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League, and with it the independence of Greece j bat the recollection of the Achaean power was perpetuated by the name of Achaia, which the Romans pre to the south of Greece, when they formed it into a province. (Pans. vii. 16, snb fin.)

The history of the Achaean League has been treated with ability by several modern writers. The best works on the subject are: — Hclwing, Gesckichte da Achaischen Bundes, Lemgo, 1829; Schorn, Geschichte Gricchenlnna"s von der Entstekmg da Aetol. md Achaischen Bundes bis avf die Zerstorung Corinth*, Bonn, 1833 ; Flathes GeschickU Macedonians, vol. ii., Leipz. 1832; Mcrlrker, Achaicorum Libri III., Darmst. 1837; Brandstater, Gesch. da Aetoliichen Landes, Voltes md Btmda, Berlin, 1844; Droysen, HcBenismvs, roL ii., Hamburg, 1843; Thirlwall, History of Greece, vol. viii.

The following is a list of the towns of Achaia from E. to W.: Peixexe, with its harbour Aristonantae, and its dependent fortresses Olurus and Gcnoessa, or Donussa: Aegetra, with its fortress Phelk*: Aecae: Buka: Ceryxeia : Helice: Afgium. with the dependent places Leuctrum and Erineum: the harbour of Panorml'8 between the promontories of Drepanum and Rhium: Patrae, with the dependent places Boline and Argyra: Olenus wi:h the dependent places Peirae and Enryteiae: Dime, with the dependent places Teichos, Hecatombaeon and Langon. In the interior Pharae: Leosttdm: Tritaea. The following towns, of which the sites are unknown, are mentioned only by Stephanns Byzantinus: Acarra ("Axafi^a): Alos f/AAos): Amice (Aycfirn): Ascbeion ("Ao'xeioi'): Azotus (Afarroi): Pella (IltAAo): Phaestus (♦aurroj): Politeia (rioA/rtio): Psophis (Vcxpls); Scolis (zkoau): Tame (Toprn): Tencium (T^riw): Thrius (8pio0j), which first belonged to Achaia, afterwards to Elis, and lay near Patrae. Athenaens (xiv. p. 658) mentions an Achaean town, named TromileU (Too/iiAcm) celebrated for its cheese.

Respecting the geography of Achaia in general see Mulkr. Dorians, vol. ii. p. 428, seq.; Leake's Korea, vols. ii. & iii., and Peloponnesiaca; Boblaye, Kechercha, p. 15, seq. ; Curtius, Peloponnaos, vol L p. 403. seq.

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S. Achaia, the Roman province, including the whole of Peloponnesus and the greater part of Hellas proper with the adjacent islands. The time, however, at which this country was reduced to the form of a Roman province, as well as its exact limits, are open to much discussion. It is usually stated by modern writers that the province was formed on the conquest of the Achueans in B. c. 146; but there are several reasons for questioning this statement. In the first place it is not stated by any ancient writer that Greece was formed into a province at this time. The silence of Polyoma on the subject would be conclusive, if we possessed entire that part of his history which related the conquest of the Achaeans; but in the existing fragments of that portion of his work, there is no

allusion to the establishment of a Roman province, although we find mention of various regulations adopted by the Romans for the consolidation of their power. 2. Many of these regulations would have been unnecessary if a provincial government had been established. Thus we are told that the government of each city was placed in the hands of the wealthy, and that all federal assemblies were abolished. Through the influence of Polybius the federal assemblies were afterwards allowed to be held, and some of the more stringent regulations were repealed. (Pol. xl. 8—10 ; Pans. vii. 16. § 10.) The re-establishment of these ancient forms appears to have been described by the Romans as a restoration of liberty to Greece. Thus we find in an inscription discovered at Dyme mention of ^ iiro$t$ouivn Kara Koivbv rots "Y.\\noiv IXevQtpia, and also of rj itroboBtiaa ro7s 'Axa/oir faro "Puaaluv voKheia, language which could not have been used if the Roman jurisdiction had been introduced into the country. (Bockh, Corp. Inscript. No. 1543; comp. Thirlwall, vol. viii. p. 458.) 3. We are expressly told by Plutarch ( Cim. 2), that in the time of Lucullus the Romans had not yet begun to send praetors into Greece (oGxu eh Tt)f 'EAActJa 'Pa :ua7oi oTparnyovs bitrifmotno); and that disputes in the country were referred to the decision of the governor of Macedonia. There is the less reason for questioning this statement, since it is in accordance with the description of the proceedings of L. Piso, when governor of Macedonia, who is represented as plundering the countries of southern Greece, and exercising sovereignty over them, which he could hardly have done, if they had been subject to a provincial administration of their own. (Cic. c. Pis. 40.) It is probable that the south of Greece was first ninde a separate province by Julius Caesar; since the first governor of the province of whom any mention is made (as far as we are aware) was Serv. Sulpicius, and he was appointed to this office by Caesar. (Cic. ad Fata. vi. 6. § 10.)

