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League, and with it the independence of Greece ; | allusion to the establishment of a Roman province, but the recollection of the Achaean power was perpe- although we find mention of various regulations tuated by the name of Achaia, which the Romans adopted by the Romans for the consolidation of gare to the south of Greece, when they formed it into their power. 2. Many of these regulations would a province. (Paus. vii. 16, sub fin.)

have been unnecessary if a provincial government The history of the Achaean League has been had been established. Thus we are told that the treated with ability by several modern writers. The government of each city was placed in the hands of best works on the subject are: - Helwing, Ges- the wealthy, and that all federal assemblies were chichte des Achäischen Bundes, Lemgo, 1829 ; abolished. Through the influence of Polybius the Schorn, Geschichte Griechenlands von der Entste- federal assemblies were afterwards allowed to be held, kung des Aetol. und Achäischen Bundes bis auf and some of the more stringent regulations were redie Zerstörung Corinths, Bonn, 1833 ; Flathe's pealed. (Pol. xl. 8-10; Paus. vii. 16. § 10.) Geschichte Macedoniens, vol. i., Leipz, 1832; Mer- The re-establishment of these ancient forms appears leker, Achaicorum Libri III., Darmst. 1837 ; to have been described by the Romans as a restora. Brandstäter, Gesch. des Aetolischen Landes, Volkes tion of liberty to Greece. Thus we find in an intend Bundes, Berlin, 1844; Droysen, Hellenismus, scription discovered at Dyme mention of ń anode 80vol. i., Hamburg, 1843 ; Thirlwall, History of pevn Katà Kouvdy Tois "EXATO I Nevőepia, and Greece, vol. viii.

| also of ή αποδοθείσα τοις 'Αχαίοις υπό Ρωμαίων The following is a list of the towns of Achaia Tolsteia, language which could not have been used from E. to W.: PELLENE, with its harbour Aristo if the Roman jurisdiction had been introduced into pautae, and its dependent fortresses Olurus and the country. (Böckh, Corp. Inscript. No. 1543; Gondessa, or Donussa: AEGEIRA, with its fortress comp. Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 458.) 3. We are exPhelle : AEGAE : BURA: CERYNEIA : HELICE: pressly told by Plutarch (Cim. 2), that in the time AEGIUM, with the dependent places Leuctrum and of Lucullus the Romans had not yet begun to send Erineum: the harbour of PANORMUS between the pro. praetors into Greece (OÚTW eis the 'Enáda 'Pwuaiou montories of Drepanum and Rhium: PATRAE, with otpatnyoùs dietTÉUTTOVTO); and that disputes in the the dependent places Boline and Argyra : OLENUS country were referred to the decision of the governor with the dependent places Peirae and Euryteiae : of Macedonia. There is the less reason for quesDYME, with the dependent places Teichos, Heca- tioning this statement.

accordance tanbaeon and Langon. In the interior PHARAE: with the description of the proceedings of L. Piso, LEONTIUM : TRITAEA. The following towns, of when governor of Macedonia, who is represented as which the sites are unknown, are mentioned only by plundering the countries of southern Greece, and exStephanus Byzantinus : Acarra ("Anapba): Alos ercising sovereignty over them, which he could hardly ('Anos): Anace ('Arákn): Ascheion (Ao XEv: have done, if they had been subject to a provincial Azotus (ACWTOS): Pella (IIéara): Phaestus administration of their own. (Cic. c. Pis. 40.) It (Partós): Politeia (Toxítela): Psophis (ywoís): is probable that the south of Greece was first made Scolis (Exodus): Tarne (Tépvn): Teneium (TTM a separate province by Julius Caesar; since the first BELOV): Thriūs (Oplous), which first belonged to governor of the province of whom any mention is Achaia, afterwards to Élis, and lay near Patrae. made (as far as we are aware) was Serv. Sulpicius, Athenaeus (xiv. p. 658) mentions an Achaean town, and he was appointed to this office by Caesar. (Cic. named Tromileia (Tpouinela) celebrated for its ud Fam. vi. 6. & 10.) cheese.

