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serve as an Odeum, or theatre for music. Numerous other architectural fragments, attesting the existence of temples and other buildings, have also been brought to light, as well as statues, pedestals, inscriptions, and other minor relics. On an adjoining hill are great numbers of tombs excavated in the rock, while on the hill of Aeremonte itself are some monuments of a singular character; figures as large as life, hewn in relief in shallow niches on the surface of the native rock. As the principal figure in all these sculptures appears to be that of the goddess Isis, they must belong to a late period. (Fazell. de Rch. Sic. vol. i. p. 452; Serra di Falco, AntickUa di Sicilia, vol. iv. p. 158, seq.; Juduia, AntichitadiAcre.) [E.H.B.]

ACRAE ('Aitpai), a town in Aetolia of uncertain site, on the road from Metapa to Canape. Stcphanus erroneously calls it an Acamanian town. (Pol. v. 13; Steph. B. t. c. "Aitpo.)

ACRAEA ('Aftpxla), a mountain in Argolis, opposite the Heraeum, or great temple of Hera. (Pans, ii. 17. § 2; Leake, Mono, vol. ii. p. 393, Peloponnetiaca, p. 263.)

ACRAE'PHIA, ACRAEPHIAE, ACRAEPHIUM, ACRAEPHNIUM ('AKpaupla, Steph. B. t. v.; Herod, viii. 135, Acraephia, Liv. xxxiii. 29; Plin. iv. 7. s. 12; 'Axpauplat, Strab. p.410; 'futpal<piov, Strab. p. 413.; 'Aupcufmov, Pans. ix. 23. § 5: To. 'Anpaipyia, Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. t. v.; Eth. 'KKpaupia'ios, '\Kpal>pios, 'AKpalfyvios, '' AKpaupviwT7)5, 'Ax/xwpvicvi, Steph. B. t. v.; 'Axpaupieifi, Bockh, Inter. 1587: nr. Kardhitza), a town of Boeotia on the slope of Mt. Ptoum (nruoy) and on the eastern bank of the lake Copais, which was here called 'Axpauph Ai>n| from the town. Acraephia is said to have been founded by Athamas or Acraepheus, son of Apoilo; and according to some writers it was the same as the Homeric Arne. Here the Thebans took refuge, when their city was destroyed by Alexander. It contained a temple of Dionysus. (Steph. B. J. c; Strab. p. 413; Paus. I. c.) At the distance of 15 stadia from the town, on the right of the road, and upon Mt. Ptoum, was a celebrated sanctuary and oracle of Apollo Ptous. This oracle was consulted by Mardonius before the battle of Plataea, and is said to have answered his emissary, who was a Carian, in the language of the latter. The name of the mountain was derived by some from Ptous, a son of Apollo and Euxippe, and by others from Leto having been frightened (n-roem) by a boar, when she was about to bring forth in this place. Both Acraephia and the oracle belonged to Thebes. There was no temple of the Ptoan Apollo, properly so called; Plutarch (Grylhu, 7) mentions a doAos, but other writers speak only of a T4/uvos, itp6y, xwryp'ov or ujxyrtioy. (Steph. B. I. v.; Strab. I. c.; Paus. i. c, iv. 32. § 5; Herod, viii. 135; Plot. Pelop. 16.) According to Pausanias the oracle ceased after the capture of Thebes by Alexander; but the sanctuary still continued to retain its celebrity, as we see from the great Acraephian inscription, which Bockh places in the time of M. Aurelius and his son Commodus after A.d. 177. It appears from this inscription that a festival was celebrated in honour of the Ptoan Apollo every four years. (Bockh, Inter. No. 1625.) The ruins of Acraephia are situated at a short distance to the S. of Kardhitza. The remains of the acropolis are visible on an isolated hill, a spur of Mt. Ptoum, above the Copaic sea, and at its foot on the N. and W. are traces of the ancient town. Here stands the church of St. George built out of the stones of the old town, and containing

many fragments of antiquity. In this church Leake discovered the great inscription alluded to above, which is in honour of one of the citizens of the place called Epaminondas. The ruins near the foun:ain, which is now called Perdilcobrytit, probably belong to the sanctuary of the Ptoan Apollo. The poet Alcaeus (ap. Strab. p. 413) gave the epithet Tpikopavov to Mt. Ptoum, and the three summits now bear the names of Paled, Strutana, and Skroponeri respectively. These form the central part of Mt. Ptoum, which in a wider signification extended from the Tenerian plain as far as Larymna atd the Euboean sea, separating the Copaic lake on the E. from the lakes of Hylae and Harms. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. 295, seq.; Ulrichs, Heiten in Grieckenland, vol. i. p. 239, seq.; Forchhammer, Ilellenilca, p. 182.)