In the division of the provinces made by Augustus, the whole of Greece was divided into the provinces of Achaia, Macedonia, and Kpeirus, the latter of which formed part of Illyris. Achaia was one of the provinces assigned to the senate and was governed by a proconsul. (Strab. p. 840; Dion Cass. liii. 12.) Tiberius in the second year of his reign (a. D. 16) took it away from the senate and made it an imperial province (Tac. Ann. i. 76), but Claudius gave it back again to the senate (Suet. Claud. 25). In the reign of this emperor Corinth was the residence of the proconsul, and it was here that the Apostle Paul was brought before Junius Gallio as proconsul of Achaia. (Acta AposL xviiL 12.) Nero abolished the province of Achaia, and gave the Greeks their lilwrty; but Vespasian again established the provincial government ami compelled the Greeks to pav a yearly tribute. (Paus. vii, 17. §§ 3, 4; Suet. Vetp. 8.)

The boundaries between the provinces of Macedonia, Epeirus, and Achaia, are difficult to determine. Strabo (p. 840), in his enumeration of the provinces of the Roman empire, says: 'Z&bcu-nv 'Axaiav H*XPl 0eTTaAi'a? *al AcrwAa-r tfal'\naoi avu v. Hal rivwv 'HirtipaniKutv iQviv, boa Tfi Maxtbovia vpon&piffrai. "The seventh (province) is Achaia, up to Thessaly and the Aetolians and Acamanians and some Epeirot tribes, which border npnn Macedonia.' Most modern writers understand iiixf< as inclusive, and consequently make Achaia include Thessaly,


Aetolia, and Acamania. Their interpretation is confirmed by a passage in Tacitus, in which Nicopolis in the south of Epeirus is called by Tacitus (Jinn. C. 53) a city of Achaia; but too much stress must not be laid upon this passage, as Tacitus may only have used Achaia in its widest signification as equivalent to Greece. If pixP1 is not inclusive, Thessaly, Aetolia, and Acarnania must be assigned either wholly to Macedonia, or partly to Macedonia and partly to Epeirus. Ptolemy (iii. 2, scq.), in his division of Greece, assigns Thessaly to Macedonia, Acarnania to Epeirus, and Aetolia to Achaia; and it is probable that this represents the political division of the country at the time at which he lived (a. i>. 150). Achaia continued to be a Roman province governed by proconsuls down to the time of Justinian. (Kruse, Bellas, vol. i. p. 573.)

ACHAHACA ('Axifxwo), a village of Lydia, on the road from Tralies to Nysa, with a Plutonium or a temple of Pluto, and a cave, named Cliaronium, where the sick were healed under the direction of the priests. (Strab. ziv. pp. 649, 650.)

ACHARNAE ('Axapml: Eth. 'Axapvtis, Acharnanus, Nep. Them. 1.; Adj. 'Axf'^s), the principal demus of Attica, belonging to the tribe Oeneis, was situated 60 stadia N. of Athens, and consequently not far from the foot of Mt. Parnes. It was from the woods of this mountain that the Acharnians were enabled to carry on that traffic in charcoal for which they were noted among the Athenians. (Aristoph. Acharn. 332.) Their land was fertile; their population was rough and warlike; and they furnished at the commencement of the Peloponnesian war 3000 boplites, or a tenth of the whole infantry of the republic. They possessed sanctuaries or altars of Apollo Aguieus, of Heracles, of Athena Hygieia, of Athena Hippia, of Dionysus Melpomenus, and of Dionysus Cissus, so called, because the Acharnians said that the ivy first grew in this demus. One of the plays of Aristophanes bears the name of the Acharnians. Leake supposes that branch of the plain of Athens, which is included between the foot of the hills of Khassid and a projection of the range of Aegaleos, stretching eastward from the northern termination of that mountain, to have been the district of the demus Achamae, The exact situation of the town has not yet been discovered. Some Hellenic remains, situated f of a mile to the westward of Menidki, have generally been taken for those of Archamae; but Menidhi is more probably a corruption of riaioWSai. (Thuc ii. 13, 19—21 j Lucian, Icaro-Menip. 18; Pind. Nem. ii. 25; Paus. i. 31. § 6 ; Athen. p. 234; Steph. B. s. v. ; Leake, Demi of A ttica, p. 35, seq.)