In the division of the provinces made by AuRespecting the geography of Achaia in general gustus, the whole of Greece was divided into the see Müller, Doriuns, vol. ii. p. 428, seq.; Leake's provinces of Achaia, Macedonia, and Epeirus, the llorea, vols. ii. & iii., and Peloponnesiaca; Boblaye, | latter of which formed part of Illyris. Achaia was Recherches, p. 15, seq. ; Curtius, Peloponnesos, vol. one of the provinces assigned to the senate and was i. p. 403. seq.

governed by a proconsul. (Strab. p. 840; Dion Cass. liii. 12.) Tiberius in the second year of his reign (A. D. 16) took it away from the senate and made it an imperial province (Tac. Ann. i. 76), but Claudius gave it back again to the senate (Suet. Claud. 25). In the reign of this emperor Corinth

was the residence of the proconsul, and it was here COIX OF ACHAIA.

that the Apostle Paul was brought before Junius

Gallio as proconsul of Achaia. (Acta Apost. xviii. 3. ACHAIA, the Roman province, including the 12.) Nero abolished the province of Achaia, and whole of Peloponnesus and the greater part of gave the Greeks their liberty ; but Vespasian again Hellas proper with the adjacent islands. The established the provincial government and compelled time, however, at which this country was reduced the Greeks to pay a yearly tribute. (Paus. vii. 17. to the form of a Roman province, as well as its $$ 3, 4; Suet. Vesp. 8.) exact limits, are open to much discussion. It is The boundaries between the provinces of Maceusually stated by modern writers that the province donia, Epeirus, and Achaia, are difficult to deterwas formed on the conquest of the Achaeans in mine. Strabo (p. 840), in his enumeration of the proB. C. 146; but there are several reasons for ques- | vinces of the Roman empire, says: 'EBBéunu 'Axatav tioning this statement. In the first place it is not uéxpı Oettanias kal Altwiñv kalAxapvávwv, kai stated by any ancient writer that Greece was formed TiVwv 'HTELPWTIK@ lovov, na Makedovia into a province at this time. The silence of Poly- tpooápioTQI, “The seventh(province) is Achaia, up bins on the subject would be conclusive, if we pos- to Thessaly and the Aetolians and Acarnanians and sessed entire that part of his history which related some Epeirot tribes, which border upon Macedonia." the conquest of the Achaeans; but in the existing Most modern writers understand Méxpi as inclusive, fragments of that portion of his work, there is no and consequently make Achaia include Thessaly, Aetolia, and Acarnania. Their interpretation is con- | Achates between Thermae and Selinus, in the SW. firmed by a passage in Tacitus, in which Nicopolis quarter of the island. It cannot, therefore, be the in the south of Epeirus is called by Tacitus (Ann. Dirillo, but its modern name is unknown. (Plin. iii. i. 53) a city of Achaia ; but too much stress must 8. s. 14, xxxvii. 10. 8. 54; Theophrast. de Lamd. not bé laid upon this passage, as Tacitus may only $ 31; Vib. Seq. p. 3; Solin. 5. § 25; Cluver. Sicil. have used Achaia in its widest signification as p. 201.)

(E. H. B.] equivalent to Greece. If méxpı is not inclusive, ACHELO'US ('Axenços, Epic Axedwios). Thessaly, Aetolia, and Acarnania must be assigned 1. (Aspropotamo), the largest and most celebrated either wholly to Macedonia, or partly to Macedonia river in Greece, rose in Mount Pindus, and after and partly to Eperrus. Ptolemy (iii. 2, seq.), in flowing through the mountainous country of the his division of Greece, assigns Thessaly to Mace- Dolopians and Agracans, entered the plain of donia, Acarnania to Epeirus, and Aetolia to Achaia; Acarnania and Aetolia near Stratus, and discharged and it is probable that this represents the political itself into the Ionian sea, near the Acarnanian division of the country at the time at which he lived town of Oeniadae. It subsequently formed the (A.D. 150). Achaia continued to be a Roman pro boundary between Acarnania and Aetolia, but in vince governed by proconsuls down to the time of the time of Thucydides the territory of Oeniadae Justinian. (Kruse, Hellas, vol. i. p. 573.)

extended east of the river. It is usually called a ACHARACA ('Axápaka), a village of Lydia, river of Acarnania, but it is sometimes assigned to on the road from Tralles to Nysa, with a Plutonium Aetolia. Its general direction is from north to or a temple of Pluto, and a cave, named Charonium, south. Its waters are of a whitish yellow or cream where the sick were healed under the direction of colour, whence it derives its modern name of Asprothe priests. (Strab. xiv. pp. 649, 650.)

