« السابقةمتابعة »
serve as an Odeum, or theatre for music. Numerous many fragments of antiquity. In this church Leake other architectural fragments, attesting the existence discovered the great inscription alluded to above, of temples and other buildings, have also been brought which is in honour of one of the citizens of the place to light, as well as statues, pedestals, inscriptions, called Epaminondas. The ruins near the founiain, and other minor relics. On an adjoining hill are which is now called Perdikóbrysis, probably belong great numbers of tombs excavated in the rock, while to the sanctuary of the Ptoan Apollo. The poet on the hill of Acremonte itself are some monuments | Alcaeus (ap. Strab. p. 413) gave the epithet Tpiráof a singular character; figures as large as life, hewn pavov to Mt. Ptoum, and the three summits now in relief in shallow niches on the surface of the native bear the names of Paleá, Strútzina, and Skroponeri rock. As the principal figure in all these sculptures respectively. These form the central part of Mt. appears to be that of the goddess Isis, they must be Ptoum, which in a wider signification extended from long to a late period. (Fazell. de Reb. Sic. vol. i. p. the Tenerian plain as far as Larymna and the Eu452; Serra di Falco, Antichità di Sicilia, vol. iv. p. boean sea, separating the Copaic lake on the E. from 158, seq.; Judica, Antichità di Acre.) [E.H.B.) the lakes of Hylae and Harina. (Leake, Northern
ACRAE ("Arpai), a town in Aetolia of uncer Greece, vol. ii. p. 295, seq.; Ulrichs, Reisen in tain site, on the road from Metapa to Conope. Griechenland, vol. i. p. 239, seq.; Forchhammer, Stephanus erroneously calls it an Acarnanian town. Hellenika, p. 182.) (Pol. v. 13; Steph. B. 3. v. Akpa.)
ACRAGAS. (AGRIGENTUM.) ACRAEA ('Akpzia), a mountain in Argolis, op- ' A'CRIAE or ACRAEAE ('Arpiai, Paus. iii. 21, posite the Heraeum, or great temple of Hera. (Paus. $ 7, 22. $$ 4, 5; Pol. 5. 19. $ 8; 'Arpaiai, Strab. ii. 17. $ 2; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 393, Pelopon- pp. 343, 363; 'Axpela, Ptol. ü. 16. $ 9: Eth. 'AKP.nesiaca, p. 263.)
árns), a town of Laconia, on the eastern side of the ACRAE'PHIA, ACRAEPHIAE, ACRAE- | Laconian bay, 30 stadia S. of Helos. Strabo (1. c.) PHIUM, ACRAEPHNIUM ('Arpaupia, Steph. B. | describes the Eurotas as flowing into the sea between 8. v.; Herod. viii. 135, Acraephia, Liv. xxxiii. 29; Acriae and Gythium. Acriae possessed a sanctuary Plin. iv. 7. 8. 12; 'Axpaipiai, Strab. p. 410; 'Arpai. and a statue of the inother of the gods, which was plov, Strab. p. 413.; 'Arpaiovlov, Paus. ix. 23. $ 5: said by the inhabitants of the town to be the most Tà 'Axpalovia, Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. 3. v. ; Eth. ancient in the Peloponnesus. Leake was unable to 'Axpaipiaios, 'Arpaiolos, 'Axpalovios, 'Arpaioric- discover any remains of Acriae; the French ex pediTns, 'Arpalovieús, Steph. B. 8. v.; 'Akparoleús, tion place its ruins at the harbour of Kokinio. Böckh, Inscr. 1587: nr. Kardhitza), a town of (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 229; Boblaye, Recherches, Boeotia on the slope of Mt. Ptoum (Iltwov) and on p. 95.) the eastern bank of the lake Copais, which was here ACRIDOʻPHAGI ('Axpidopáyou), or " Locustcalled 'Akpalpis riurn from the town. Acraephia eaters," the name given by Diodorus (iii. 29) and is said to have been founded by Athamas or Acrae- Strabo (p. 770) to one of the half-savage tribes of pheus, son of Apoilo; and according to some writers | Aethiopia bordering on the Red Sea, who received it was the same as the Homeric Arne. Here the their denomination from their mode of life or their Thebans took refuge, when their city was destroyed staple food.