ACRAGAS. [aqrigentom.]

A'CRIAE or ACRAEAE ('Axpioi, Paus. iii. 21, § 7, 22. §§ 4, 5; Pol. 5. 19. § 8; 'tucpauu, Strab. pp. 343, 363;"AKp«io, PtoL iii. 16. § 9: Eth, 'Axpicfnjs), a town of Laconia, on the eastern side of the Laconian bay, 30 stadia S. of Helos. Strabo (I c.) describes the Eurotas as flowing into the sea between Acriae and Gythium. Acriae possessed a sanctuary and a statue of the mother of the gods, which was said by the inhabitants of the town to be the most ancient in the Peloponnesus. Leake was unable to discover any remains of Acriae; the French expedition place its ruins at the harbour of Kokmio. (Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 229; Boblaye, Recherche*, p. 95.)

ACRIDOTHAGI {'fjtptoo^iyoi), or "Locusteaters," the name given by Diodorus (iii. 29) and Strabo (p. 770) to one of the half-savage tribes of Aethiopia bordering on the Red Sea, who received their denomination from their mode of life or thenstaple food. fW. R.]

ACRILLA or ACRILLAE ("Aa-oiAAc.), a town of Sicily, known only from Stephanus of Byzantium (t. ».), who tells us that it was not far from Syracuse. But there can be no doubt that it is the same place mentioned by Livy (xxiv. 35) where the Syracusan army under Hippocrates was defeated by Marcellus. The old editions of Livy have Accillak, for which Acrillae, the emendation of Cluverius, has been received by all the recent editors. From this passage we learn that it was on the line of march from Agrigentum to Syracuse, and not far from Acrae; but the exact site is undetermined. Plutarch {Marcett. 18), in relating the same event, writes the name 'ActXea or 'AxiAAaj. [E. H. B.}

ACRITAS {'AKphas: C. GaUo), the most southerly promontory in Messenia. (Strab. p. 359; Paus. iv. 34. § 12 ; Ptol. iii. 16. § 7; Plin. iv. 5. s. 7; Leake, Morea, vol. i. p. 443.) ACROCERAU'NIA. [CERAUjm Months.] ACROCORINTHUS. [corintiius.] ACRO'NIUS LACUS. [brioantinls Lacus.] ACROREIA ('A/tpaptm), the mountainous district of Elis on the borders of Arcadia, in which the rivers Peneins and Ladon take their rise. The inhabitants of the district were called Acrocreii ('AKfxopfioi), and their towns appear to have been Thraustus, Alium, Opus, and Eupagium. The name is used in opposition to Ko(A?| or Hollow Elis. Stcphanus («. ».), who is followed by many modern writers, makes Acrocreii a town, and places it in Triphylia; bat this error appears to have arisen from confounding the Acrocreii with the I'aroreatae in Triphylia. (Diod. xiv. 17; Xen. Hell. iii. 2. § 80, To. 4. § 14; Leake, Morea, vol. ii. p. 203; BViUve, Recherches, p. 123.)

ACBOTHOTOl, or ACROTHOT ('\Kp60uov Her. vii. 22; 'Axpltooi, Tunc, iv. 109; Strab. p. 331; ScyL p. 26 ; Steph. B. *. r.; Acroathon, Mel. ii. 2; Acrothon, Plin. iv. 10. a. 17: Eth. 'fucpoBwos, 'AKjo6o»fTi)s), a town in the peninsula of Acte, in Chalcidice in Macedonia, situated near the extremity of the peninsula, probably upon the site of the modern Lacra. Strabo, Pliny, and Mela seem to have supposed that Acrothoum stood npon the site of Mt. Athos; but this is an impossibility. [atiios.] It ins stated by Mela and other ancient writers that the inhabitants of Acrothoi lived longer than ordinary men. Mannert and others erroneously suppose Acrothoi to have been the same place as the later Uranopolis. (Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 149.)