potamo or the White river, and to which Dionysius ACHARNAE ('Axapval: Eth. 'Axapveús, Achar-|(432) probably alludes in the epithet åpyupodivns. nanus, Nep. Them. 1.; Adj. 'Axapvikós), the prin- It is said to have been called more anciently Thoas, cipal demus of Attica, belonging to the tribe Oeneis, | Axenus and Thestius (Thuc. ï. 102; Strab. pp. was situated 60 stadia N. of Athens, and conse- 449, 450, 458; Plut. de Fluv. 22; Steph. B. 8. o.) quently not far from the foot of Mt. Parnes. It was We learn from Leake that the reputed sources of from the woods of this mountain that the Achar- the Achelous are at a village called Khaliki, which nians were enabled to carry on that traffic in char- | is probably a corruption of Chalcis, at which place coal for which they were noted among the Athenians. Dionysius Periegetes (496) places the sources of (Aristoph. Acharn. 332.) Their land was fertile ; | the river. Its waters are swelled by numerous their population was rough and warlike; and they torrents, which it receives in its passage through furnished at the commencement of the Peloponnesian the mountains, and when it emerges into the plain war 3000 hoplites, or a tenth of the whole infantry near Stratus its bed is not less than three-quarters of the republic. They possessed sanctuaries or of a mile in width. In winter the entire bed altars of Apollo Aguieus, of Heracles, of Athena is often filled, but in the middle of summer the Hygieia, of Athena Hippia, of Dionysus Melpomenus, river is divided into five or six rapid streams, of and of Dionysus Cissus, so called, because the which only two are of a considerable size. After Acharnians said that the ivy first grew in this leaving Stratus the river becomes narrower; and, demus. One of the plays of Aristophanes bears the in the lower part of its course, the plain through name of the Acharnians. Leake supposes that which it flows was called in antiquity Paracheloitis branch of the plain of Athens, which is included after the river. This plain was celebrated for its between the foot of the hills of Khassid and a fertility, though covered in great part with marshes, projection of the range of Aegaleos, stretching east- several of which were forined by the overflowings of ward from the northern termination of that moun the Achelous. In this part of its course the river tain, to have been the district of the demus Acharnae. presents the most extraordinary series of wanderThe exact situation of the town has not yet been ings; and these deflexions, observes a recent tradiscovered. Some Hellenic remains, situated of a veller, are not only so sudden, but so extensive, mile to the westward of Menidhi, have generally as to render it difficult to trace the exact line of its been taken for those of Archarnae ; but Menidhi is bed, --- and sometimes, for several miles, having its more probably a corruption of lalovidai. (Thuc. ii. direct course towards the sea, it appears to flow 13, 19-21; Lucian, Icaro-Menip. 18; Pind. back into the mountains in which it rises. The Nem. ii. 25 ; Paus. i. 31. § 6; Athen. p. 234 ; | Achelous brings down from the mountains an Steph. B. s. v. ; Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 35, seq.) immense quantity of earthy particles, which have

ACHARRAE, a town of Thessaly in the district formed a number of small islands at its month, Thessaliotis, on the river Pamisus, mentioned only which belong to the group anciently called Echiby Livy (xxxii. 13), but apparently the same place nades; and part of the mainland near its mouth is as the Acharne of Pliny (iv. 9. s. 16).

only alluvial deposition. [ECHINADES.] (Leake, ACHA’TES ('Axátos), a small river in Sicily, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 136, seq., vol. iii. p. noticed by Silius Italicus for the remarkable clear- 513, vol. iv. p. 211; Mure, Journal of a Tour in ness of its waters (perlucentem splendenti gurgite Greece, vol. i. p. 102.) The chief tributaries Achaten, xiv. 228), and by various other writers as of the Achelous were:-on its left, the CAMPYLUS the place where agates were found, and from whence (Kauttúdos, Diod. xix. 67: Medghova), a river of they derived the name of " lapis Achates," which considerable size, flowing from Dolopia through the they have retained in all modern languages. It has territory of the Dryopes and Eurytanes, and the been identified by Cluverius (followed by most mo-CYATIUS (Kúalos, Pol. ap. Ath. p. 424, c.) flowdern geographers) with the river Dirillo, a small ing out of the lake Hyrie into the main stream just stream on the S. coast of Sicily, about 7 miles E. of above Conope: - on its right the PETITARUS (Liv. Terranova, which is indeed remarkable for the clear- xliii. 22) in Aperantia, and the ANAPUS ("+ vatos), ness of its waters: but Pliny, the only author who which fell into the main stream in Acarnania 80 affords any clue to its position, distinctly places the stadia S. of Stratus. (Thuc. ii. 82.)