W.R.] by Alexander. It contained a temple of Dionysus. ACRILLA or ACRILLAE (AKPuma), a town of (Steph. B. 8. v.; Strab. p. 413; Paus. I. c.) At the Sicily, known only from Stephanus of Byzantiumn distance of 15 stadia from the town, on the right (s. v.), who tells us that it was not far from Syraof the road, and upon Mt. Ptoum, was a celebrated cuse. But there can be no doubt that it is the same sanctuary and oracle of Apollo Ptous. This oracle | place mentioned by Livy (xxiv. 35) where the Syrawas consulted by Mardonius before the battle of cusan army under Hippocrates was defeated by MarPlataea, and is said to have answered his emissary, cellus. The old editions of Livy have ACCILLAE, who was a Carian, in the language of the latter. for which Acrillae, the emendation of Cluverius, has The name of the mountain was derived by some been received by all the recent editors. From this from Ptcus, a son of Apollo and Euxippe, and by passage we learn that it was on the line of march others froin Leto having been frightened (TTOéw) by from Agrigentum to Syracuse, and not far from a boar, when she was about to bring forth in this Acrae; but the exact site is undetermined. Plutarch place. Both Acraephia and the oracle belonged to (Marcell. 18), in relating the same event, writes the Thebes. There was no temple of the Ptoan Apollo, naine 'Akitas or 'Akimas.
E. H. B.] properly so called; Plutarch (Gryllus, 7) mentions a ACRITAS ('Axpiras: C. Gallo), the most southJóros, but other writers speak only of a Téuevos, erly promontory in Messenia. (Strab. p. 359; Paus. iepov, xpornpiov or martelov. (Steph. B. 8. v.; iv. 34. § 12 ; Ptol. iii. 16. § 7; Plin. iv. 5. s. 7; Strab. I. c.; Paus. I. c., iv. 32. & 5; Herod. viii. 135; | Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 443.) Plot. Pelop. 16.) According to Pausanias the oracle ACROCERAU'NIA. [CERAUNII MONTES.] ceased after the capture of Thebes by Alexander; ACROCORINTHUS. [CORINTHUS.] but the sanctuary still continued to retain its cele- ACRONIUS LACUS. BRIGANTINUS Lacus.) brity, as we see from the great Acraephian inscription, ACROREIA ('Arpápela), the mountainous diswhich Böckh places in the time of M. Aurelius and trict of Elis on the borders of Arcadia, in which the his son Commodus after a.d. 177. It appears from rivers Peneius and Ladon take their rise. The inthis inscription that a festival was celebrated in honour habitants of the district were called Acrocreii of the Ptoan Apollo every four years. (Böckh, Inscr. ('Akpwpeiot), and their towns appear to have been No. 1625.) The ruins of Acraephia are situated at | Thraustus, Alium, Opus, and Eupagium. The a short distance to the S. of Kardhitza. The re name is used in opposition to Kolan or Hollow Elis. mains of the acropolis are visible on an isolated hill, Stephanus (s. v.), who is followed by many modern a spur of Mt. Ptoum, above the Copaic sea, and at writers, makes Acrocreii a town, and places it in its foot on the N. and W. are traces of the ancient Triphylia ; but this error appears to have arisen town. Here stands the church of St. George built from confounding the Acrocreii with the Paroreatse out of the stones of the old town, and containing in Triplıylia. (Diod. xiv. 17; Xen. Hell. j. 2. §
30, vü. 4. § 14; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 203; || Boblaye, Recherches, p. 123.)
ACROTHOUM, or ACROTHOʻI ('Axpbowov Her. vi. 22; Appoleot, Thục, iv. 109; Strab. p. 331: Scyl. p. 26 : Steph. B. 8. v.: Acroathon. Mel.
. 2; Acrothon, Plin. iv. 10. s. 17: Eth. 'Akpótwos, 'Akpotuitns), a town in the peninsula of Acte, in Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated near the extremity of the peninsula, probably upon the site of the modern Lavra. Strabo, Pliny, and Mela seem to have supposed that Acrothoum stood upon the site of Mt. Athos; but this is an impossibility. [Athos.] It was stated by Mela and other ancient writers that the inhabitants of Acrothoi lived longer than ordi
PLAN OF ACTIUM. nary men. Mannert and others erroneously suppose
1. Ruins of Prevesa. | 5. Temple of Apollo. Acrothoi to have been the same place as the later
2. C. La Scara. Uranopolis. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p.
Fort La Punta. 3. Prom. Actium. La
| 6. Azio. 149.)
