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conding to the Itin. Ant. (pp. 308, 310) Adria was , sea or gulf so called, but a region or district about the point of junction of the Via Salaria and Valeria, the head of it. But in this case it seems highly a circunstance which probably contributed to its improbable that precisely the same expression should importance and flourishing condition under the have come into general use, as we certainly find it Roman empire.

not long after the time of Herodotus, for the sea It is now generally admitted, that the coins of itself.* Hecataeus also (if we can trust to the acAdria (with the legend Har.) belong to the city of curacy of Stephanus B. 8. D. 'Aðplas) appears to have Picenam; but great difference of opinion has been used the full expression kóros 'Aðplas. entertained as to their age. They belong to the The natural limits of the Adriatic are very clearly class commonly known as Aes Grave, and are even marked by the contraction of the opposite shores at among the heaviest specimens known, exceeding in its entrance, so as to form a kind of strait, not exweight the most ancient Roman asses. On this ceeding 40 G. miles in breadth, between the Acroaccount they have been assigned to a very remote ceraunian promontory in Epirus, and the coast of antiquity, some referring them to the Etruscan, Calabria near Hydruntum, in Italy. This is accordothers to the Greek, settlers. But there seems much ingly correctly assumed both by Strabo and Pliny as reason to believe that they are not really so ancient, the southern limits of the Adriatic, as it was at an and belong, in fact, to the Rornan colony, which was earlier period by Scylax and Polybius, the latter of founded previous to the general reduction of the whom expressly tells us that Oricus was the first city Italian brass coinage. (Eckhel, vol. i. p. 98; Müller, on the right hand after entering the Adriatic. Etrusker, vol. i. p. 308; Böckh, Metrologie, p. 379; (Strab. vii. p. 317; Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Scylax, $ 14, Mommsen, Das Römische Münzwesen, p. 231; Mil- p. 5, $ 27, p. 11; Pol. vii. 19; Mela, ii. 4.) But lingen, Numismatique de l'Italie, p. 216.) [E.H.B.] it appears to have been some time before the appel

lation was received in this definite sense, and the use of the name both of the Adriatic and of the Ionian Gulf was for some time very vague and fluctuating. It is probable, that in the earliest times the name of 'Adpias was confined to the part of the sea in the immediate neighbourhood of Adria itself and the months of the Padus, or at least to the upper part near the head of the gulph, as in the passages of Herodotus and Hecataeus above cited; but it seems that Hecataeus himself in another passage (ap.

Steph. B. 8. v. "Iotpot described the Istrians as COIN OF ADRIA.

dwelling on the Ionian gulf, and Hellanicus (ap. ADRIA’TICUM MARE (S 'Adplas), is the name Dion. Hal. i. 28) spoke of the Padus as flowing into given both by Greek and Latin writers to the inland the Ionian gulf. In like manner Thucydides (i. 24) sea still called the Adriatic, which separates Italy from describes Epidamnus as a city on the right hand as Illyricurn, Dalmatia and Epeirus, and is connected you enter the Ionian gulf. At this period, thereat its southern extremity with the Ionian Sea. It fore, the latter expression seems to have been at appears to have been at first regarded by the Greeks least the more common one, as applied to the whole as a mere gulf or inlet of the Ionian Sea, whence the sea. But very soon after we find the orators Lysias expression d 'Adpias (kóros sc.), which first came and Isocrates employing the term d'Adplas in its into use, became so firinly established that it always more extended sense: and Scylax (who must have maintained its ground among the Greek writers of been nearly contemporary with the latter) exthe best ages, and it is only at a later period or in pressly tells us that the Adriatic and Ionian gulfs exceptional cases that we find the expressions ń were one and the same. (Lys. Or. c. Diog. $ 38, 'Aõpiórn or 'Adpratik) Sárasoa. (The former ex- p. 908; Isocr. Philipp. $ 7; Scylax, $ 27, p. 11.) pression is employed by Scymnus Chius, 368; and From this time no change appears to have taken the latter in one instance by Strabo, iv. p. 204.) place in the use of the name, d'Adplas being faini. The Latins frequently termed it MARE SUPERUM, liarly used by Greek writers for the modern Adriatic the Upper Sea, as opposed to the Tyrrhenian or (Theophr. iv. 5. S$ 2, 6; Pseud. Aristot. de Mirab. Lower Sea (Mare Inferum); and the phrase is copied $$ 80, 82; Scymn. Ch. 132, 193, &c.; Pol. ii. from thern by Polybius and other Greek writers. It 17, i. 86, 87, &c.) until after the Christian era. appears probable indeed that this was the common or But subsequently to that date a very singular change Vernacular expression among the Romans, and that was introduced: for while the name of the Adriatic the name of the Adriatic was a mere geographical | Gulf (& 'Adpias, or 'Adpatikos kóros) became redesignation, perhaps borrowed in the first instance stricted to the upper portion of the inland sea now from the Greeks. The use of ADRLA or HADRIA known by the same name, and the lower portion nearer in Latin for the name of the sea, was certainly a the strait or entrance was commonly known as the mere Graecism, first introduced by the poets (Hor. Carm. i. 3. 15, iii. 3. 5, &c.; Catull. xxxvi. 15), * The expressions of Polybius (iv. 14, 16) cited by though it is sometimes used by prose writers also. Müller (Etrusker, i. p. 141) in support of this (Senec. Ep. 90; Mela, ii. 2, &c.)

