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citing Astonishment by the design of the building, and which would lure been most admirable if it had been finished." (*OA^/uirwr, J^ureXif /liv, Kara

ytv6fitvov &' hj* fitXrurroVf ttirtp ovvfT*K4<r&r]t p. 140, ed. Fuhr.) Aristotle (Polit. v. 11) mentions it as one of the colossal undertakings of despotic governments, placing it in the same category as the pyramids of Egypt; and Livy (xh. 20) speaks of it as " Jovis Olympii templum Athenis, unum in terris inchoatum pro magnitudine dei," where " unum" is used because it was a greater work than any other temple of the god. (Comp. Strab. ix. p. 396; Plut. Sol 32; Lucian, Icaro-Menip. 24.) About B. C 174 Antiochus Epiphanes commenced the completion of the temple. He employed a Roman architect of the name of Cossutius to proceed with it. Cossutius chose the Corinthian order, which Wm adhered to in the subsequent prosecution of the work. (Vitruv. I ft; Athen. v. p. 194, a.; V Pat. i. 10.) Upon the death of Antiochus in B. C. 164 the work was interrupted; and about 80 years afterwards some of its columns were transported to Rome by Sulla for the use of the Capitoline temple at Rome. (Plin. xxxvi. 5. s. 6.) The work was not resumed till the reign of Augustus, when a society of princes, allies or dependents of the Roman empire, undertook to complete the building at their joint expense. (Suet. Aug. 60.) But the honour of its final completion was reserved for Hadrian, who dedicated the temple, and set up the statue of the god within the cella. (Pans. i. 18. § 6, seq.; Spartian. Hadr. 13; Dion Cass. lxix. 16.)

Pausanias says that the whole exterior inclosure was about four stadia in circumference, and that it was full of statues of Hadrian, dedicated by the Grecian cities. Of these statues many of the pedestals have been found, with inscriptions upon them.

(Bbckh, Inter. No. 321—346.) From the existing remains of the temple, we can ascertain its size ami general form. According to the measurements of Mr. Penrose, it was 354 feet (more exactly 354*225) in length, and 171 feet (17P16) in breadth. "It consisted of a cella, surrounded by a peristyle, which had 10 columns in front, and 20 on the sides. The peristyle, being double in the sides, and having a triple range at either end, besides three columns between antae at each end of the cella, consisted altogether of 120 columns." (Leake.) Of these columns 16 are now standing, with their architraves, 13 at the south-eastern angle, and the remaining three, which are of the interior row of the southern side, not far from the south-western angle. These are the largest columns of marble now standing in Europe, being six and a half feet iu diameter, and above sixty feet high.

A recent traveller remarks, that the desolation of the spot on which they stand adds much to the effect of their tall majestic forms, and that scarcely any ruin is more calculated to excite stronger emotions of combined admiration and awe. It is difficult to conceive where the enormous masses have disappeared of which this temple was built. Its destruction probably commenced at an early period, and supplied from time to time building materials to the inhabitants of Athens during the middle ages.

Under the court of the temple there are some very largo and deep vaults, which Forcbhammer considers to be a portion of a large cistern, alluded to by Pausanias as the chasm into which the watera flowed after the flood of Deucalion. From this cistern there is a conduit running in the direction of the fountain of Callirrhoe, which he supposes to have r«en partly supplied with water by this means. (Leake, p. 513; Mure, vol. ii. p. 79; Foruhhanmier p. 367.)

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11. Tie Horologium of Andronicut Cyrrhestet.

This building, vulgarly called the " Temple of the Winds," from the figures of the winds upon its faces, ts situated north of the Acropolis, and is still extant. Its date is uncertain, but the style of the sculpture and architecture is thought to belong to the period after Alexander the Great. Miiller supposes it to have been erected about B.C. 100; and its date must be prior to the middle of the first century B. c. since it is mentioned by Varro (It. It. iii. 5. §17). It served both as the weathercock am' public clock ot Athens. It is an octagonal tower