1 7. Anactorium. ACTE' ('Axth), signified a piece of land running
8. Vonitza. into the sea, and attached to another larger piece of 4. C. Madonna. | P. Bay of Prevesa. land, but not necessarily by a narrow neck. Thus Herodotus gives the name of Acte to Asia Minor as The entrance of the Ambraciot gulf lies between coir pared with the rest of Asia (iv. 38), and also to the low point off Acarnania, on which stands Fort Africa itself as jutting out from Asia (iv. 41). La Punta (5), and the promontory of Epirus, on Attica also was originally called Acte. (Steph. B. which stands the modern town of Prevesa (1), 6. r.) [ATTICA.] The name of Acte, however, near the site of the ancient Nicopolis. The narwas more specifically applied to the easternmost of rowest part of this entrance is only 700 yards, the three promontories jutting out from Chalcidice but the average distance between the two shores is in Macedonia, on which Mt. Athos stands. It is half a mile. After passing through this strait, the spoken of under ATHOS.
coast turns abruptly round a small point to the SE., ACTIUM ('AKTIOY: Eth. "AKTIOS, Actius: Adj. forming a bay about 4 miles in width, called the 'AKTICKÓS, Actiacus, also "AKTIOS, Actius), a pro- | Bay of Preresa (P). A second entrance is then montory in Acamania at the entrance of the Am- forined to the larger basin of the gulf by the two braciot Gulf (Gulf of Arta) off which Augustus high capes of La Scara (2) in Epeirus, and of gined his celebrated victory over Antony and Madonna (4) in Acarnania, the width of this Cleopatra, on September 2nd, B. c. 31. There was second entrance being about one mile and a half. a temple of Apollo on this promontory, which Now some modern writers, among others D'Anville, Thucydides mentions (i. 29) as situated in the suppose Actiun to have been situated on Cape territory of Anactorium. This temple was of great Madonna, and Anactorium, which Strabo (p. 451) antiquity, and Apollo derived from it the surname describes as 40 stadia from Actium, on La Punta. of Actius and Actiacus. There was also an ancient Two reasons have led them to adopt this conclusion: festival named Actia, celebrated here in honour of first, because the ruins on C. Madonna are somethe god. Augustus after his victory enlarged the times called Azio (6), which name is apparently a temple, and revived the ancient festival, which was corruption of the ancient Actium; and, secondly, henceforth celebrated once in four years (ITEVTAE- because the temple of Apollo is said by Strabo to tapis, ludi quinquennales), with musical and gym have stood on a height, which description answers nastic contests, and horse races. (Dion Cass. li. 1; to the rocky eminence on C. Madonna, and not to Suet. Aug. 18.) We learn from a Greek inscription the low peninsula of La Punta. But these reasons fonnd on the site of Actium, and which is probably are not conclusive, and there can be no doubt that prior to the time of Augustus, that the chief priest the site of Actium corresponds to La Punta. For of the temple was called 'Iepanóros, and that his it should be observed, first, that the name Azio paine was employed in official documents, like that is unknown to the Greeks, and appears to have been of the first Archon at Athens, to mark the date. introduced by the Venetians, who conjectured that (Böckh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.) Strabo says the ruins on C. Madonna were those of Actium, (p. 325) that the temple was situated on an and therefore invented the word; and, secondly, that emainence, and that below was a plain with a grove though Strabo places the temple of Apollo on a of trees, and a dock-yard; and in another passage height, he does not say that this height was on the (P. 451) he describes the harbour as situated out- sea, but on the contrary, that it was at some little side of the gulf. On the opposite coast of Epirus, distance from the sea. In other respects Strabo's Angustus founded the city of Nicopolis in honour evidence is decisive in favour of the identification of of his victory. [NICOPOLIS.] Actium was pro- Actium with La Punta. He says that Actium is perly not a town, though it is sometimes described one point which forms the entrance of the bay; and as such; but after the foundation of Nicopolis, a it is clear that he considered the entrance of the few buildings sprang up around the temple, and it bay to be between Prevesa and La Punta, because served as a kind of suburb to Nicopolis.