view, certainly cannot be relied on, as the name of According to Herodotus (i. 163) the Phocaeans d'Aðplas was fully established as that of the sea, were the first of the Greeks who discovered the Adri- | long before his time, and is repeatedly used by himatic, or at least the first to explore its recesses, but self in this sense. But his expressions are singuthe Phoenicians must have been well acquainted with larly vague and fluctuating: thus we find within a it long before, as they had traded with the Venetians few pages, d katà TÓv 'Adplay xóatos, TOÙ TAYTÓS for amber from a very early period. It has, indeed, 'Agplov uvxós, é 'Adpiatikos uvxós, kata - dv been contended, that & 'Aspins in Herodotus (both | 'Aðplav Jánatta, etc. (See Schweighäuser's Index to in this passage and in iv. 33, v. 9) means not the Polybius, p. 197.)

Ionian Gulf, the sea without that entrance, previously the same name, that some later writers have derived known as the Ionian or Sicilian, came to be called the appellation of the sea from Adria in Picenum, the Adriatic Sea. The beginning of this altera- which was situated at some distance from the coast tion may already be found in Strabo, who speaks of and is not known to have been a place of any imthe Ionian Gulf as a part of the Adriatic: but it portance in early times.

[E. H. B.] is found fully developed in Ptolemy, who makes the ADRUME'TUM. [HADRUMETUM.) promontory of Garganus the limit between the Adri- ADRUS (Albaragena), a river of Hispania Lusi. atic Gulf (o 'Adpias kóros) and the Ionian Sea tanica, flowing from the N. into the Anas (Guadi(TÒ lúviov médayos), while he calls the sea which ana) opposite to Badajoz (Itin. Ant. p. 418; Ukert, bathes the eastern shores of Bruttium and Sicily, vol. i. pt. 1, pp. 289-392).

[P.S.] the Adriatic Sea (id 'AdplaTIKÒV ménayos): and ADUA'TICA or ADUA'TUCA, a castellum or although the later geographers, Dionysius Periegetes fortified place mentioned by Caesar (B. G. vi. 32) and Agathemerus, apply the name of the Adriatic as situated about the centre of the country of the within the same limits as Strabo, the common usage Eburones, the greater part of which country lay of historians and other writers under the Roinan between the Mosa (Maas) and the Rhenus. There Empire is in conformity with that of Ptolemy. Thus is no further indication of its position in Caesar. we find them almost uniformly speaking of the Q. Cicero, who was posted here with a legion in Ionian Gulf for the lower part of the modern Adri- B. c. 53, sustained and repelled a sudden attack of atic: while the name of the latter had so completely the Sigambri (B. G. vi. 35, &c.), in the same camp superseded the original appellation of the Ionian Sea in which Titurius and Aurunculeius had wintered in for that which bathes the western shores of Greece, B. c. 54 (B. G. v. 26). If it be the same place as that Philostratus speaks of the isthmus of Corinth the Aduaca Tungrorum of the Antonine Itinerary, as separating the Aegaean Sea from the Adriatic. it is the modern Tongern, in the Belgian province And at a still later period we find Procopius and of Limburg, where there are remains of old walls, Orosius still further extending the appellation as far and many antiquities. Though only a castellum or as Crete on the one side, and Malta on the other. temporary fort in Caesar's time, the place is likely (Ptol. iii. 1. $$ 1, 10, 14, 17, 26, 4. $$ 1, 8; enough to have been the site of a larger town at Dionys. Per. 92–94, 380, 481; Agathemer. i. 3, ii. a later date.