The Achelous was regarded as the ruler and the surrounding district bore according to Thucyrepresentative of all fresh water in Hellas. Hence dides the name of Elaeatis ('Elaiatis). The he is called by Homer (II. xx. 194) Kpelwe 'Axe- | Acheron is the modern Gurla or river of Suli, the Azios, and was worshipped as a mighty god through- | Cocytus is the Vuvó, and the great marsh or lako mut Greece. He is celebrated in mythology on below Kastri the Acherusia. The water of the account of his combat with Heracles for the posses- | Vuvó is reported to be bad, which agrees with the sion of Deianeira. The river-god first attacked account of Pausanias (i. 17. § 5) in relation to the Heracles in the form of a serpent, and on being water of the Cocytus (üdwp årepréoTatov). The Forsted assumed that of a bull. The hero wrenched Glycys Limen is called Port Fanári, and its water is off one of his horns, which forthwith became a still fresh; and in the lower part of the plain the cornucopia, or horn of plenty. (Soph. Trach. 9; Ov. river is cominonly called the river of Fanári. The Me, ix. 8, seq.; Apollod. i. 7. § 5.) This legend upper part of the plain is called Glyky; and thus allades apparently to some efforts made at an early the ancient name of the harbour has been transferred period to check the ravages, which the inundations from the coast into the interior. On the Acheron of the river caused in this district; and if the river Aidoneus, the king of the lower world, is said to have was confined within its bed by embankments, the reigned, and to have detained here Theseus as a region would be converted in modern times into a prisoner ; and on its banks was an oracle called land of plenty. For further details respecting the vervouartelov (Herod. v. 92. $ 7), which was conmythological character of the Achelous, see Dict. of sulted by evoking the spirits of the dead. (Thuc. Biogr. and Myth. 3. v.

| i. 46; Liv. viii. 24 ; Strab. p. 324 ; Steph. B. 8. v. ; In the Roman poets we find Acheloïdes, i. e. the Paus. i. 17. § 5; Dion Cass. I. 12; Scylax, p. 11; Sirenes, the daughters of Achelous (Ov. Met. v. Ptolem. iii. 14. & 5; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. 552): Acheloia Callirhoë, because Callirhoë was p. 232, seq. iv. p. 53.) the daughter of Achelous (Ov. Met. ix. 413): 2. Á river of Elis, a tributary of the Alpheius. pucala Acheloin, i. e. water in general (Virg. (Strab. p. 344; Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 89.) Georg. i. 9): Acheloius heros, that is, Tydeus, A'CHERON ('Axépwv), a small river in Brutson of Oeneus, king of Calydon, Acheloïus here tium, near Pandosia. Its name is mentioned in being equivalent to Aetolian. (Stat. Theb. ii. conjunction with that city both by Strabo and 142.)

Justin, from whom we learn that it was on its 2. A river of Thessaly, in the district of Malis, banks that Alexander, king of Epirus, fell in battle floring near Lamia. (Strab. pp. 434, 450.) against the Lucanians and Bruttians, B. C. 326.

3. A mountain torrent in Arcadia, flowing into (Strab. p. 256; Justin, xii. 2.) Pliny also menthe Alpbeus, from the north of Mount Lycaeus. tions it as a river of Bruttium (üi. 5. s. 10.), but (Paus. viii. 38. & 9.)

appears erroneously to connect it with the town of 4. Also called PEIRUS, a river in Achaia, flowing Acherontia in Lucania. It has been supposed to Dear Dyme. (Strab. pp. 342, 450.)

be a small stream, still called the Arconti, which ACHERDUS ('A xepdows, -oûVTOS: Eth. 'Axep- falls into the river Crathis just below Consentia ; Ogw Los), a demus of Attica of uncertain site, be- but its identification must depend upon that of banging to the tribe Hippothoontis. Aristophanes Pandosia. [ PANDOSLA.)