he makes the breadth of the strait "a little more The site of Actium has been a subject of dispute.than four stadia,” or half a mile, which is true The accompanying plan of the entrance of the when applied to the first narrow entrance, but not Ambraciot gulf, taken from the map published by to the second. That the strait between Prevesa Lient. Wolfe (Journal of the Royal Geographical and La Punta was regarded as the entrance of the Society, vol. ii.) will give the reader a clear idea of Ambraciot gulf, is clear, not only from the distance the locality.
| assigned to it by Strabo, but from the statements of Polybius (iv. 63), who makes it 5 stadia, of Scylax | ADANE ('Addvn, Philostorg. H. E. ii. 4), called (v. Kadowno), who makes it 4 stadia, and of ATHANA by Pliny (vi. 28. s. 32), and ARABIA Pliny (iv. 1) who makes it 500 paces. Anactorium FELIX ('Apabia 'eudaluar), in the Periplus of is described by Strabo as “situated within the bay,” | Arrian (p. 14), now Aden, the chief seaport in the while Actium makes “the mouth of the bay.” country of Homeritae on the S. coast of Arabia. (Strab. pp. 325, 451.) Anactorium, therefore, It became at a very early period the great mart must be placed on the promontory of C. Madonna. for the trade between Egypt, Arabia, and India; [For its exact site, see ANACTORIUM.] The testi- and although destroyed by the Romans, probably by mony of Strabo is confirmed by that of Dion | Aelius Gallus in his expedition against Arabia, in Cassius. The latter writer says (1. 12) that the reign of Augustus, it speedily revived, and has “ Actium is a temple of Apollo, and is situated ever since remained a place of note. It has revived before the mouth of the strait of the Ambraciot conspicuously within the last few years, having gulf, over against the harbours of Nicopolis." | fallen into the possession of the English and beco Cicero tells us (ad Fam. xvi. 6, 9) that in coasting one of the stations for the steamers which navigate from Patrae to Corcyra he touched at Actium, the Red Sea.
[W.R.) which he could hardly have done, if it were so far A'DDUA (d'Adovas: Adda), a river of Gallia out of his way as the inner strait between C. La Cisalpina, one of the largest of the tributaries which Scara and C. Madonna. Thus we come to the bring down the waters of the Alps to the Po. It rises conclusion that the promontory of Actium was the in the Rhaetian Alps near Bormio, and flows through modern La Punta (3), and that the temple of the Valtelline, into the Lacus Larius or Lago di Apollo was situated a little to the S., outside the Como, from which it again issues at its south-eastern strait, probably near the Fort La Punta (5). extremity near Lecco, and from thence has a course
A few reraarks are necessary respecting the site of above 50 miles to the Po, which it joins between of the battle, which has conferred its chief celebrity Placentia and Cremona. During this latter part of upon Actium. The fleet of Antony was stationed its course it seems to have formed the limit between in the Bay of Prevesa (P). His troops had built the Insubres and the Cenomani. It is a broad and towers on each side of the mouth of the strait, and rapid stream: the clearness of its blue waters, rethey occupied the channel itself with their ships. sulting from their passage through a deep lake, is Their camp was near the temple of Apollo, on a alluded to by Claudian (De VI. Cons. Hon. 196). level spacious ground. Augustus was encamped Strabo erroneously places its sources in Mr. ADULA. on the opposite coast of Epirus, on the spot where where, according to him, the Rhine also rises: it is Nicopolis afterwards stood; his fleet appears to have probable that he was imperfectly acquainted with been stationed in the Bay of Gomaros, now the this part of the Alps, and supposed the stream which harbour of Mitika, to the N. of Nicopolis, in the descends from the Splügen to the head of the lake Ionian sea. Antony was absent from his army at of Como to be the original Addua, instead of the Patrae; but as soon as he heard of the arrival much larger river which enters it from the Valof Augustus, he proceeded to Actium, and after telline. (Strab. iv. pp. 192, 204; V. p. 213; Plin. a short time crossed over the strait to Prevesa, iii. 16. 8. 20; Pol. ü. 32, xxxiv. 10; Tac. Hist. ii. and pitched his camp near that of Augustus. But 40.)