[G. L.] 14; Appian, Syr. 63, B. C. ii. 39, iii. 9, v. 65; ADUA'TICI ('Atovarikol, Dion Cass.), a peoDion Cass. xli. 44, xiv. 3; Herodian. viii. 1; Phi- ple of Belgic Gaul, the neighbours of the Eburones lostr. Imagg. ii. 16; Pausan. v. 25. § 3, viii. 54. § and Nervii. They were the descendants of 6000 3; Hieronym. Ep. 86; Procop. B. G. i. 15, iii. 40, Cimbri and Teutones, who were left behind by the iv. 6, B. V. i. 13, 14, 23; Oros. i. 2.) Concerning rest of these barbarians on their march to Italy, the various fluctuations and changes in the applica- | for the purpose of looking after the baggage which tion and signification of the name, see Larcher's their comrades could not conveniently take with Notes on Herodotus (vol. i. p. 157, Eng. transl.), them. After the defeat of the Cimbri and Teutones, and Letronne (Recherches sur Dicuil. p. 170—218), near Aix by C. Marius (B. c. 102), and again in who has, however, carried to an extreme extent the | the north of Italy, these 6000 men maintained themdistinctions he attempts to establish. The general selves in the country. (Caes. B. G. ü. 29.) Their form of the Adriatic Sea was well known to the an- head quarters were a strong natural position on a cients, at least in the time of Strabo, who correctly steep elevation, to which there was only one apdescribes it as long and narrow, extending towards proach. Caesar does not give the place a name, the NW., and corresponding in its general dimen- and no indication of its site. D'Anville supposes sions with the part of Italy to which it is parallel, that it is Falais on the Mehaigne. The tract from the lapygian promontory to the mouths of the occupied by the Aduatici appears to be in South Padus. He also gives its greatest breadth pretty Brabant. When their strong position was taken by correctly at about 1200 stadia, but much overstates Caesar, 4000 of the Aduatici perisbed, and 53,000 its length at 6000 stadia. Agathemerus, on the were sold for slaves. (B. G. ii. 33.) [G. L.] contrary, while he agrees with Strabo as to the ADU'LA MONS (Ø 'Adoúnas), the name given breadth, assigns it only 3000 stadia in length, to a particular group of the Alps, in which, accordwhich is as much below the truth, as Strabo exceeds ing to the repeated statement of Strabo, both the it. (Strab. ii. p. 123, v. p. 211; Agathemer. 14.) Rhine and the Addua take their rise, the one flowing The Greeks appear to have at first regarded the neigh- northwards, the other southward into the Larian bourhood of Adria and the mouths of the Padus | Lake. This view is not however correct, the real as the head or inmost recess of the gulf, but Strabo source of the Addua being in the glaciers of the and Ptolemy more justly place its extremity at the Rhaetian Alps, at the head of the Valtelline, while gulf near Aquileia and the mouth of the Tilavemptus both branches of the Rhine rise much farther to the (Tagliamento). (Strab. ii. p. 123, iv. p. 206; Ptol. W. It is probable that Strabo considered the river üi. 1. SS 1, 26.)

which descends from the Splügen to the head of the The navigation of the Adriatic was much dreaded | lake of Como (and which flows from N. to S.) as on account of the frequent and sudden storms to the true Addua, overlooking the greatly superior which it was subject : its evil character on this ac- magnitude of that which comes down from the Valcount is repeatedly alluded to by Horace. (Carm. telline. The sources of this river are in fact not far i. 3. 15, 33. 15, ii. 14. 14, iïi. 9. 23, &c.)