ACHAKKAE, a town of Thessaly in the district Thessaliotis, on the river Pamisus, mentioned only by Livy (xxxii. 13), but apparently the same place as the Acharne of Pliny (iv. 9. s. 16).

ACHATES ('AxiiTfls), a small river in Sicily, noticed by Silius Italicus for the remarkable clearness of its waters (perlucentem tplendenti gurgite Achaten, xiv. 228), and by various other writers as the place where agates were found, and from whence they derived the name of "lapis Achates," which they have retained in all modern languages. It has been identified by Cluverius (followed by most modern geographers) with the river JJirillo, a small stream on the S. coast of Sicily, about 7 miles E. of Terranova, wliich is indeed remarkable for the clearness of its waters: but Pliny, the only author who affords any clue to its position, distinctly places the

Achates between Thermae and Selinns, in the SW. quarter of the island. It cannot, therefore, be the Dirillo, but its modern name is unknown. (Plin. iii. 8. s. 14, xxxvii. 10. s. 54; Theophrast. de Lapid. % 31; Vib. Seq. p. 3; Solin. 5. § 25; Cluver. SiciL p. 201.) [E.H.B.]

ACHELOUS ('Ax«*#or, Epic 'Ax'^'os). 1. (Aspropotamo), the largest and most celebrated river in Greece, rose in Mount Pindus, and after flowing through the mountainous country of the Dolopians and Agraeans, entered the plain of Acarnania and Aetolia near Stratus, and discharged itself into the Ionian sea, near the Acamanian town of Oeniadae. It subsequently formed the boundary between Acamania and Aetolia, but in the time of Thucydides the territory of Oeniadae extended east of the river. It is usually called a river of Acamania, but it is sometimes assigned to Aetolia. Its general direction is from north to south. Its waters are of a whitish yellow or cream colour, whence it derives its modem name of Aspropotamo or the "White river, and to which Dionysius (432) probably alludes in the epithet ApryvpoSivTis. It is said to have been called more anciently Thoas, Axenus and Thestius (Thuc. ii. 102; Strab. pp. 449, 450, 458; Plut de Fluv. 22; Steph. B. ». r.) We leam from Leake that the reputed sources of the Achelous are at a village called KhaliH, which is probably a corruption of Chalcis, at which place Dionysius Pcriegetes (496) places the sources of the river. Its waters are swelled by numerous torrents, which it receives in its passage through the mountains, and when it emerges into the plain near Stratus its bed is not less than three-quarters of a mile in width. In winter the entire bed is often filled, but in the middle of summer the river is divided into five or six rapid streams, of which only two are of a considerable size. After leaving Stratus the river becomes narrower; and, in the lower part of its course, the plain thnmjrh which it flows was called in antiquity ParacheloitU after the river. This plain was celebrated for its fertility, though covered in great part with marshes, several of which were formed by the overflowings of the Achelous. In this part of its course the river presents the most extraordinary series of wanderings; and these deflexions, observes a recent traveller, are not only so sudden, but so extensive, as to render it difficult to trace the exact line of its bed,— and sometimes, for several miles, having its direct course towards the sea, it appears to flow back into the mountains in which it rises. The Achelous brings down from the mountains an immense quantity of earthy particles, which have formed a number of small islands at its month, which belong to the group anciently called Echinades; and part of the mainland near its mouth is only alluvial deposition. [echinades.] (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 136, seq., vol. iii. p. 513, vol. iv. p. 211; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, vol. i. p. 102.) The chief tributaries of the Achelous were;—on its left, the Camfylus (kojwaos, Diod. xix. G7: Medyhovd), a river of considerable size, flowing from Dolopia through the territory of the Dryopes and Eurytanes, and the CYATnus (Ktafloi, Pol. ap. Ath. p. 424, c.) flowing out of the lake Hyric into the main stream just above Conope: —on its right the Petitarus (Liv. xliii. 22) in Aperantia, and the Asafus ('z va*os), which fell into the main stream in Acamania 80 stadia S. of Stratus. (Thuc. ii. 82.)