ACTE' ('Ajrrfj), signified a piece of land running into the sea, and attached to another larger piece of land, but not necessarily by a narrow neck. Thus Herodotus gives the name of Acte to Asia Minor as compared with the rest of Asia (iv. 38), and also to Africa itself as jutting out from Asia (iv. 41). Attica also was originally called Acte. (Steph. B. «. *.) [attica.] The name of Acte, however, was more specifically applied to the easternmost of the three promontories jutting out from Chalcidice in Macedonia, on which Mt. Athos stands. It is spoken of under Athos.

A'CTILII ('Acr.oi': Eth. "axtios, Actius: Adj. 'AjmoKos, Actiacns, also "a*tiot, Actius), a promontory in Acamania at the entrance of the Ambraciot Gulf (.Gulf of Arta) off which Augustus gained his celebrated victory over Antony and Cleopatra, on September 2nd, B. c. 31. There was a temple of Apollo on this promontory, which Thucydides mentions (i. 29) as situated in the territory of Anactorinm. This temple was of great antiquity, and Apollo derived from it the surname of Actius and Actiacus. There was also an ancient festival named Actio, celebrated here in honour of the god. Augustus after his victory enlarged the temple, and revived the ancient festival, which was henceforth celebrated once in four years (vmo<Tiipff, htdi qvinquemudes), with musical and gymnastic contests, and horse races. (Dion Cass. 11 1; . Aug. 18.) We learn from a Greek inscription d on the site of Actium, and which is probably prior to the time of Augustus, that the chief priest of the temple was called 'IepawoAor, and that his came was employed in official documents, like that of the first Archon at Athens, to mark the date. (Bockh, Corpus Inscript. No. 1793.) Strabo says (p. 325) that the temple was situated on an eminence, and that below was a plain with a grove of trees, and a dock-yard; and in another passage (p. 451) he describes the harbour as situated outside of the gulf. On the opposite coast of Epirus, Augustus founded the city of Nicopolis in honour of his victory. [nicopolis.] Actium was properly not a town, though it is sometimes described as such; but after the foundation of Nicopolis, a few buildings sprang up around the temple, and it served as a kind of suburb to Nicopolis.

The site of Actium has been a subject of dispute. The accompanying plan of the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf, taken from the map published by Lieut. Wolfe (Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, vol. iii.) will give the reader a clear idea of the locality.

[graphic][merged small][merged small][merged small]