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with its eight sides facing respectively the direction of the eight winds into which the Athenian compass was divided. The directions of the several sides were indicated by the figures and names of the eight winds, which were sculptured on the frieze of the entablature. On the summit of the building there stood originally a bronze figure of a Triton, holding a wand in his right hand, and turning on a pivot, so as to serve for a weathercock. (Vitruv. i. 6. § 4.) This monument is called a horologinm by Varro (i e.). It formed a measure of time in two ways. On each of its eight sides, beneath the figures of the winds, lines are still visible, which, with the gnomons that stood oat above them, formed a series of sun-dials. In the centre of the interior of the building there was a clepsydra, or water*-clock, the remains of which are still visible. On the south side of the building there was a cistern, which was supplied with water from the spring called Clepsydra, near the cave of Pan. Leake states that a portion of the aqueduct existed not long since, and formed part of a modem conduit fur the conveyance of water to a neighbouring mosque, < for the service of the Turks in their ablutions. It say not be unnecessary to remind the reader that

Clepsydra was the common tenn for a water-clock, and was not so called from the fountain of the same name, which supplied it with water: the similarity of the names is accidental. The reason of the fountain near the cave of Pan being called Clepsydra has been given above. [See p. 286, b.]

The height of the building from its foundation is 44 feet. On the NE. and NW. sides are distyle Corinthian porticoes, giving access to the interior; and to the south wall is affixed a sort of turret, forming three-quarters of a circle, to contain the cistern which supplied water to the clepsydra.

12. The Choragic Monument of Lysicratet. This elegant monument, vulgarly called the "Lantern of Demosthenes," was dedicated by Lysicrates in B.C. 331)—4, as we learn from an inscription on the architrave, which records that "Lysicrates, son of Lysitheides of Cicynna, led the chorus, when the boys of the tribe of Acamantis conquered, when Theon played the flute, when Lysiades wrote the piece, and when Evaenetus was archon." It was the practice of the victorious choragi to dedicate to Dionysus the tripods which they had gained in the contests in the theatre. Some of these tripods were placed upon small temples, which were erected either in the precincts of the theatre, or in a street which ran along tho eastern side of the Acropolis, from the Prytancium to the Lcnaeum,or sacred enclosure of Dionysus near

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the theatre, and which was hence called the * Street of Tripods." (Paus. i. 20. § 1.)

Of 4hese temples only two now remain; the monument of Thrasyllus, situated above the theatre, of which we have already spoken [see p. 285]; and the monument, of Lysicrates, which stood in the street itself. It appears that this street was formed entirely by a series of such monuments; and from the inscriptions engraved on the architraves that the dramatic chronicles or didascaliae were mainly compiled. The monument of Lysicrates is of the Corinthian order. It is a small circular building on a square basement, of white marble, and covered by a cnpola, supported by six Corinthian columns. Its whole height was 34 feet, of which the square basis was 14 feet, the body of the building to the summit of the columns 12 feet, and the entablature, together with the cupola and apex, 8 feet. There was no access to the interior, which was only 6 feet in diameter. The frieze, of which there are casts in the British Museum, represents the destruction of the Tyrrhenian pirates by Dionysus and his attendants.

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13. The Fountain of Callirrhoe} or Enneacrunus.

The fountain of Callirrhoe (KaAAi^oij), or Enneacrunus ('EcpeoKpovcos), was situated in the SE. of the city. It was, as has been already remarked, the only source of good drinkable water in Athens. (Paus. i. 14. § 1.) It was employed in all the more important services of religion, and by women prior to their nuptials. (Thuc. ii. 15.) We learn from Thucydides (I. c.) that it was originally named Callirrhoe, when the natural sources were open to view, but that it was afterwards named Enneacrunus, from having been fitted with nine pipes (tcpovvoi) by the Peisistratidae. Hence it appears that the natural sources were covered by some kind of building, and that the water was conducted through nine pipes. Enneacrunus api*ars to have been the name of the fountain, in the architectural sense of the term; but the spring or source continued to be called Callirrhoe, and is the name which it still bears. (Compare Stat. Tkcb. xii. 629: "Et quos Callirrhoe novies errantibus undis Implicat.") It has been supposed from a fragment of Cratinus (ap. Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 530; Suidas, s. v. o'wb'eKdKpovvo?') that the fountain was also called Dodecacrunus; but it is more probable, as Leake has remarked, that the poet amplified for the sake of comic effect. The spring flows from the foot of a broad ridge of rocks, which crosses the bed of *the Ilissus, and over which the river forms a