The Achelous was Tegarded as the ruler and representative of all fresh water in Hellas. Hence lie is called by Homer {11 xx. 194) Kptlvr 'Ax»AaSui, and was worshipped as a mighty god throughrat Greece. He is celebrated in mythology on account of his combat with Heracles for the possession of Delaneira. The river-god first attacked Heracles in the form of a serpent, and on being worsted assumed that of a bull. The hero wrenched •tF one of his horns, which forthwith became a cornucopia, or horn of plenty. (Soph. Track. 9; Or. Ma. ix. 8, seq.; Apollod. ii. 7. § 5.) This legend tllndes apparently to some efforts made at an early period to check the ravages, which the inundations of the river caused in this district; and if the river was confined within its bed by embankments, the region would be converted in modem times into a land of plenty. For further details respecting the mythological character of the Achclous, see Diet, of Jfocr. and Myth. $. v.

In the Roman poets we find Acheloldes, i. e. the Srenes, the daughters of Achclous (Ov. Met v. 552): AcMoia Cattirhoe, because CaUirhoe was the daughter of Arhelous (Ov. Met. ix. 413): poeala Ackelota, i. e. water in general (Virg. Gary, i. 9): Achelohu heros, that is, Tydcus, son of One 115, king of Calydon, Achelohu here being equivalent to Aetolian. (Stat Theb. ii. 142.)

2. A river of Thessaly, in the district of Halis, &Wing near Lamia. (Strab. pp. 434, 450.)

3. A mountain torrent in Arcadia, flowing into the Alpheus, from the north of Mount Lycacns. (Pans. viii. 38. § 9.)

4. Also called Peirus, a river in Achaia, flowing ■ear Dyme. (Strab. pp. 342, 450.)

ACHERDUS ('fixfoSoCs, -avrrot: Eth.'Ax'f>Swffrai), a demos of Attica of uncertain site, betauring to the tribe Hippothoontis. Aristophanes (£«i 362) in joke, uses the form 'Ax/woownos instead of 'Axfpoaiaioi. (Steph. B. I. w. 'Ax*PJ»«i, 'AxpaSous; Aeschin. in rim. § 110, ed. Bekker; Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 185.)

ACHERTXI, the inhabitants of a small town in Sicily, mentioned only by Cicero among the victims of the oppressions of Verres. Its position is quite meertain; whence modern scholars propose to read either Scherini, or Achetini from Achetcm, a town opposed to be mentioned by Silius Italics* (xiv. 268); but the " pubes liquentis AchcH" (or Achaeti, as the name stands in the best MSS.) of that author would seem to indicate a river rather than a town. There is, however, no authority for either emendation. (Cic. Kerr. in. 43; Zumpt ad he.; Orel]. Onomatt. p. 6; Cluver. Set/, p. 381.) [E. H. B.]

ACHERON ('Ax^ew), the name of several rivers, all of which were, at least at one time, beBrrad to be connected with the lower world. The Acheron as a river of the lower world, is described in the Diet of Biogr. and Myth.

1. A river of Epeirus in Thesprotia, which passed thTM»h the lakeAchemsia ('Ax'pouo-ia Al/urj), and after receiving the river Cocytus (Kwmrroy), flowed into the Ionian sea, S. of the promontory Cheimcrimn. Pliny (iv. 1) erroneously states that the river flowed into the Ambraciot gulf. The bay of j the sea into which it flowed was usually called Glycys Limen (TAt/irus Aim^*) or Sweet-Harbour, because the water was fresh on account of the quantity poured into it from the lake and river. Scylax •oil Ptolemy call the harbour Elaea fEAam), and