The entrance of the Ambraciot gulf lies between the low point off Acamania, on which stands Fort La Punta (5), and the promontory of Epirus, on which stands the modern town of Prevesa (1), near the site of the ancient Nicopolis. The narrowest part of this entrance is only 700 yards, but the average distance between the two shores is half a mile. After passing through this strait, the coast turns abruptly round a small point to the SE., forming a bay about 4 miles in width, called the Bay of Prevesa (P). A second entrance is then formed to the larger basin of the gulf by the two high capes of La Scara (2) in Epeirus, and of Madonna (4) in Acamania, the width of this second entrance being about one mile and a half. Now some modem writers, among others D'Anville, suppose Actium to have been situated on Cape Madonna, and Anactorium, which Strabo (p. 451) describes as 40 stadia from Actium, on La Punta. Two reasons have led them to adopt this conclusion: first, because the ruins on C. Madonna are sometimes called Azio (6), which name is apparently a corruption of the ancient Actium; and, secondly, because the temple of Apollo is said by Strabo to have stood on a height, which description answers to the rocky eminence on C. Madonna, and not to the low peninsula of La Punta. But these reasons are not conclusive, and there can be no doubt that the site of Actium corresponds to La Punta. For it should be observed, first, that the name Azio is unknown to the Greeks, and appears to have been introduced by the Venetians, who conjectured that the ruins on C. Madonna were those of Actium, and therefore invented the word; and, secondly, that thongh Strabo places the temple of Apollo on a height, he does not say that this height was on the sea, but on the contrary, that it was at some little distance from the sea. In other respects Strabo's evidence is decisive in favour of the identification of Actium with La Punta. He says that Actium is one point which forms the entrance of the bay; and it is clear that he considered the entrance of the bay to be between Prevesa and La Punta, because he makes the breadth of the strait " a little more than four stadia," or half a mile, which is true when applied to the first narrow entrance, but not to the second. That the strait between Prevesa and La Punta was regarded as the entrance of the Ambraciot gulf, is clear, not only from the distance assigned to it by Strabo, but from the statements of Polybius (iv. 63), who makes it 5 stadia, of Scylax (v. KarraunuL), who makes it 4 stadia, and of Pliny (iv. 1) who makes it 500 paces. Anactorium is described by Strabo as "situated within the bay," while Actium makes "the month of the bay." (Strab. pp. 325, 451.) Anactorinm, therefore, must be placed on the promontory of C. Madonna. [For its exact site, see Anactokium.] The testimony of Strabo is confirmed by that of Dion Cassius. The latter writer says (1. 12) that "Actium is a temple of Apollo, and is sitnated before the mouth of the strait of the Ambraciot gulf, over against the harbours of Nicopolis." Cicero tells us (ad Fam. xvi. 6, 9) that in coasting from Patrae to Corcyra he touched at Actium, which he could hardly have done, if it were so far out of his way as the inner Btrait between C. La Scara and C. Madonna. Thus we come to the conclusion that the promontory of Actium was the modem La Punta (3), and that the temple of Apollo was situated a little to the S., outside the strait, probably near the Fort La Punta (5).

A few renarks are necessary respecting the site of the battle, which has conferred its chief celebrity upon Actium. The fleet of Antony was stationed in the Bay of Prereia (P). His troops had built towers on each side of the mouth of the strait, and they occupied the channel itself with their ships. Their catnp was near the temple of Apollo, on a level spacious ground. Augustus was encamped on the opposite coast of Epirus, on the spot where Nicopolis afterwards stood; his fleet appears to have been stationed in the Bay of Gomaros, now the harbour of Mitika, to the N. of Nicopolis, in the Ionian sea. Antony was absent from his army at Patrae; but as soon as he heard of the arrival of Augustus, ho proceeded to Actium, and after a short time crossed over the strait to Prevesa, and pitched his camp near that of Augustus. But having experienced some misfortunes, he subsequently re-crossed the strait and joined the maiu body of his army at Actium. By the advice of Cleopatra he now determined to return to Egypt. He accordingly sailed out of the strait, but was compelled by the manoeuvres of Augustus to fight. After the battle had lasted some hours Cleopatra, who was followed by Antony, sailed through the middle of the contending fleets, and took to flight. They succeeded in making their escape, but most of their ships were destroyed. The battle was, therefore, fought outside of the strait, between La Punta and Prevesa (f{« Tuv ffrnw, Dion Cass. 1. 31), and not in the Bay of Prevesa, as is stated by some writers. (Dion Cass. L 12, seq.; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. p. 28, seq.; Wolfe, I c.)

A'DADA ('ASoJo: Eth. "ASaXtit, PtoL; "A5aSaTTj in old edit, of Strabo; 'O&d&a, Hierocl.), a town in Pisidia of uncertain site. On coins of Valerian and Gallieuus we find AAAAEHN. Adada is mentioned in the Councils as the see of a bishop. (Artemiod. ap. Strab. xii. p. 570; Ptol. v. 5. §8; Hierocl. p. 674, with Wesseling's note.)

A'DANA (tb "ASavo; Eth. 'ASavtis), a town of Cilicia, which keeps its ancient name, on the west side of the Sarus, now the Syhoon or Syhdn. It lay on the military road from Tarsus to Issus, in a fertile country. There are the remains of a portico. Pompey settled here some of the Cilician pirates whom he had compelled to submit. (Appian, Mith. 96.) Dion Cassius (xlvii. 31) speaks of Tarsus and Adam being always quarrelling. [G. L.]