[E. H. B.] having experienced some misfortunes, he subse- ADIABENE ('Adiabnun). Assyria.) quently re-crossed the strait and joined the main ADIS or ADES ('Adis, Adns: prob. Rhades), a body of his ariny at Actium. By the advice of considerable city of Africa, on the Gulf of Tunis, in Cleopatra he now determined to return to Egypt. the Carthaginian territory, which Regulus besieged He accordingly sailed out of the strait, but was and took, and before which he defeated the Carthacompelled by the manoeuvres of Augustus to fight. ginians, in the 10th year of the first Punic War, After the battle had lasted some hours Cleopatra, B. c. 255. (Pol. i. 30.) As there is no subsequent who was followed by Antony, sailed through the mention of the place, it is supposed to have been middle of the contending fleets, and took to flight. supplanted, or at least reduced to insignificance, by They succeeded in making their escape, but most the later town of MAXULA.
(P.S.] of their ships were destroyed. The battle was, ADO'NIS ( Adwris: Nahr el Ibrahim), a small therefore, fought outside of the strait, between La river of Syria, which rising in Mount Libanus enters Punta and Prevesa (?EW TV Otevæv, Dion Cass. the Mediterranean a few miles to the S. of Byblus. 1. 31), and not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is stated Maundrell records the fact which he himself witby some writers. (Dion Cass. I. 12, seq.; Leake, | nessed, that after a sudden fall of rain, the river Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 28, seq.; Wolfe, l. c.) descending in foods is tinged of a deep red by the
A'DADA ("Adada: Eth. 'Adadeús, Ptol.; 'Ada- soil of the hills in which it takes its rise, and imparts dárn in old edit. of Strabo; 'Odada, Hierocl.), a this colour to the sea for a considerable distance. town in Pisidia of uncertain site. On coins of Va- | Hence some have sought to explain the legend of the lerian and Gallienus we find AAAAENN. Adada beautiful Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar on is mentioned in the Councils as the see of a bishop. | Mount Libanus (Strab. p. 755; Lucian, de Dea (Artemiod. ap. Strab. xii. p. 570; Ptol. v. 5. 88; Syr. 6; Plin. v. 20.; Nonn. Dionys. iii. 80, xx. Hierocl. p. 674, with Wesseling's note.)
(W.R.) A’DANA (Tà"Adava: Eth. 'Adaveús), a town of ADOREUS, the name of a mountain of Galatia, Cilicia, which keeps its ancient name, on the west now Elmah Dagh, in the neighbourhood of Pessinus, side of the Sarus, now the Syhoon or Syhān. It in Asia. Livy (xxxviii. 18.) says that it contains lay on the military road from Tarsus to Issus, in a the source of the river Sangarius. [G. L.) fertile country. There are the remains of a portico. ADORSI. [AORSI.] Pompey settled here some of the Cilician pirates ADRAA (Adpda, Euseb. Onomast. : "Alpa Ptol. whom he had compelled to submit. (Appian, Mith. v. 15. § 23: LXX. 'Espaciv, 'ESpaiv : Eng. Vers. 96.) Dion Cassius (xlvii. 31) speaks of Tarsus Edrei: and probably the 'Aspadrós of Hierocles. and Adana being always quarrelling. [G. L.] 1 p. 273: Draa), a town in Palestine, near the sources
of the river Hieromax, and deeply embayed in the Steph. B. HADRANUM, Sil. Ital.: Eth. 'Adpavions, spars of the mountain chain of Hermon. Before Hadranitanus : Aderno), a city of the interior of Sicily, the conquest of Canaan by Joshna, it was one of the situated at the foot of the western slope of Mt. Aetna chief cities of Og, king of Bashan. After his defeat above the valley of the Simeto, and about 7 miles from and death it was assigned to the half tribe of Ma-Centuripi. We learn from Diodorus (xiv. 37) that nasseh, which settled on the eastern side of Jordan. there existed here from very ancient times a temple It was the seat of a Christian bishop at an early time, of a local deity named Adranus, whose worship was and a bishop of Adraa sat in the council of Seleucia extensively spread through Sicily, and appears to have (A. D.381), and of Chalcedon (A. D. 451). By the been connected with that of the Palici. (Hesych. 