[E. H. B.] (Eccl. 362) in joke, uses the form 'Axpadovo ios ACHERO'NTIA ('Axepovtis or 'Axepovria), instead of 'Axep out tos. (Steph. B. s. vo.'Axep- a small town of Apulia, near the frontiers of Lucania, baus, 'Axpabows; Aeschin. in Tim. $ 110, ed. Bek- situated about 14 miles S. of Venusia, and 6 SE. of ker; Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 185.)

| Ferentum. Its position on a lofty hill is alluded to ACHERI'NI, the inhabitants of a small town in by Horace in a well-known passage (celsae nidum Sicily, mentioned only by Cicero among the victims | Acherontiae, Carm. ü. 4. 14; and Acron ad loc.), of the oppressions of Verres. Its position is quite and the modern town of Acerenza retains the site as amertain; whence modern scholars propose to read well as name of the ancient one. It is built on a either Scherini, or Achetini from ACHETUM, a town hill of considerable elevation, precipitous on three supposed to be mentioned by Silius Italicus (xiv. sides, and affording only a very steep approach on 268); but the “pubes liquentis Acheti" (or Achaeti, the fourth. (Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 238.) It seems as the name stands in the best MSS.) of that author to have been always but a small town, and is not menwould seem to indicate a river rather than a town. tioned by any ancient geographer; but the strength There is, however, no authority for either emendation. of its position gave it importance in a military point (Cic. Verr. ii. 43; Zumpt ad loc.; Orell. Onomast. of view; and during the wars of the Goths against p. 6; Cluver. Sicil. p. 381.)

[E. H. B.] the generals of Justinian, it was occupied by Totila ACHERON ('Axépwr), the name of several with a garrison, and became one of the chief strongrivers, all of which were, at least at one time, be- holds of the Gothic leaders throughout the contest. dered to be connected with the lower world. The (Procop. de B. G. iii. 23, 26, iv. 26,33.) The readAcheron as a river of the lower world, is described ing Acherunto in Livy (ix. 20), which has been in the Dict. of Biogr. and Myth.

adopted by Romanelli and Cramer, and considered to 1. A river of Epeiras in Thesprotia, which passed refer to the same place, is wholly unsupported by through the lake Acherusia ('Axepovola iluun), and | authority. (Alschefski, ad loc.) The coins assigned after receiving the river Cocytus (KÚKUTOS), flowed to this city belong to AQUILONIA. SE. H. B.) into the Ionian sea, S. of the promontory Cheime ACHERU’SIA PALUS ('Axepovola alurn), the rium. Pliny (iv. 1) erroneously states that the name of several lakes, which, like the various river flowed into the Ambraciot gulf. The bay of rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time the sea into which it flowed was usually called believed to be connected with the lower world, until Glycys Limen (Cavkùs Acuhv) or Sweet-Harbour, at last the Acherusia came to be considered in the becanse the water was fresh on account of the quan- lower world itself. The most important of these was tity poured into it from the lake and river. Scylax the lake in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron and Prolemy call the harbour Elaea (Elaia), and flowed. [ACHERON.] There was a small lake of this name near Hermione in Argolis. (Paus. ii. 35. / shades of the blest, where Achilles and other beroes $ 10.)

were the judges of the dead. Geographers identify ACHERU'SIA PALUS ('Axepovola aluvn), the it with the little island of Zmievoż, or "Oulan Adassi name given to a small lake or saltwater pool in Cam- (i. e. Serpents' Island) in 30° 10' E long., 45° 15' pania separated from the sea only by a bar of sand, N. lat. (Herod. iv. 55, 76; Eurip. Iphig. in Taur. between Cumae and Cape Misenum, now called Lago di 438; Pind. Olymp. ii. 85; Paus. ii. 19. § 11; Fusaro. The name appears to have been bestowed on Strab. pp. 306–308, foll.; and other passages colit (probably by the Greeks of Cumae) in consequence | lected by Ukert, vol. iii. p. 2, pp. 442, foll., and Forof its proximity to Avernus, when the legends con- biger, vol. iii. pp. 1121-1122.) (P.S.] necting that lake with the entrance to the infernal ACHILLE'UM ('AXIMELOV), a small town near regions had become established. [AVERNUS.] On the promontory Sigeum in the Trvad (Herod. v. 94), this account the name was by some applied to the where, according to tradition, the tomb of Achilles Lucrine lake, while Artemidorus maintained that the was. (Strab. p. 594.) When Alexander visited Acherusian lake and Avernus were the same. (Strab. the place on his Asiatic expedition, B. C. 334, he v. pp. 243,245; Plin. iii. 5. s. 9.) The Lago di Fusaro placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles. (Arrian, could never have had any direct connection with the i. 12.)