ADANE CAtdrn, Philostorg. H. E. iii. 4), called ATHANA by Pliny (vi. 28. s. 32), and ARABIA FELIX ('Aoafta (vSaiuuv), in the Periplus of Arrian (p. 14), now Aden, the chief seaport in the country of Homeritae on the S. coast of Arabia. It became at a very early period the great mart for the trade between Egypt, Arabia, and India; and although destroyed by the Romans, probably by Aelius Gallus in his expedition against Arabia, in the reign of Augustus, it speedily revived, and has ever since remained a place of note. It has revived conspicuously within the last few years, having fallen into the possession of the English, and become one of the stations for the steamers which navigate the Red Sea. [W. R.]

A'DDUA (4'ASoiiot: Adda), a river of Gallia Cisalpina, one of the largest of the tributaries which bring down the waters of the Alps to the Po. It rises in the Rhaetian Alps near Bormio, and flows through the Valtelline, into the Lacus Larius or Logo di Como, from which it again issues at its south- eastern extremity near Lecco, and from thence has a course of above 50 miles to the Po, which it joins between Placentia and Cremona. During this latter part of its course it seems to have formed the limit between the Insubres and the Cenomani. It is a broad and rapid stream: the clearness of its blue waters, resulting from their passage through a deep lake, is alluded to by Claudian (As VI. Com. Hon. 196). Strabo erroneously places its sources in Mt. Adula, where, according to him, the Rhine also rises: it is probable that he was imperfectly acquainted with this part of the Alps, and supposed the stream which descends from the Splugen to the head of the lake of Como to be the original Addua, instead of the much larger river which enters it from the Valtelline. (Strab. iv. pp. 192,204; v. p. 213; Plin. iii. 16. s. 20; Pol. ii. 32, xxxiv. 10; Tac. Ilitt. ii. 40.) [E. H. B.]

ADIABE"NE (ASias^). [assyria.]

ADIS or ADES (ASfj.'ASni: prob. Rhodes), a considerable city of Africa, on the Gulf of Tunis, in the Carthaginian territory, which Regulus besieged and took, and before which he defeated the Carthaginians, in the 10th year of the first Punic War, B. c. 255. (Pol. i. 30.) As there is no subsequent mention of the place, it is supposed to have been supplanted, or at least reduced to insignificance, by the later town of Maxula. [P. S.]

ADO'NIS CKtuvit: Nahr el Ibrahim), a small river of Syria, which rising in Mount Libanus enters the Mediterranean a few miles to the S. of Byblus. Maundrell records the fact which he himself witnessed, that after a sudden fall of rain, the river descending in floods is tinged of a deep red by the soil of the hills in which it takes its rise, and imparts this colour to the sea for a considerable distance. Hence some have sought to explain the legend of the beautiful Adonis, who was killed by a wild boar on Mount Libanus (Strab. p. 755; Lucian, de Dea Syr. 6; Plin. v. 20.; Nonn. Dionys. iii 80, xx. 144.) [W. R.]

ADOREUS, the name of a mountain of Galatia, now Ebnah Dagh, in the neighbourhood of Pessinus, in Asia. Livy (xxxviii. 18.) says that it contains the source of the river Sangarius. [G. L.l

ADORSI. [aorsi.]

ADRAA CAlpia, Euseb. Onomatt.: "ASpa Ptol. v. 15. § 23: LXX. 'ESpoxiv, "ZSpatr : Eng.'Vers. Edrki: and probably the 'Atipafftros of Hierocles, p. 273 ; Draa), a town in Palestine, near the sources rf the river Hieromax, and deeply embayed in the spurs of the mountain chain of Hermon, Before the conquest of Canaan by Joshua, it was one of the chief cities of Og, king of Bashan. After his defeat and death it was assigned to the half tribe of Manasaeh, which settled on the eastern side of Jordan. It was the seat of a Christian bishop at an early time, aad a bishop of Adraa sat in the council of Seleucia (a. D. 381), and of Chalcedon (a. D. 451). By the Greeks it was called Adraa, and by the Crusaders Adratmn. Its ruins cover a circuit of about 2 miles, of which the most important is a large rectangular building, surrounded by a double covered colonnade, and with a cistern in the middle. (Numbers, xxi. 33; Deuteroa i- 4, iii. 10; Joshua xii. 4, xiii. 12, 31; Joseph. Antiq. iv. 5. § 42; Buckingham, Travels, voL u- p. 146 ; Bnrckhardt, id. p. 241.) [W B. D.]