8. v. Greeks it was called Adraa, and by the Crusaders Halikol.) But there was no city of the name until Adratum. Its ruins cover a circuit of about 2 miles, the year 400 B. C. when it was founded by the elder of which the most important is a large rectangular Dionysius, with a view to extend his power and inbuilding, surrounded by a double covered colonnade, fluence in the interior of the island. (Diod. I. c.) and with a cistern in the middle. (Numbers, xxi. 33; It probably continued to be a dependency of SyraDeuteron. i. 4, iii. 10; Joshua xii. 4, xiii. 12, 31; cuse; but in 345 B. c. it fell into the hands of TiJoseph. Antiq. iv. 5. § 42; Buckingham, Travels, moleon. (Id. xvi. 68; Plut. Timol. 12.) It was Fol. č. p. 146; Burckhardt, id. p. 241.) [W. B.D.] one of the cities taken by the Romans at the com
ADRAISTAE ('Adpaintai), a people of N. India mencement of the First Punic War (Diod. xxii. (the Panjab), with a capital city Pimprama (Olíu Exc. Hoesch. p. 501), and probably on this account Tpaua), which Alexander reached in a day's journey continued afterwards in a relation to Rome inferior froin the Hydraotes (Ravee), on his march to to that of most other Sicilian cities. This may per. Sangala. (Arrian. Anab. v. 22. $ 3.) Lassen iden haps account for the circumstance that its name is tifies them with the modern Arattas (Pentapotamia, not once mentioned by Cicero (see Zumpt ad Cic. p. 25).
P.S. Verr. i. 6. p. 437): but we learn from Pliny ADRAMI'TAE or ATRAMI'TAE (Plin. vi. 28. it was in his time included in the class of the “stiS. 32; 'Aðpauitai, Ptol.; Arrian, Perip. p. 15), an pendiariae civitates" of Sicily. (H. N. iii. 8.). Arabian tribe in the district Chatramotitis of Arabia Both Diodorus and Plutarch speak of it as a small Felix. They were situated on the coast of the Red Sea town owing its importance chiefly to the sanctity of eastward of Aden, and their name is still preserved its temple; but existing remains prove that it must in the modern Hadramaut. Like their immediate have been at one time a place of some consideration. neighbours in Arabia Felix, the Adramitae were These consist of portions of the ancient walls and actively engaged in the drug and spice trade, of towers, built in a massive style of large squared blocks which their capital Sabbatha was the emporium. of lava; of massive substructions, supposed to have They were governed by a race of kings, who bore been those of the temple of Adranus; and the ruins the family or official title of Eleazar. (CHATRA- of a large building which appears to have belonged MOTITAE.]
(W. B. D.] to Roman Thermae. Numerous sepulchres also ADRAMYENTTUS SINUS. [ADRAMYTTIUM; have been discovered and excavated in the immediate AEolis.
neighbourhood. The modern town of Adernò reADRÁMY’TTIUM or ADRAMYTEʻUM ('Adpa- tains the ancient site as well as name: it is a consiLÚTTIOV, 'AdpawÚTTELOV, 'At pauúttlov, 'Atpauút- derable place, with above 6000 inhabitants. (BisTELOY: Eth. 'A&pamuttyvós, Adramyttenus : Adra- cari, Viaggio in Sicilia, pp. 57—60; Ortolani, Diz. miti or Edremit), a town situated at the head of the Geogr. della Sicilia, p. 13; Bull. dell. Inst. Arch. bay, called from it Adramyttends, and on the river 1843, p. 129.) Caicos, in Mysia, and on the road from the Helles- Stephanus Byzantinus speaks of the city as situated pontus to Pergamum. According to tradition it was on a river of the same name: this was evidently no founded by Adramys, a brother of Croesns, king of other than the northern branch of the Simeto (SyLydia; but a colony of Athenians is said to have sub- maethus) which is still often called the Fiume d' sequently settled there. (Strab. p. 606.) The place Aderno.