[G. L.] volcanic phenomena of the region, nor could it have ACHILLIS INSULA. ACHILLEOS DROMOS.] partaken of the gloomy and mysterious character of ACHOLLA. [ACHILLA.) Lake Avernus. The expressions applied to it by ACHRADU'S. [ACHERDUS.] Lycophron (Alex. 695) are mere poetical hyperbole: ACHRIS, or A'CHRITA. [LYCHNIDUS.] and Virgil, where he speaks of tenebrosa palus A'CILA (Axla), which seems to be identical Acheronte refuso (Aen. vi. 107), would seem to re with OCE’LIS (Oknais), now Zee Hill or Ghela, fer to Avernus itself rather than to the lake in ques- a seaport of the Sabaei Nomades, in Arabia Felix, a tion. In later times, its banks were adorned, in com short distance to the S. of Mocha, and to the N. of mon with the neighbouring shores of Baiae, with the the opening of the strait of Babel Mandeb. (Strab. villas of wealthy Romans; one of these, which be- p. 769; Plin. vi. 23. s. 26, 28. s. 32; Ptol. vi. 7. longed to Servilius Vatia, is particularly described § 7.) By some geographers it is identified with the by Seneca (Ep. 55).

[E. H. B.] Bovins of the Homeritae mentioned by Procopius 'ACHEʻTUM. FACHERINI.]

(B. P. i. 19).

[W.R.] ACHILLA, ACÀOLLA, or ACHULLA (AXÓA ACIMINCUM, ACUMINCUM (Akoúpiykoy, na: Eth. 'Axomaios, Achillitānus: El Aliah, large Ptol. ii. 16. $ 5: Alt-Salankemen), a station or perRu.), a town on the sea-coast of Africa Propria manent cavalry barrack in Pannonia. (Amm. Marc. (Byzacena), a little above the N. extremity of the xix. 11. 87; Notit. Imp.) By George of Ravenna Lesser Syrtis, and about 20 G. miles S. of Thapsus. (iv. 19), and on the Peutingerian Table, the name It was a colony from the island of Melita (Malta), is written ACUNUM.

(W. B. D.] the people of which were colonists from Carthage. ACINCUM, AQUINCUM ('Axoúiykov, Ptol. ii. Under the Romans, it was a free city. In the 16. § 4; Tab. Peut.; Orelli, Inscript. 506, 959, African War, B. C. 46, it submitted to Caesar, for 963, 3924; Amm. Marc. xxx. 5; Itin. Anton.), a whom it was held by Messius; and it was in vain Roman colony and a strong fortress in Pannonia, besieged by the Pompeian commander Considius. where the legion Adjutrix Secunda was in garrison Among its ruins, of a late style, but very extensive, (Dion. Cass. lv. 24), and where also there was a there has been found an interesting bilingual in large manufactory of bucklers. Acincum, being scription, in Phoenician and Latin, in which the the centre of the operations on the Roman frontier name is spelt Achulla (Steph. B. $. V.; Strab. p. against the neighbouring lazyges (Slovács), was 831; Liv. xxxiii. 48; Appian. Pun. 94; Hirtius, occasionally the head-quarters of the emperors. It Bell. Afric. 33—43; Plin. v. 4; Ptol.; Tab. Peut., answers to the present Alt-Buda, where Roman basenaine corrupted into Anolla; Shaw's Travels, p. 193; ments and broken pillars of aqueducts are still visible. Barth, Wanderungen, dc. vol. i. p. 176; Gesenius, On the opposite bank of the Danube, and within Monum. Phoenic. p. 139.)