the surrounding district bore according to Thucydides the name of Elaeatis ('EAaiorir). The Acheron is the modem Curia or river of Suli, tlx Cocytus is the Vuto, and the great marsh or lake below Kaitri the Achemsia. The water of the Vuv6 is reported to be bad, which agrees with the account of Pausanias (i. 17. § 5) in relation to the water of the Cocytus ($$wp artpiriararoy). The Glycys Limen is called Port Fandri, and its water is still fresh; and in the lower part of the plain the river is commonly called the river of Fandri. The upper part of the plain is called Glylcy; and thus the ancient name of the harbour has been transferred from the coast into the interior. On the Acheron Aidoneus, the king of the lower world, is said to have reigned, and to have detained here Theseus as a prisoner; and on its banks was an oracle called veKvonarrtiov (Herod, v. 92. § 7), which was consulted by evoking the spirits of the dead. (Thuc i. 46; Liv. viii. 24; Strab. p. 324; Steph. B. t. v.; Pans. i. 17. § 5; Dion Cass. 1. 12; Scylax, p. 11; Ptolem. iii. 14. § 5; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 232, seq. iv. p. 53.)

2. A river of Elis, a tributary of the Alpheius. (Strab. p. 344; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 89.)

A'CHERON ('Ax*(*w), a small river in Brattinm, near Pandosia. Its name is mentioned in conjunction with that city both by Strabo and Justin, from whom we leam that it was on its banks that Alexander, king of Epirus, fell in battle against the Lucanians and Bruttinns, B. c. 326. (Strab. p. 256; Justin, xil. 2.) Pliny also mentions it as a river of Bruttium (iii. 5. s. 10.), but appears erroneously to connect it with the town of Acherontia in Lucania. It has been supposed to lie a small stream, still called the Arconti, which falls into the river Crathis just below Consentia; but its identification must depend upon that of Pandosia. [pandosia.] [E. H. B.]

ACHERO'NTIA ("Axeporrd or Ax'fwria), a small town of Apulia, near the frontiers of Lncania, situated about 14 miles S. of Vcnnsia, and 6 SE. of Ferentum. Its position on a lofty hill is alluded to by Horace in a well-known passage (ceUae nidnm Acherontiae, Carm. iii. 4. 14; and Acron ad he.), and the modem town of Acerenza retains the site as well as name of the ancient one. It is built on a hill of considerable elevation, precipitous on three sides, and affording only a very steep approach on the fourth. (Romanelli, vol. ii. p. 238.) It seems to have been always but a small town, and is not mentioned by any ancient geographer; but the strength of its position gave it importance in a military point of view: and during the wars of tlie Goths against the generals of Justinian, it was occupied by Totila with a garrison, and became one of the chief strongholds of the Gothic leaders throughout the contest, (Procop. de B. G. iii. 23,26, iv. 26,33.) The reading Acherunto in Livy (ix. 20), which has been adopted by Romanelli and Cramer, and considered to refer to the same place, is wholly unsupported by authority. (Alschefski, ad he.) The coins assigned to this city belong to Aqtjilonia. [E. H. B.]

ACHERU'SIA PALUS ("Axtpowto Al/wn), the name of several lakes, which, like the various rivers of the name of Acheron, were at some time believed to be connected with tite lower world, until at last the Achemsia came to be considered in the lower world itself. The most important of these was the lake in Thesprotia, through which the Acheron flowed. [achkkon.] There was a small lake of this name near Hermione in Argolis. (Pans. ii. 35. §10.)

ACHERU'SIA PALUS QAx'povata \ifivn), the name given to a small lake or saltwater pool in Campania separated from the sea only by a bar of sand, betweenCumae and Cape Misenum, now called Logo di Futaro. The name appears to have been bestowed on it (probably by the Greeks of Cumae) in consequence of its proximity to Avemus, when the legends connecting that lake with the entrance to the infernal regions had become established. [avernus.] On this account the name was by some applied to the Lucrine lake, while Artemidorus maintained that the Acherusian lake and Avemus were the same. (Strab. v.pp.248,245;Plin.iii. 5. s. 9.) The Logo diFusaro could never have had any direct connection with the volcanic phenomena of the region, nor could it have partaken of the gloomy and mysterious character of Lake Avemus. The expressions applied to it by Lycophron {Alex. 695) are mere poetical hyperbole: and Virgil, where he speaks of tenebrosa palus Acheronte refuto (Aen. vi. 107), would seem to refer to Avemus itself rather than to the lake in question. In later times, its banks were adorned, in common with the neighbouring shores of Baiae, with the villas of wealthy Romans; one of these, which belonged to Servilius Vatia, is particularly described by Seneca (Ep. 55). ' [E. H. B.]