[E. H. B.) certainly became a Greek town. Thucydides (v. 1; viii. 108) also mentions a settlement here from Delos, made by the Delians whom the Athenians rernoved from the island B. C. 422. After the establishment of the dynasty of the kings of Pergamm, it was a seaport of some note; and that it had some shipping, appears from a passage in the Acts of the Apostles (xxvii. 2). Under the Romans it was a Conventus Juridicus in the province of Asia, or place to which the inhabitants of the district resorted as the court town. There are Do traces of ancient remains.
COIN OF ADRANUM. ADRANA (Eder), a river of Germany in the A'DRIA, A'TRIA, HA'DRIA, or HA'TRIA territory of the Chatti, near Cassel. (Tac. Ann. i.56.) | ('A8pía or 'Arpia). It is impossible to establish any
ADRANS, ADRANA, ADRA’NTE(Tà"Adpava, distinction between these forms, or to assign the one Zos. j. 45; HADRANS, Itiner. Hieros. p. 560: St. (as has been done by several authors) to one city, Oxald on the Drauberg), a town in Noricum, situ- and another to the other. The oldest form appears ated between the towns Aerona and Celeia, in the to have been HATRIA, which we find on coins, while valley separating Mt. Cetius from Mt. Carvancas. HADRIA is that used in all inscriptions: some MSS. A vestige of its Roman origin or occupation still of Livy have ADRIA, and others ATRIA. Pliny survives in its local appellation of Trajaner-dorf or tells us that ATRIA was the more ancient form, Trajan's-thorpe. (Itin. Anton.) W. B. D.] which was afterwards changed into Adria, but the
ADRANUM, or HADRA'NUM ('Aopavóv, Diod. Greeks seem to have early used ’Aôpia for the city
as well as 'ASplas for the sea. 1. A city of Cis- | mulations of alluvial soil. Of the numerous minor alpine Gaul, situated between the Padus and the antiquities discovered there, the most interesting are Athesis, not far from their mouths, and still called the vases already alluded to. (See Müller, Etrusker, Adria. It is now distant more than 14 miles from i. p. 229, and the authors there cited.) The coins the sea, but was originally a sea-port of great cele- ascribed to this city certainly belong to Adria in brity. Its foundation is ascribed to Diomed by Picenum. Stephanus Byzantinus, and some other late writers: A river of the same name ('Adpías) is menJustin also (xx. 1), probably following Theopompus, tioned by Hecataeus (ap. Steph. Byz. 8. v.), and by calls it a city of Greek origin; but these testimonies Theopompus (ap. Strab. vii. p. 317); it is called are far outweighed by those of the Roinan writers, | by Ptolemy 'Atpravds notauós, and must prowho agree in describing it as an Etruscan colony. bably be the same called by the Romans Tartarus It was probably established at the saine period with (Plin. iii. 16. s. 20), and still known in the upper their other settlements on the north side of the part of its course as the Tartaro. It rises in the Apennines, and became, from its position, the prin- Hills to the SE. of the Lago di Garda, and flows cipal emporium for their trade with the Adriatic; by the modern Adria, but is known by the name of by which means it attained to so flourishing a con Canal Bianco in the lower part of its course; it dition, as to have given name to the gulf, or portion communicates, by canals, with the Po and the Adige, of the sea in its immediate neighbourhood, from 2. A city of Picenum, still called Atri, situated whence the appellation was gradually extended to about 5 miles from the Adriatic Sea, between the the whole of the inland sea still called the Adriatic. rivers Vomanus and Matrinus. According to the To this period may also be ascribed the great canals Itinerary it was distant 15 Roinan miles from Casand works which facilitated its cominunications with trum Novum, and 14 from Teate. (Itin. Ant. pp. the adjoining rivers, and through them with the 308, 310, 313; comp. Tab. Peut.) It has been interior of Cisalpine Gaul, at the same time that supposed, with much probability, to be of Etruscan they drained the marshes which would otherwise origin, and a colony from the more celebrated city of have rendered it uninhabitable. (Liv. v.33; Plin. iii. | the name (Mazocchi, Tab. Heracl. p. 532; Müller, 16. s. 20; Strab. v. p. 214; Varro de L. L. v. 161; Etrusker, vol. i. p. 145), though we have no hisFestus, p. 13, ed. Müller; Plut. Camill. 