from those of the branch of the Rhine now called the There is no doubt that the name of the Adriatic Hinter Rhein, and which, having the more direct was derived from the Etruscan city of Adria or course from S. to N., was probably regarded by the Atria, near the mouths of the Padus. Livy, Pliny, ancients as the true origin of the river. Mt. Adula and Strabo, all concur in this statement, as well as would thus signify the lofty mountain group about in extolling the ancient power and commercial in the passes of the Splügen and S. Bernardino, and at fluence of that city [Adria, No. 1), and it is pro- the head of the valley of the Hinter Rhein, rather bably only by a confusion between the two cities of than the Mt. St. Gothard, as supposed by most

modern geographers, but we must not expect great | N. Africa, mentioned by Herodotus as the first duaracy in the use of the term. Ptolemy, who also Libyan people W. of Egypt. (Herod. iv. 168.) Their represents the Rhine as rising in Mt. Adula, says extent was from the frontier of Egypt (that is, acDothing of the Addua; but erroneously describes this cording to Herodotus, from the Sinus Plinthinetes part of the Alps as that where the chain alters its (ii. 6), but according to Scylax (p. 44, Hudson), main direction from N. to E. (Strab. iv. pp. 192, 204, from the Canopic mouth of the Nile), to the harbour . p. 213; Ptol, ü. 9. 5, ii. 1. & 1.) [E. H. B.] of Plynos, near the Catabathmus Major. Herodotus

ADU'LE or ADU'LIS ('Adoúan, Ptol. iv. 7. $ 8, distinguishes them from the other Libyan tribes in vii. 16. § 11; Arrian. Peripl.; Eratosth. pp. 2, 3; the E. of N. Africa, who were chiefly nomade (iv. 'Adouais, Steph. B. &.0.; 'Adotlet, Joseph. Antiq. / 191), by saying that their manners and customs i 5; Procap. B. Pers. i 19; optidum adoulitôn, | resembled those of the Egyptians (iv. 168). He Plin. H. N. vi. 29. s. 34: Eth. 'Adovaítos, Ptol. also mentions some remarkable usages which preiv. 8; Adulita, Plin. l. c.: Adj. 'Adoul IT IKÓs), vailed amongst them (l. c.). At a later period they the principal haven and city of the Adulitae, a people are found further to the S., in the interior of Mar. of mixed origin in the regio Troglodytica, situated on marica. (Ptol.; Plin. v. 6; Sil. Ital. Üï. 278, foll., à bay of the Red Sea called Adulicus Sinus ('Adov- ix. 223, foll.)

[P. S.] Aurds RÓATOS, Annesley Bay). Adule is the modern AEA. [Colchis.] Thulla or Zulla, pronounced, according to Mr. Salt, AEACEUM. (Aegina. Azoole, and stands in lat. 15° 35' N. Ruins are AEANTIUM (Aidvtov: Trikeri), a promontory said to exist there. D'Anville, indeed, in his Map in Magnesia in Thessaly, forming the entrance to of the Red Sea, places Adule at Arkeeko on the the Pagasaean bay. According to Ptolemy there same coast, about 22° N. of Thulla. According in- was a town of the same name upon it. Its highest deed to Cosmas, Adule was not immediately on the summit was called Mt. Tisaeum. (Plin. iv. 9. s. 16; crast, but about two miles inland. It was founded by Ptol. iii. 13. & 16; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iv. fugitive slaves from the neighbouring kingdom of p. 397.) [TISAEUM.] Egypt, and under the Romans was the haven of AEAS. Aous. ] Arume. Adule was an emporium for hides (river- AEBU'RA (AYcoupa: Eth. Allovpaios : prob. borse and rhinoceros), ivory (elephant and rhinoceros Cuerva), a town of the Carpetani, in Hispania Tartusks), and tortoise-shell. It had also a large raconensis (Liv. xl. 30; Strab. ap. Steph. B. . v.), slave-market, and was a caravan station for the probably the milópa of Ptolemy (ii. 6). Its name trade of the interior of Africa. The apes which the appears on coins as Aipora and Apora. (Mionnet, Ronan ladies of high birth kept as pets, and for vol. i. p. 55, Supp. vol. i. pp. 111, 112). [P. S.] which they often gave high prices, came principally AECAE (Alkai: Eth. Aecanus: Troja), a town of from Adole. At Adule was the celebrated Monu- | Apulia mentioned both by Polybius and Livy, during sentun Adulitanum, the inscription of which, in the military operations of Hannibal and Fabius in Greek letters, was, in the 6th century of the Chris- that country. In common with many other Apulian tian era, copied by Cosmas the Indian merchant (In- cities it had joined the Carthaginjans after the battle dicopleustes; see Dict. of Biog. art. Cosmas) into of Cannae, but was recovered by Fabius Maximus the second book of his “ Christian Topography." in B. C. 214, though not without a regular siege. The monument is a throne of white marble, with a (Pol. iii. 88; Liv. xxiv. 20.) Pliny also enumerates slab of some different stone behind it. Both throne the Aecani among the inland towns of Apulia (iii. and slab seem to have been covered with Greek cha- 11); but its position is more clearly deterinined by racters. Cosmas appears to have put two inscrip- the Itineraries, which place it on the Appian Way tions into one, and thereby occasioned no little per- between Equus Tuticus and Herdonia, at a distance plexity to learned men. Mr. Salt's discovery of the of 18 or 19 miles from the latter city. (Itin. Ant. inscription at Axume, and the contents of the Adulitan p. 116; Itin. Hier. p. 610; the Tab. Peut, places it inscription itself, show that the latter was bipartite. | between Equus Tuticus and Luceria, but without