ACHE'TUM. [acherini.]

ACHILLA, ACHOLLA, or ACHULLA ('AXo\Ao : Eth. 'AxoAAaios, Achillitanus: El Allah, large Ru.), a town on the sea-coast of Africa Propria (Byzacena), a little above the N. extremity of the Lesser Syrtis, and about 20 G. miles S. of Thapsus. It was a colony from the island of Melita (Malta), the people of which were colonists from Carthage. Under the Romans, it was a free city. In the African war, B. c. 46, it submitted to Caesar, for whom it was held by Messius; and it was in vain besieged by the Pompeian commander Considius. Among its ruins, of a late style, but very extensive, there has been found an interesting bilingual inscription, in Phoenician and Latin, in which the name is spelt Achulla (Steph. B. «. v.; Strab. p. 831; Liv. xxxiii. 48; Appian. Pun. 94; Hirtius, Bell Afric. 33—43; Plin. v. 4; Ptol.; Tab.Peut., name corrupted into Anolla; Shaw's Travels, p. 193; Barth, Wanderungen, dv. vol. i. p. 176; Gesenius, Monum. Phoenic. p. 139.) [P. S.]

ACHILLE'OS DROMOS (Apd>o» 'AxiAAijoj, or 'AxtAAe'wJ, or 'AxfAA«os, or 'AxiAA#os)> a long narrow strip of land in the Euxine, NW. of the Chersonesus Taurica (Crimea') andS. of the month of the Borysthenes (Dnieper), running W. and E., with a slight inclination N. and S., for about 80 miles, including that portion of the coast from which it is a prolongation both ways. It is now divided by a narrow gap, which insulates its W. portion, into two parts, called Kota (i. e. tongue) Tendra on the W., and Kosa Djarilgatch on the E. In the ancient legends, which connected Achilles with the NW. shores of the Euxine, this strip of land was pitched upon as a sort of natural stadium on which he might have exercised that swiftness of foot which Homer sings; and he was supposed to have instituted games there. Further to the W., off the mouth of the Ister, lay a small island, also sacred to the hero, who had a temple there. This island, called Achillis Insula, or Leuce ('Ax'AAe'ws % Aeujo) vrjaos), was said to be the place to which Thetis transported the body of Achilles. By some it was made the abode of the

shades of the blest, where Achilles and other heroes were the judges of the dead. Geographers identify it with the little island of Zmievoi, or Oulan Adassi (i. e. Serpents' Island) in 30° 10' E long., 45° 15' N. lat. (Herod, iv. 55, 76; Eurip. Iphig. in Tattr. 438; Pind. Olgmp. ii. 85; Pans. iii. 19. § 11; Strab. pp. 306—308, foil.; and other passages collected by Ukert, vol. iii. p. 2, pp. 442, foil., and Forbiger, voL iii. pp. 1121—1122.) [P. S.]

ACHILLE'UM ('Ax'AA(ioi'), a small town near the promontory Sigeum in the Troad (Herod, v. 94), where, according to tradition, the tomb of Achilles was. (Strab. p. 594.) When Alexander visited the place on his Asiatic expedition, B. C. 334, he placed chaplets on the tomb of Achilles. (Arrian, i. 12.) [G. L.]

ACHILLIS INSULA. [achilleos Dbomos.]

ACHOLLA. [achilla.]

ACHRADU'S. [acherdcs.]

ACHRIS, or A'CHRITA. [lyciwidus.]

A'CILA ('An!Aa), which seems to be identical with OCE'LIS (*0<rn\is), now Zee Bill or Ghela, a seaport of the Sabaei Nomades, in Arabia Felix, a short distance to the S. of Mocha, and to the N. of the opening of the strait of Babel Mandeb. (Strab. p. 769; Plin. vi. 23. s. 26, 28. s. 32; Ptol. vi. 7. § 7.) By some geographers it is identified with the BotfAiKai of the Homeritae mentioned by Procopius (5.P. i. 19). [W.R.]