16.) torical evidence of the fact. It has also been Notwithstanding its early celebrity, we have scarcely generally admitted that a Greek colony was founded any inforination concerning its history; but the de there by Dionysius the Elder, at the time that he cline of its power and prosperity may reasonably be was seeking to establish his power in the Adriatic, Ascribed to the conquest of the neighbouring countries about B. c. 385; but this statement rests on very by the Gauls, and to the consequent neglect of the doubtful authority (Etym. Magn. v. 'ASplas), and canals and streams in its neighbourhood. The in- no subsequent trace of the settlement is found in creasing commerce of the Greeks with the Adriatic history. The first certain historical notice we find of probably contributed to the same result. It has Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony there been supposed by some writers that it received, at about 282 B.C. (Liv. Epit. xi.; Madvig, de Coloniis, different periods, Greek colonies, one from Epidamnus | p. 298.) In the early part of the Second Punic and the other from Syracuse; but both statements War (B.C. 217) its territory was ravaged by Hanappear to rest upon misconceptions of the passages nibal; but notwithstanding this calamity, it was one of Diodorus, from which they are derived. (Diod. ix. of the 18 Latin colonies which, in B.C. 209, were Exc. Vat. p. 17, xv. 13; in both of which passages faithful to the cause of Rome, and willing to conthe words tov 'Adpíay certainly refer to the Adriatic tinue their contributions both of men and money. sea or gulf, not to the city, the name of which is (Liv. xxii. 9, xxvii. 10; Polyb. iii. 88.) At a later always feminine.) The abundance of vases of period, as we learn from the Liber de Coloniis, it Greek manufacture found here, of precisely similar must have received a fresh colony, probably under character with those of Nola and Vulci, sufficiently Augustus: hence it is termed a Colonia, both by attests a great amount of Greek intercourse and Pliny and in inscriptions. One of these gives it the influence, but cannot be admitted as any proof of a titles of “ Colonia Aelia Hadria," whence it would Greek colony, any more than in the parallel case of appear that it had been re-established by the emVulci. (R. Rochette in the Annali dell Inst. Arch. peror Hadrian, whose family was originally derived vol. vi. p. 292; Welcker, Vasi di Adria in the from hence, though he was himself a native of Bullettino dell' Inst. 1834, p. 134.) Under the Spain. (Lib. Colon. p. 227; Plin. H. N. ü. 13. Romans Adria appears never to have been a place of s. 18; Orell. Inscr. no. 148, 3018; Gruter, p. 1022; much consequence. Strabo (l.c.) speaks of it as a Zumpt de Colon. p. 349; Spartian. Hadrian. 1.; small town, communicating by a short navigation Victor, Epit. 14.) The territory of Adria (ager with the sea; and we learn from Tacitus (Hist. ü. Adrianus), though subsequently included in Picenum, 12) that it was still accessible for the light Libur- | appears to have originally formed a separate and innian ships of war as late as the time of Vitellius. | dependent district, bonnded on the N. by the river After the fall of the Western Empire it was included | Vomanus (Vomano), and on the S. by the Matrinus in the exarchate of Ravenna, but fell rapidly into (la Piomba); at the mouth of this latter river was decay during the middle ages, though it never ceased a town bearing the name of MATRINUM, which to exist, and always continued an episcopal see. served as the port of Adria; the city itself stood on Since the opening of new canals it has considerably a hill a few miles inland, on the same site still revived, and has now a population of 10,000 souls. occupied by the modern Atri, a place of some conConsiderable remains of the ancient city have been sideration, with the title of a city, and the sce of a discovered a little to the south of the modern town bishop. Great part of the circuit of the ancient towards Ravegnano; they are all of Roman date, and walls may be still traced, and mosaic pavements comprise the ruins of a theatre, baths, mosaic pave- and other remains of buildings are also preserved. ments, and part of the ancient walls, all which have (Strab. v. p. 241; Sil. Ital. vii. 439; Ptol. ij. 1. been buried to a considerable depth under the accu- 1 $ 52; Mela, ü. 4; Romanelli, vol. iii. p 307.) Ac.