The first portion is in the third person, and re- giving the distances.) This interval exactly accords cords that Ptolemy Euergetes (B. C. 247-222) with the position of the modern city of Troja, and received from the Troglodyte Arabs and Aethio- confirms the statements of several chroniclers of the pians certain elephants which his father, the second middle ages, that the latter was founded about the king of the Macedonian dynasty, and himself, had beginning of the eleventh century, on the ruins of taken in hunting in the region of Adule, and trained the ancient Aecae. Cluverius erroneously identified to war in their own kingdom. The second portion | Aecae with Accadia, a village in the mountains S. of the inscription is in the first person, and com- of Bovino; but his error was rectified by Holstenius. mernorates the conquests of an anonymous Aethio- | Troja is an episcopal see, and a place of some conpian king in Arabia and Aethiopia, as far as the sideration; it stands on a hill of moderate elevation, frontier of Egypt. Among other names, which we rising above the fertile plain of Puglia, and is 9 miles can identify with the extant appellations of African S. of Lucera, and 14 SW. of Foggia. (Holsten. districts, occurs that of the most mountainous region Not. in Cluver. p. 271; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 227; in Abyssinia, the Semenae, or Samen, and that of a Giustiniani, Diz. Geogr. vol. ix. p. 260.) [E.H.B.] river which is evidently the Astaboras or Tacazzé, AECULANUM, or AECLANUM (Ainoúnavov, & main tributary of the Nile. The Adulitan in- | Appian, Ptol.: Eth. Aeculanus, Plin.; but the conscription is printed in the works of Cosmas, in the tracted form Aeclanus and Aeclanensis is the only one Collect. Nov. Patr. et Script. Graec. by Mont found in inscriptions:- the reading Aeculanum in faucon, pt. ii. pp. 113–346; in Chisull's Antiq. Cic. ad Att. xvi.2, is very uncertain:- later inscripAsiat.; and in Fabricius, Bibl. Graec. iv. p. 245. tions and the Itineraries write the name ECLANUM), The best commentary upon it is by Buttmann, Mus. a city of Samnium, in the territory of the Hirpini, is der Alterthumsw. ü. 1. p. 105. [W. B. D.] correctly placed by the Itinerary of Antoninus on ADULI'TAE. [ADULE.]

the Via Appia, 15 Roman miles from Beneventum. ADYRMA'CHIDAE ('Adupuaxídas), a people of (Plin. iii. 11. s. 16; Ptol. ii. 1. $ 71; Itin. Ant. p

120; Tab. Pent.) No mention of it is found in / of the Allobroges. The chief town of the Aedui history during the wars of the Romans with the in Caesar's time was Bibracte, and if we assume Samnites, though it appears to have been one of the it to be on the site of the later town of Augnstochief cities of the Hirpini: but during the Social War dunum (Autun), we obtain probably a fixed cen(B. C. 89) it was taken and plundered by Sulla, tral position in the territory of the Aedui, in the which led to the submission of almost all the neigh- old division of Bourgogne. The Aedui were one bouring cities. (Appian, B. C. i. 51.) It appears of the most powerful of the Celtic nations, but to have been soon after restored; the erection of its before Caesar's proconsulship of Gallia, they had new walls, gates, and towers being recorded by an in- been brought under the dominion of the Sequani, scription still extant, and which probably belongs to who had invited Germans from beyond the Rhine a date shortly after the Social War. At a later to assist them. The Aedui had been declared period we find that part of its territory was portioned friends of the Roman people before this calamity out to new colonists, probably under Octavian, but befel them; and Divitiacus, an Aeduan, went to it retained the condition of a municipium (as we Rome to ask for the assistance of the senate, but learn from Pliny and several inscriptions) until long he returned without accomplishing the object of afterwards. It was probably in the reign of Trajan his mission. Caesar, on his arrival in Gaul (B. C. that it acquired the rank and title of a colony which 58), restored these Aedui to their former indepen. we find assigned to it in later inscriptions. (Lib. dence and power. There was among them a body Colon. pp. 210, 260; Orell. Inscr. no. 566, 3108, of nobility and a senate, and they had a great numa 5020; Zumpt, de Coloniis, p. 401.)