[P. S.] the territory of the lazyges, stood a Roman fort or ACHILLE'OS DROMOS (Apóuos 'Axiños, or outpost called, from its relative position, Contra'Axıéws, or 'Axinelos, or 'Axuminios), a long Acincum (Not. Imp.), which was connected with narrow strip of land in the Euxine, NW. of the Acincum by a bridge. Contra-Acincum is named Chersonesus Taurica (Crimea) and S. of the month néoplov by Ptolemy (iii. 7. & 2). (W. B. D.] of the Borysthenes (Dnieper), running W. and E., ACI'NIPO ('AKIVITTW: Ronda lu Vieja, Ru. with a slight inclination N. and S., for about 80 2 leagues N. of Ronda), a town of Hispania Baetica, miles, including that portion of the coast from which on a lofty mountain. Ptolemy calls it a city of the it is a prolongation both ways. It is now divided Celtici (ii. 4. & 15.) Its site is marked by the ruins by a narrow gap, which insulates its W. portion, of an aqueduct and a theatre, amidst which many into two parts, called Kosa (i. e. tongue) Tendra on coins are found inscribed with the name of the the W., and Kosa Djarilgatch on the E. In the place. (Florez, Esp. Sagr. vol. ix. pp. 16—60; Ancient legends, which connected Achilles with the Eckhel, vol. i. p. 14.)

[P. S.] NW. shores of the Euxine, this strip of land was pitched upon as a sort of natural stadium on which he might have exercised that swiftness of foot which Homer sings; and he was supposed to have instituted games there. Further to the W., off the mouth of the Ister, lay a small island, also sucred to the hero, who had a temple there. This island, called Achillis Insula, or Leuce ('Axudéws AEUKT) vsoos), was said to be the place to which Thetis transported the body of Achilles. By some it was made the abode of the

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ACIRIS ("Akipu), a river of Lucania, mentioned ACONTIA or ACU'TIA ('Akovala, Strab. p. both by Pliny and Strabo, as flowing near to He- 152; 'AKOÚTEIA, Steph. B.), a town of the Vaccaei, in raclea on the N. side, as the Siris did on the S. Hispania Tarraconensis, on the river Durius (Douro). It is still called the Acri or Agri, and has a course which had a ford here. Its site is unknown. [P.. of above 50 miles, rising in the Apennines near ACONTISMA, a station in Macedonia on the Marsico Nuovo, and flowing into the Gulf of Ta- coast and on the Via Egnatia, 8 or 9 miles eastward rentum, a little to the N. of Policoro, the site of of Neapolis, is placed by Leake near the end of the the ancient Heraclea. (Plin. ii. 11. s. 15; Strab. passes of the Sapaei, which were formed by the

. 264.) The ACIDIOS of the Itinerary is supposed mountainous coast stretching eastward from Kavála. by Cluverias to be a corruption of this name, but it Tafel considers it to be identical with Christopolis would appear to be that of a town, rather than a and the modern Kavála. (Amm. Marc. xxvii. 4; lt. river. (Itin. Ant. p. 104.)

[E. H. B.] Ant. and Hierocl.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. ACIS (-Axis), a river of Sicily, on the eastern p. 180; Tafel, De Viae Egnatiae Parte Orient. coast of the island, and immediately at the foot of p. 13, seq.) Aetna. It is celebrated on account of the mythol A'CORIS ('Akopis), a town of Egypt, on the east logical fable connected with its origin, which was bank of the Nile in the Cynopolite Nome, 17 miles ascribed to the blood of the youthful Acis, crushed N. of Antinoopolis. (Ptol. iv. 5. 8 59; Tab. Peut.) under an enormous rock by his rival Polyphemus. ACRA LEUCE (Akpa Aerkn), a great city of (Orid. Met. xii. 750, &c.; Sil. Ital. xiv. 221–226; Hispania Tarraconensis, founded by Hamilcar Barcas Anth. Lat. i. 148 ; Serv. ad Virg. Ecl. ix. 39, who (Diod. Sic. xxv. 2), and probably identical with the erroneously writes the name Acinius.) It is evi Castrum Album of Livý (xxiv. 41). Its position dently in allusion to the same story that Theocritus seems to have been on the coast of the Sinus Iba speaks of the “sacred waters of Acis." ("Akidos tanus, N. of Ilici, near the modern Alicante (Ukert, jepoy üdwp, Idyll. i. 69.) From this fable itself we vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 403).