ADRAISTAE ('AJpaioraf), a people of N. India (the Punjab), with a capital city Pimprama (Ttifityofta), which Alexander reached in a day's journey from the Hydraotes (Ravee), on his march to fanjala. (ArrUn. Anab. v. 22. §3.) Lassen identifies them with the modern A ratio* (J'entapotamia, p.25> [P.S.J

ADRAMITAE or ATRAMI'TAE (Plin. vi. 28. t, 32; 'ASpafurm, Ptol.; Arrian, Perip. p. 15), an Arabian tribe in the district Chatramotitis of Arabia Felix. They were situated on the coast of the Red Sea eastward of Aden, and their name is still preserved in the modem Uadramaut. Like their immediate neighbours in Arabia Felix, the Adramitae were actively engaged in the drug and spice trade, of which their capital Sabbat ha was the emporium. They were governed by a race of kings, who bore the iamilv or official title of Eleazar. [chatraMotitab'] [W. B. D.]

ADRAMYE'NTTUS SINUS. [adramyttojm; Aeous.]

ADRAMYTTIUM or ADRAMYTETJM ('Atyoftirrrtov, 'ASpapirrTtiov, 'ATpofu/TTiOK, 'Arpa/iVTveiar: Elk. 'Ktpaiurrrnvis, Adramyttenns: Adravuti or Edremit), a town situated at the head of the bay, called from it Adramyttenns, and on the river Caicus, in Mysia, and on the road from the Hellespontus to Pergamum. According to tradition it was founded by Adramys, a brother of Croesus, king of Lydia; but a colony of Athenians is said to have subsequently settled there. (Strab. p. 606.) The place certainly became a Greek town. Thucydides (v. 1; viii. 108) also mentions a settlement here from Delos, made by the Delians whom the Athenians removed from the island B. a 422. After the establishment of the dynasty of the kings of Pergamum, it was a seaport of some note; and that it had some shipping, appears from a passage in the Acts of the Apostles (xxvii. 2). Under the Banana it was a Conventus Juridicus in the province of Asia, or place to which the inhabitants of the district resorted as the court town. There are no traces of ancient remains. [G. L.]

ADRANA (Eder), a river of Germany in the territory of the Chatti, near Caste/. (Tac. Ann, i.56.)

AD BANS, ADRA'NA, ADRA'NTE(Ti"Ao>m», Zos. ii. 45; Had Bans, Inner. Hieros. p. 560: St. Onwald on the Drauberg), a town in Noricum, situated between the towns Aemona and Celeia, in the valley separating Mt. Cetius from Mt. Carvancas. A vestige of its Roman origin or occupation still survives in its local appellation of Trajaner-dorf or Trajan's-tborpe. (Itin. Anton.) [W. B. D.]

ADRA'NUM, or HADRA'NUM (ASoavoV, Diod.

Steph. B. Hadhaktm, Sil. Ital.: Eth. 'Atpayhvs, Hadranitanus: ^<fcrno),a city of the inlerior of Sicily, situated at the foot of the western slope of Mt. Aetna above the valley of the Simeto, and about 7 miles from Centuripi. We learn from Diodorus (xiv. 37) that there existed here from very ancient times a temple of a local deity named Adranus, whose worship was extensively spread through Sicily, and appears to have been connected with that of the Palici. (Hesych. s. v. IlaAuroi'.) But there was no city of the name until the year 400 B. c. when it was founded by the elder Dionysius, with a view to extend his power and influence in the interior of the island. (Diod. /. c.) It probably continued to be a dependency of Syracuse; but in 345 B. C. it fell into the hands of Timoleon. (Id. xvi. 68; Pint. Timol. 12.) It was one of the cities taken by the Romans at the commencement of the First Punic War (Died, xxiii. Exc. Hoesch. p. 501), and probably on this account continued afterwards in a relation to Rome inferior to that of most other Sicilian cities. This may perhaps account for the circumstance that its name is not once mentioned by Cicero (see Zumpt ad Cic. Verr. iii. 6, p. 437); but wo learn from Pliny that it was in his time included in the class of the " stipendiariae civitates " of Sicily, (i7. N. iii. 8.)