ber of clientes, as Caesar calls them, who appear to The site of Aeculanum was erroneously referred have been in the nature of vassals. The clientes of by Cluverius (Ital. p. 1203) to Frigento. Holstenius the Aedui are enumerated by Caesar (B. G. vii. was the first to point out its true position at a place 75). The Aedui joined in the great rebellion called le Grotte, about a mile from Mirabella, and against the Romans, which is the subject of the close to the Taverna del Passo, on the modern high seventh book of the Gallic war (B. G. vii. 42, &c.); road from Naples into Puglia. Here the extensive but Caesar reduced them to subjection. In the remains of an ancient city have been found: a consi- reign of Tiberius A. D. 21, Julius Sacrovir, a Gaul, derable part of the ancient walls, as well as ruins attempted an insurrection among the Aedui and and foundations of Thermae, aqueducts, temples, an seized Augustodunum, but the rising was soon put amphitheatre and other buildings have been disco- down by C. Silius. (Tac. Ann. iii. 43–46.) The vered, though many of them have since perished; head of the commonwealth of the Aedui in Caesar's and the whole site abounds in coins, gems, bronzes, time was called Vergobretus. He was elected by and other minor relics of antiquity. The inscriptions the priests, and held his office for one year. He found here, as well as the situation on the Appian had the power of life and death over his people, as Way, and the distance from Benevento, clearly prove Caesar says, by which expression he means probably these remains to be those of Acculanum, and attest that he was supreme judge. (B. G. i. 16, vii. 33.) its splendour and importance under the Roman em- The clientes, or small communities dependent on pire. It continued to be a flourishing place until the Aedui, were the Segusiani, already mentioned; the 7th century, but was destroyed in A. D. 662, by the Ambivareti, who were apparently on the northern the emperor Constans II. in his wars with the Lon- boundary of the Aedui trans Mosam, (B. G. iv. 9); bards. A town arose out of its ruins, which ob- and the Aulerci Brannovices AULERCI). The Amtained the name of QUINTODECIMUM from its posi- barri, already mentioned as kinsmen of the Aedui, tion at that distance from Beneventum, and which are not enumerated among the clientes (B. G. vii. continued to exist to the Ulth century when it had 55). One of the pagi or divisions of the Aedui fallen into complete decay, and the few remaining in- was called Insubres (Liv. v. 34). Caesar allowed habitants removed to the castle of Mirabella, erected a body of Boii, who had joined the Helvetii in by the Normans on a neighbouring hill. (Holsten. their attempt to settle themselves in Gaul, to reNot. in Cluver. p. 273; Lupuli, Iter Venusin. pp. main in the territory of the Aedui (B. G. i. 28). 74—128; Guarini, Ricerche sull'antica Città di Their territory was between the Loire and the Eclano, 4to. Napoli, 1814; Romanelli, vol. ii. pp. Allier, a branch of the Loire. They had a town, 323-3

E. H. B.] Gergovia (B. G. vii. 9), the site of which is unAEDEPSUS (AYOnyos: Eth, Aisnulos: Lipso), certain; if the reading Gergovia is accepted in this a town on the NW. coast of Euboea, 160 stadia passage of Caesar, the place must not be confounded from Cynus on the opposite coast of the Opuntian with the GERGOVIA of the Arverni. [G. L.] Locri. It contained warm baths sacred to Hercules, AEGAE in Europe (Aiyal: Eth." Aiyalos, which were used by the dictator Sulla. These warm Aiyeárns, Aiyaieús). 1. Or AEGA (Aiya), a town baths are still found about a mile above Lipso, the of Achaia, and one of the 12 Achaean cities, was site of Aedepsus. (Strab. pp. 60, 425 ; Athen. p. situated upon the river Crathis and upon the coast, 73; Plut. Sull. 26, Symp. iv. 4, where I'ányos is between Aegeira and Bura. It is mentioned by a false reading; Steph. B. 3. v.; Ptol. iii. 15. § 23; Homer, and was celebrated in the earliest times for Plin. iv. 21; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. ii. p. its worship of Poseidon. It was afterwards deserted 176; Walpole, Travels, gc., p. 71.)