ACIMINCUM, ACUMINCUM QhKoiur,Kov, Ptol. ii. 16. § 5 : Alt-Salankemen), a station or permanent cavalry barrack in Pannonia. (Amm. Marc, xix. 11. § 7; Notit. Imp.) By George of Ravenna (iv. 19), and on the Peutingerian Table, the name is written Acunum. [W. B. D.]

ACINCUM, AQUINCUM (AicoiiryicoK, Ptol. ii. 16. § 4; Tab. Peut.; Orelli, Inscript. 506, 959, 963, 3924; Amm. Marc xxx. 5; Itin. Anton.), a Roman colony and a strong fortress in Pannonia, where the legion Adjutrix Secunda was in garrison (Dion. Cass. Iv. 24), and where also there was a large manufactory of bucklers. Acincum, being the centre of the operations on the Roman frontier against the neighbouring Iazyges (Slovdcs), was occasionally the head-quarters of the emperors. It answers to the present .4 ft-Buda, where Roman basements and broken pillars of aqueducts are still visible. On the opposite bank of the Danube, and within the territory of the Iazyges, stood a Roman fort or outpost called, from its relative position, ContraAcincum (Not. Imp.), which was connected with Acincum by a bridge. Contra-Acincum is named ntotrioi' by Ptolemy (iii. 7. § 2). [W. B. D.]

ACI'NIPO ('Aitii/linra.: Honda la Vieja, Ru. 2 leagues N. of Ronda), a town of Hispania Baetica, on a lofty mountain. Ptolemy calls it a city of the Celtici (ii. 4. § 15.) Its site is marked by the ruins of an aqueduct and a theatre, amidst which many coins are found inscribed with the name of the place. (Florez, Esp. Sagr. vol. ix. pp. 16—60; Eckhel, vol. i. p. 14.) [P. S.]

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ACIRIS ("AnifMi), a river of Lucania, mentioned both by Pliny and Strabo, as flowing near to Heraclea on the N. side, as the Siris did on the S. li is still called the Acri or Agri, and has a course of above 50 miles, rising in the Apennines near Maraco Xwxeo, and flowing into the Gulf of Tarentum, a little to the N. of Policoro, the site of the ancient Heraclea. (Plin. iii. 11. s. 15; Strab. p. 264.) The Acidios of the Itinerary is supposed by Cluverios to be a corruption of this name, but it would appear to be that of a town, rather than a river. (Itin. Ant, p. 104.) [E. H. B.]

AO* ("Axis), a river of Sicily, on the eastern coast of the island, and immediately at the foot of Aetna. It is celebrated on account of the mythological fable connected with its origin, which was ascribed to the blood of the youthful Acis, crushed under an enormous rock by his rival Polyphemus. (Orid. Met. aii. 750, &c; SO. ItaL xiv. 221—226; Anth. Lat. i. 148; Serv. ad Virg. Eel. ii. 39, who erroneously writes the name Acinius.) It is evidently in allusion to the same story that Theocritus speaks of the "sacred waters of Acis." ('Aicitos upbr vSwp, Idyll. L 69.) From this fable itself we may infer that it was a small stream gushing forth from under a rock; the extreme coldness of its waters noticed by Solinus (Solin. 5. § 17) also points to the same conclusion. The last circumstance might lead us to identify it with the stream now called Fiume Freddo, but there is every appearance that the town of Acium derived its name from the river, and this was certainly further south. There can be no doubt that Cluverius is right in identifying it with the little river still called Fiume di Jaci, known also by the name of the Acque Graxdi, which rises under a rock of lava, and has a very short course to the sea, passing by the modem town of Act Reale (Acium). The Acis was certainly quite distinct from the Acesines or Amines, with which it has been confounded by several writers. (Cluver. SicU. p. 115; Smyth's Sicily, p. 132; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9; Ferrara, Detent. deVC Etna, p. 32.) [E. H. B.]

A'CIUM, a small town on the E. coast of Sicily, mentioned only in the Itinerary (Itin. Ant. p 87), which places it on the high road from Catana to Taoromenium, at the distance of 9 M. P. from the former city. It evidently derived its name from the little river Acis, and is probably identical with the modem Act Stale, a considerable town, about a mile from the sea, in the neighbourhood of which, on the road to Catania, are extensive remains of Roman Thermae. (Biscari, Viaggio in Sicilia, p. 22; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. p. 9.) [E. H. B.]