Both Diodorus and Plutarch speak of it as a small town owing its importance chiefly to the sanctity of its temple; but existing remains prove that it must have been at one time a place of some consideration. These consist of portions of the ancient walls and towers, built in a massive style of large squared blocks of lava; of massive substructions, supposed to have been those of the temple of Adranus; and the ruins of a large building which appears to have belonged to Roman Thermae. Numerous sepulchres also have been discovered and excavated in the immediate neighbourhood. The modem town of Adernb retains the ancient site as well as name: it is a considerable place, with above 6000 inhabitants. (Biscari, Viaggio in Sicilia, pp. 57—60; Ortolani, Diz. Geogr. delta Sicilia, p. 13; BulL dell. Inst. Arch. 1843, p. 129.)

Stephanus Byzantinus speaks of the city as situated on a river of the same name: this was evidently no other than the northern branch of the Simeto (Symaethus) which is still often called the Fiume d' Adernd. [E. H. B.J

[graphic]

com OF ADBAlfuV.

ADRIA, A'TRIA, ILVDRIA, or HATRIA (' ASfua or 'Arpla). It is impossible to establish any distinction between these forms, or to assign the one (as has been done by several authors) to one city, and another to the other. The oldest form appears to have been Hatria, which we find on coins, while Hadria is that used in all inscriptions: some MSS. of Livy have Adria, and others Atria. Pliny tells us that Atria was the more ancient form, which was afterwards changed into Adria, but tho Greeks seem to have early used 'Aopia for the city

as well as 'Atpica for tlie sea. 1. A city of Cisalpine Gaul, situated between the Padus and the Athesis, not far from their mouths, and still called Adria. It is now distant more than 14 miles from the sea, bnt was originally a sea-port of great celebrity. Its foundation is ascribed to Diomed by Stcjihanus Byzantinns, and some other late writers: Justin also (xx. 1), probably following Tlieopompus, calls it a city of Greek origin; but these testimonies are far outweighed by those of the Roman writers, who agree in describing it as an Etruscan colony. It was probably established at the same period with their other settlements on the north side of the Apennines, and became, from its position, the principal emporium for their trade with the Adriatic; by which means it attained to so flourishing a condition, as to have given name to the gulf, or portion of the sea in its immediate neighbourhood, from whence the appellation was gradually extended to the whole of the inland sea still called the Adriatic. To this period may also be ascribed the great canals and works winch facilitated its communications with the adjoining rivers, and through them with the interior of Cisalpine Gaul, at the same time that they drained the marshes which would otherwise have rendered it uninhabitable. (Liv. v. 33; Plin. Hi. 16. 8.20; Strab. v. p. 214; Varro de L. L. v. 161; Festus, p. 13, ed. MUUer; Plut. Camill. 16.) Notwithstanding its early celebrity, we have scarcely any information concerning its history; but the decline of its power and prosperity may reasonably bo ascribed to the conquest of the neighbouring countries by the Gauls, and to the consequent neglect of the canals and streams in its neighbourhood. The increasing commerce of the Greeks with the Adriatic probably contributed to the same result. It has been supposed by some wTitcrs that it received, at different periods, Greek colonies, one from Epidamnus and the other from Syracuse; but both statements appear to rest upon misconceptions of the passages of Diodorus, from which they are derived. (Diod. ix. Exc. Vat. p. 17, xv. 13; in both of which passages the words rbv 'AHplcw certainly refer to the Adriatic sea or gulf, not to the city, the name of which is always feminine.') The abundance of vases of Greek manufacture found here, of precisely similar character with those of Nola and Vulci, sufficiently attests a great amount of Greek intercourse and influence, but cannot be admitted as any proof of a Greek colony, any more than in the parallel case of Vulci. (K.Rochette in the A nnali dell Inst. A rch. vol. vi. p. 292; Welcker, Vasi di Adria in the Bullettino dell Inst. 1834, p. 134.) Under the Romans Adria appears never to have been a place of much consequence. Strabo (/.c.) speaks of it as a small town, communicating by a short navigation with the sea; and we learn from Tacitus (Jlist. iii. 12) that it was still accessible for the light Liburniau ships of war as late as the time of Vitcllius. After the fall of the Western Empire it was included in the exarchate of Ravenna, but fell rapidly into decay during the middle ages, though it never ceased to exist, and always continued an episcopal see. Since the opening of new canals it has considerably revived, and lias now a population of 10,000 souls. Considerable remains of the ancient city have been discovered a little to the south of the modern town towards Ravegnano; they are all of Roman date, and comprise the ruins of a theatre, baths, mosaic pavements, and part of the ancient walls, all which have been buried to a considerable depth under the accu