by its inhabitants, who removed to the neighbouring AE'DUI, HE'DUI (Aidoüot, Strab. p. 186), a town of Aegeira; and it had already ceased to be Celtic people, who were separated from the Sequani one of the 12 Achaean cities on the renewal of the by the Arar (Saone), which formed a large part of League in B. C. 280, its place being occupied by their eastern boundary. On the W. they were Ceryneia. Its name does not occur in Polybius. separated from the Bituriges by the upper course All traces of Aegae have disappeared, but it proof the Ligeris (Loire), as Caesar states (B. G. vii. bably occupied the site of the Khan of Akrata, which 5). To the NE. were the Lingones, and to the is situated upon a commanding height rising from S. the Segusiani. The Aedui Ambarri (B. G. i. the left bank of the river. Neither Strabo nor Pau11), kinsmen of the Aedui, were on the borders sanias mention on which bank of the Crathis it

stood, but it probably stood on the left bank, since To the storms of the Aegaean the poets frequentiy the right is low and often inundated. (Hom. II. viii. allude. Thus Horace (Carm. ii. 16): Otium dicos 203; Herod. i. 145; Strab. pp. 386–387; Paus. rogat in patenti prensus Aegaeo; and Virgil (Aen. vii. 25. $ 12; Leake, Morea, vol. iii. p. 394; Cur- xü. 365): Ac velut Edoni Boreae cum spiritus alto tius, Peloponnesos, vol. i. p. 472.)

insonat degaeo. The Aegaean contained numerous 2. A town in Emathia in Macedonia, and the | islands. Of these the most numerous were in the burial-place of the Macedonian kings, is probably southern part of the sea ; they were divided into the same as Edessa, though some writers make two principal groups, the Cyclades, lying off the them two different towns. EPESSA. 7

coasts of Attica and Peloponnesus, and the Sporades, 3. A town in Euboea on the western coast N. of lying along the coasts of Caria aud Ionia. [CYChalcis, and a little S. of Orobiae. Strabo says CLADES; SPORADES.] In the northern part of the that it was 120 stadia from Anthedon in Boeotia. sea were the larger islands of Euboea, Thasos and It is mentioned by Homer, but had disappeared in Samothrace, and off the coast of Asia those of Samos, the time of Strabo. It was celebrated for its wor- Chios and Lesbos. ship of Poseidon from the earliest times; and its The Aegaean sea was divided into: 1. MARE temple of this god still continued to exist when THRACIUM (8 Opinkios #ÓVTOS, Hom. I. xxiii. 230; Strabo wrote, being situated upon a lofty mountain. Opnikiov mélayos, Herod. vii. 176; comp. Soph. The latter writer derives the name of the Aegaean Oed. R. 197), the northern part of the Aegaean, Ses from this town. Leake supposes it to have washing the shores of Thrace and Macedonia, and stood near Limni. (Hom. Il. xii. 21; Strab. pp. extending as far S. as the northern coast of the island 386, 405; Steph. B. 3. 0.; Leake, Northern Greece, of Euboea. Fol. iii. p. 275.)

| 2. MARE MYRTOUM (Hor. Carm. i. 1. 14; Td AEGAE in Asia, 1. (Aiyal, Alyaias, Ayyeai: Eth. Muptwov tédayos), the part of the Aegaean S. of Airaios, Aigeátis; Ayas Kala, or Kalassy), a town Euboea, Attica and Argolis, which derived its name ca the coast of Cilicia, on the north side of the bay from the small island Myrtus, though others suppose of Issus. It is now separated from the outlet of the it to come from Myrtilus, whom Pelops threw into Pyramus (Jyhoon) by a long narrow aestuary called this sea, or from the maiden Myrto. Pliny (iv. 11. Aras Bay. In Strabo's time (p. 676) it was a s. 18) makes the Myrtoan sea a part of the Aegaean; small city with a port. (Comp. Lucan, iii. 227.) but Strabo (pp. 124, 323) distinguishes between Aegae was a Greek town, but the origin of it is the two, representing the Aegaean as terminating unknown. A Greek inscription of the Roman period at the promontory Sunium in Attica. has been discovered there (Beaufort, Karamania, 3. MARE ICARIUM (Hor. Carm. i. 1. 15; 'Ikdpios p. 299); and under the Roman dominion it was Óvtos, Hom. Il. ii. 145; 'Ikáptov néhayos, Herod. a place of some importance. Tacitus calls it Aegeae vi. 95), the SE. part of the Aegaean along the coasts (Arkxii. 8.)

