
waters are scanty and trifling. From the Aufidus There can be no doubt that the revolted cities to the limits of Calabria, and indeed to the exwere severely punished by the Romans; and the tremity of the lapygian promontory, there does not whole province appears to have suffered so heavily occur a single stream worthy of the name of river. from the ravages and exactions of the contending The southern slope of the Apulian hills towards the armies, that it is from this time we may date the Tarentine Gulf, on the contrary, is furrowed by decline of its former prosperity. In the Social War, several small streams; but the only one of which the Apulians were among the nations which took the ancient name is preserved to us, is, 5. the BRAup arms against Rome, the important cities of DANUS (Bradano), which forms the boundary beVenusia and Canusium taking the lead in the de- | tween Apulia and Lucania, and falls into the sea fection; and, at first, great successes were obtained close to Metapontum. in this part of Italy, by the Samnite leader Vettius The remarkable mountain promontory of GARJudacilius, but the next year, B. C. 89, fortune GANUS is described in a separate article. [GARturned against them, and the greater part of Apulia GANUs.] The prominence of this vast headland, was reduced to submission by the praetor c. Cos- which projects into the sea above 30 miles from conius. (Appian. B. C. i. 39, 42, 52.) On this Sipontum to its extreme point near Viesti, natooccasion, we are told that Salapia was destroyed, and rally forms two bays; the one on the N., called the territories of Larinum, Asculum, and Venusia, by Strabo a deep gulf, but, in reality, little marked laid waste; probably this second devastation gave a by nature, was called the Sinus URIAS, from the shock to the prosperity of Apulia from which it city of URIUM, or HYRIUM, situated on its coast. never recovered. It is certain that it appears at (Mela, ii. 4; Strab. vi. pp. 284, 285.) Of that on the close of the Republic, and under the Roman the S., now known as the Gulf of Manfredonia, no Empire, in a state of decline and poverty. Strabo ancient appellation has been preserved. The whole mentions Arpi, Canusium, and Luceria, as decayed coast of Apulia, with the exception of the Garganus, cities; and adds, that the whole of this part of is low and flat: and on each side of that great pro Italy had been desolated by the war of Hannibal, montory are lakes, or pools, of considerable extent, and those subsequent to it (vi. p. 285).
the stagnant waters of which are separated from the Apulia was comprised, together with Calabria sea only by narrow strips of sand. That to the and the Hirpini, in the 2nd region of Augustus ! north of Garganus, adjoining the Sinus Urias (no