munitions of alluvial soil. Of the numerous minor antiquities discovered there, the most interesting are the vases already alluded to. (See Miiller, Etruslcer, i. p. 229, and the authors there cited.) The coins ascribed to this city certainly belong to Adria in Piccnum.

A river of the same name (4 'AS/rftu) is mentioned by Hecataens (ap. Steph. Byz. *. ».), and by Theopompus (ap. Strab. vii. p. 317); it is called by Ptolemy 'Arpiavb* -worafUs, and must probably be the same called by the Romans Tartarus (Plin. iii. 16. s. 20), and still known in the upper part of its course as the Tariaro. It rises in the hills to the SE. of the Logo di Garda, and flows by the modern Adria, but is known by the name of Canal Bianco in the lower part of its course; it communicates, by canals, with the Po and the Adige.

2. A city of Piccnum, still called Atri, situated about 5 miles from the Adriatic Sea, between the rivers Vomanus and Matrinus. According to the Itinerary it was distant 15 Roman miles from Castrum Novum, and 14 from Teate. (Itin. Ant. pp. 308, 310, 313; comp. Tab. Peut.) It has been supposed, with much probability, to be of Etruscan origin, and a colony from the more celebrated city of the name (Mazocclii, Tab. Utracl. p. 532; Mtiiler, Etruslcer, vol. i. p. 145), though we have no historical evidence of the fact. It has also been generally admitted that a Greek colony was founded there by Dionysius the Elder, at the time that he was seeking to establish his power in the Adriatic, about B. c. 385; but this statement rests on very doubtful authority (Etym. Magn. v. 'ASpfaj), and no subsequent trace of the settlement is found in history. The first certain historical notice we find of Adria is the establishment of a Roman colony there about 282 B.C. (Liv. Epit. xi.; Madvig, de Coloniis, p. 298.) In the early part of the Second Punic War (b.c. 217) its territory was ravaged by Hannibal; but notwithstanding this calamity, it was one of the 18 Latin colonies which, in B.C. 209, were faithful to the cause of Rome, and willing to continue their contributions both of men and money. (Liv. xxii. 9, xxvii. 10; Polyb. iii. 88.) At a later period, as we learn from the Liber de Coloniis, it must have received a fresh colony, probably under Augustus: hence it is termed a Colonia, both by Pliny and in inscriptions. One of these gives it the titles of "Colonia Aelia Hadria," whence it would appear that it had been re-established by the emperor Hadrian, whose family was originally derived from hence, though he was himself a native of Spain. (Lib. Colon, p. 227; Plin. B. If. iii. 13. s.18; Orcll./fwcr. no. 148, 3018; Grater, p. 1022; Zumpt de Colon, p. 349; Spartian. Hadrian. 1.; Victor, Epit. 14.) The territory of Adria (ager Adrianus), though subsequently included in Piccnum, appears to have originally formed a separate and independent district, bounded on the N. by the river Vomanus ( Vomano"), and on the S. by the Matrinus (fo Piomba); at the mouth of this latter river was a town bearing the name of Matrinum, which served as the port of Adria; the city itself stood on a hill a few miles inland, on the same site still occupied by the modern Atri, a place of some consideration, with the title of a city, and the see of a bishop. Great part of the circuit of the ancient walls may bo still traced, and mosaic pavementa and other remains of buildings are also preserved. (Strab. v. p. 241; Sil. Ital. viii. 439; Ptol. iii. 1. § 52; Mcla,ii. 4; Romanelli, vol. iii. p 307.) Ac

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