of Caria and Ionia, which derived its name from the 2. (Aipaí: Eth. Alyalos, Aigaieús), an Aeolian city island of Icaria, though according to tradition it was (Herod. i. 149), a little distance from the coast of so called from Icarus, the son of Daedalus, having Mysia, and in the neighbourhood of Cume and fallen into it. Ternnus. It is mentioned by Xenophon (Hellen. 4. MARE CRETICUM (T. Kontikdy néAayos, iv. 8. $ 5) under the name Aiyeis, which Schneider Thuc.iv. 53), the most southerly part of the Aegaean, has altered into Aiyal. It suffered from the great N. of the island of Crete. Strabo (l. c.), however, Earthquake, which in the time of Tiberius (A. D. makes this sea, as well as the Myrtoan and Icarian, 17) desolated 12 of the cities of Asia. (Tacit. distinct from the Aegaean. Aha, ii. 47.)

| AEGA'LEOS (Aigarews, llerod. viii. 90 ; To AEGAEAE. TAEGIAE.]

AydA60v ốpos, Thục. ii. 19: Skarmanga), a range AEGAEUM MARE (TO Alyaiov médayos, of mountains in Attica, lying between the plains of Herod. iv. 85; Aesch. Agam. 659; Strab. passim; or Athens and Eleusis, from which Xerxes witnessed the simply to Aiyalov, Herod. vii. 55 ; & Aigaios té- battle of Salamis. (Herod.l.c.) It ended in a promonAzyos, Herod. ï. 97), the part of the Mediterranean tory, called AMPHIALE ('Aupidan), opposite Salamis, DOW called the Archipelago, and by the Turks the from which it was distant only two stadia according White Sea, to distinguish it from the Black Sea. It to Strabo (p. 395). The southern part of this range was bounded on the N. by Macedonia and Thrace, near the coast was called CORYDALUS or Coryon the W. by Greece and on the E. by Asia Minor. | DALLUS (Kopudanós, Kopvoan nós) from a demus of At its NE. corner it was connected with the Pro- this name (Strab. I. c.), and another part, through pantis by the Hellespont. [HELLESPONTUS.] Its which there is a pass from the plain of Athens into extent was differently estimated by the ancient that of Eleusis, was named PoECILUM (Tokimov, writers; but the name was generally applied to the Paus. i. 37. $ 7.) (Leake, Demi of Attica, p. 2, whole sea as far S. as the islands of Crete and seq.) Rbodes. Its name was variously derived by the an- / AEGA'TES I'NSULAE, the name given to a dient grammarians, either from the town of Aegae group of three small islands, lying off the western in Euboea; or from Aegeus, the father of Theseus, extreinity of Sicily, nearly opposite to Drepanum and who threr himself into it; or from Aegaea, the Lilybacum. The name is supposed to be derived queen of the Amazons, who perished there; or from from the Greek Aiváoes, the “Goat islands;" but Aegaeon, who was represented as a marine god living this form is not found in any Greek author, and the in the sea; or, lastly, from aiyís, a squall, on account Latin writers have universally Aegates. Silius Itaof its storms. Its real etymology is uncertain. Its licus also (i. 61) makes the second syllable long. navigation was dangerous to ancient navigators on 1. The westernmost of the three, which is distant account of its numerous islands and rocks, which about 22 G. miles from the coast of Sicily, was called ccasion eddies of wind and a confused sea, and also HIERA ('lepa vsoos, Ptol. Polyb. Diod.); but at a on account of the Etesian or northerly winds, which later period obtained the name of MARITIMA, from blow with great fury, especially about the equinoses. I its lying so far out to sea (Itin. Marit. p. 492), and

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