ACMCNIA ('AKfioi-fa: Elh. 'AKfiovuvs, 'akiwnos, Acmone^is), a city of Phrygia, mentioned by Cicero (Pro Flacc 15.) It was on the road from Dorylaeum to Philadelphia, 36 Roman miles SW. of Cotyaeum; and under the Romans belonged to the Conventus Juridicus of Apamea. The site has been fixed at Ahatkoi; but it still seems doubtful. (Hamilton. Researches, cfc vol. i. p. 115.) [G. L.]

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ACOTs'TIA or ACU'TIA ('Amwrfo, Strab. p. 152; 'AKoLiTfia, Steph. B.), a town of the Vaccaei, in Hispania Tarraconensis, on the river Durius (Douro\ which had a ford here. Its site is unknown. [P. S.]

ACONT1SMA, a station in Macedonia on the coast and on the Via Egnatia, 8 or 9 miles eastward of Nenpolis, is placed by Leake near the end of the passes of the Sapaei, which were formed by the mountainous coast stretching eastward from Kavdla. Tafel considers it to be identical with Christopolis and the modem Kavdla. (Amm. Marc, xxvii. 4; It. Ant. and Hierocl.; Leake, Northern Greece, voL iii. p. 180; Tafel, lie Viae Egnatiae Parte Orient. p. 13, seq.)

A'CORIS ("Aitopij), a town of Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile in the Cynopolite Nome, 17 mile* N. of Antinoopolis. (Ptol. iv. 5. § 59; Tab. Pent.)

ACRA LEUCE ("Aicpa A»uio)), a great city of Hispania Tarraconensis, founded by Hamilcar Barcas (Diod. Sic xxv. 2), and probably identical with the Castrum Album of Livy (xxiv. 41). Its position seems to have been on the coast of the Sinus Ida tanus, N. of Ilici, near the modem Alicante (Ukert, vol. ii. pt. 1, p. 403). [P.S.]

ACRAE Cakooi, Thuc. et alii; "Axpa, Steph. B.; "A/tpauu, Ptol.; 'Axpaiol, Steph. B.; Acrenses, Plin.; Palazzolo), a city of Sicily, situated in the southern portion of the island, on a lofty hill, nearly due W. of Syracuse, from which it was distant, according to the Itineraries, 24 Roman miles (Itin. Ant. p. 87; Tab. Pent.). It was a colony of Syracuse, founded, as we learn from Thucydides, 70 years after its parent city, i e. 663 B. o. (Thuc. vi. 5), but it did not rise to any great importance, and continued almost always in a state of dependence on Syracuse. Its position must, however, have always given it some consequence in a military point of view; and we find Dion, when marching upon Syracuse, halting at Acrae to watch the effect of his proceedings. (Pint. Dion, 27, where we should certainly read "Aicpoi for Maxpds.) By the treaty concluded by the Romans with Hieron, king of Syracuse, Acrae was included in the dominions of that monarch (Diod. xxiii. Exc p. 502), and this was probably the period of its greatest prosperity. During the Second Punio War it followed the fortunes of Syracuse, and afforded a place of refuge to Hippocrates, after his defeat by Marcellus at Acrillae, B.C. 214. (Liv. xxiv. 36.) This is the last mention of it in history, and its name is not once noticed by Cicero. It was probably in his time a mere dependency of Syracuse, though it is found in Pliny's list of the " stipendiariae civitates," so that it must then have possessed a separate municipal existence. (Plin. iii. 8; Ptol. iii. 4. § 14.) The site of Acrae was correctly fixed by Fazello at the modem Palazzolo, the lofty and bleak situation of which corresponds with the description of Silius Italicus ("tumnlis glacialibus Acrae," xiv. 206), and its distance from Syracuse with that assigned by the Itineraries. The summit of the hill occupied by the modem town is said to be still called Acremonte. Fazello speaks of the ruins visible there as "egregium urbis cadaver," and the recent researches and excavations carried on by the Boron Judica have brought to light ancient remains of much interest The most considerable of these are two theatres, both in very fair preservation, of which the largest is turned towards the N., while immediately adjacent to it on the W. is a much smaller one, hollowed out in great port from the rock, and supposed from some peculiarities in its construction to have been intended to

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