[P.S.] may infer that it was a small stream gushing forth ACRAE Axoai, Thuc. et alii; “Aspa, Steph. from under a rock; the extreme coldness of its B.; "Arpalai, Ptol.; 'Axpaul, Steph. B.; AcrenFaters noticed by Solinus (Solin. 5. § 17) also ses, Plin.; Palazzolo), a city of Sicily, situated in prints to the same conclusion. The last circum the southern portion of the island, on a lofty hill, stance might lead us to identify it with the stream nearly due W. of Syracuse, from which it was distant, now called Fiume Freddo, but there is every ap according to the Itineraries, 24 Roman miles (Itin. pearance that the town of Acium derived its name Ant. p. 87; Tab. Peut.). It was a colony of Syrafrom the river, and this was certainly further south. cuse, founded, as we learn from Thucydides, 70 years There can be no doubt that Cluverius is right in after its parent city, i. e. 663 B. C. ('Thuc. vi. 5), identifying it with the little river still called Fiume but it did not rise to any great importance, and condi Jaci, known also by the name of the Acque tinued almost always in a state of dependence on Grandi, which rises under a rock of lava, and has Syracuse. Its position must, however, have always a very short course to the sea, passing by the given it some consequence in a military point of modern town of Aci Reale (Acium). The Acis view; and we find Dion, when marching upon Syrapas certainly quite distinct from the Acesines or cuse, halting at Acrae to watch the effect of his proAsines, with which it has been confounded by ceedings. (Plut. Dion, 27, where we should certainly several writers. (Cluver. Sicil. p. 115; Smyth's read 'Arpas for Makpás.) By the treaty concluded Sicily, p. 132; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9; Ferrara, by the Romans with Hieron, king of Syracuse, Acrae Descriz, dell Etna, p. 32.)

[E. H. B.] was included in the dominions of that monarch (Diod. A'CIUM, a small town on the E. coast of Sicily, xxiii. Exc. p. 502), and this was probably the period mentioned only in the Itinerary (Itin. Ant. p 87), of its greatest prosperity. During the Second Punic shich places it on the high road from Catana to War it followed the fortunes of Syracuse, and afforded Tauromenium, at the distance of 9 M. P. from the a place of refuge to Hippocrates, after his defeat by former city. It evidently derived its name from Marcellus at Acrillae, B. c. 214. (Liv. xxiv. 36.) the little river Acis, and is probably identical with This is the last mention of it in history, and its name the modern Aci Reale, a considerable town, about a is not once noticed by Cicero. It was probably in mile from the sea, in the neighbourhood of which, his time a mere dependency of Syracuse, though it is an the road to Catania, are extensive remains of found in Pliny's list of the “ stipendiariae civitates," Roman Thermae. (Biscari, Viaggio in Sicilia, so that it must then have possessed a separate munip. 22; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9.) [E. H. B.] cipal existence. (Plin. iii. 8; Ptol. iii. 4. $ 14.)

ACMONIA ('Akuovia: Eth. 'Akuovieús, 'Akuó- The site of Acrae was correctly fixed by Fazello at rios, Acmonensis), a city of Phrygia, mentioned by the modern Palazzolo, the lofty and bleak situation Cicero (Pro Flacc. 15.) It was on the road from of which corresponds with the description of Silius Dorylaeum to Philadelphia, 36 Roman miles SW. of Italicus (“tumulis glacialibus Acrae,” xiv. 206), and Cotyaeam; and under the Romans belonged to the its distance from Syracuse with that assigned by the Conventus Juridicus of Apamea. The site has been Itineraries. The summit of the hill occupied by the fised at Ahatkoi; but it still seems doubtful. (Ha modern town is said to be still called Acremonte. milton, Researches, fc. vol. i. p. 115.) [G. L.] Fazello speaks of the ruins visible there as "egregium

urbis cadaver," and the recent researches and excavaKALON

tions carried on by the Baron Judica have brought to light ancient remains of much interest. The most considerable of these are two theatres, both in very fair preservation, of which the largest is turned towards the N., while immediately adjacent to it on the W. is a much smaller one, hollowed out in great

part from the rock, and supposed from some pecuCOIN OF ACMONIA. liarities in its construction to have been intended to

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