water-fall when it is full. But there is generanj no water in this part of the bed of the Ilissos; and it is certain that the rbuntain was a separate vein of water, and was not supplied from the Ilissus The waters of the fountain were made to pa&H through small pipes, pierced in the face of the rock, through which they descended into the pool below. Of these orifices seven are still visible. The fountain also received a supply of water from the cistern in the Olympieium, which has been already mentioned. [See above, p. 290, b.] The pool, which receives the waters of the fountain, " would be more copious, but for a canal which commences near it and is carried below the bed of the Ilissus to Vun6t a small village a mile from the city, on the road to Peiraeeus; where the water is received into a cistern, supplies a fountain on the high road, and waters gardens. The canal exactly resembles those* which were in use among the Greeks before the introduction of Roman aqueducts, being a channel about three feet square, cut in the solid rock. It is probably, therefore, an ancient work." (Leake, p. 170; Forchhaminer, p. 317; Mure, vol. ii. p. 85.)

14. The Fanathenaic Stadium.

The Panathenaic Stadium (to trrdhov To floraftijyaucdV) was situated on the south side of the Ilissus, and is described by Pausanias as " a hill rising above the Ilissus, of a semicircular form in its upper part, and extending from thence in a double right line to the bank of the river." (Paus. i. 19. § 6.) Leake observes, that " it is at once recognised by its existing remains, consisting of two parallel heights, partly natural, and partly compiled of large mas-ses of rough substruction, which rise at a small distance from the left bank of the Ilissus, in a direction at right angles to the course of that stream, and which are connected at the further end by a third height, more indebted to art for its composition, and which formed the semicircular extremity essential to a stadium." It is usually stated that this Stadium was constructed by Lycurgus, about B.C. 350; but it appears from the passage of Plutarch (Vtt. X. OraL p. 841), on which this supposition rests, that this spot must have been need previously for the gymnic contests of the Panathenaic games, since it is said that Lycurgus completed the Panathenaic stadium, by constructing a podium (tcp^iris) or low wall, and levelling the bed (xapdZpa) of the arena. The spectators, however, continued to sit on the turf for nearly five centuries afterwards, till at length the slopes were covered by Hcrodes Atticus with the seats of Pentelic marble, which called forth the admiration of Pausanias. (Philostr. Vit. Soph. ii. 1. § 5.) These seats have disappeared, and it is now ordy a long hollow, grown over with grass. Leake conjectures that it was capable of accommodating 40,000 persons on the marble seats, and as many more on the slopes of the hills above them on extraordinary occasions.

Philostratus states that a temple of Tyche or Fortune stood on one side of the Stadium: and as there are considerable remains of rough masonry on the summit of the western hill, this is supr*»sed to have been the site of the temple. The tomb «>f Herodes, who was buried near the Stadium, may have occupied the summit of the opposite hill. Opposite the Stadium was a bridge across the Ilissus, of which the foundations still exist. (Leake, p. 195.) 15. Arch of Hadrian.

This Arch, which is still extant, is opposite the north-western angle of the Olynipieium, and formed an entrance to the peribolus of the temple. It is a paltry structure; and the style is indeed so unworthy of the real enlargement of taste which Hadrian is acknowledged to hare displayed in the fine arts, that Mure conjectures with much probability that it may hare been a work erected in his honour by the Athenian municipality, or by some other class of admirers or flatterers, rather than by himself. "This arch, now deprived of the Corinthian columns which adorned it, and covered at the base with three feet of accumulated soil, consisted when complete of an

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20 ffet wide, between piers above 15 feet square, decorated with a column and a pilaster on each side of the arch, and the whole presenting an exactly similar appearance on either face. Above the centre of the arch stood an upper order surmounted by a pediment, and consisting on either front of a niche between semi-columns; a thin partition separating the niches from each other at the back. Two columns between a pilaster flanked this structure at either end, and stood immediately above the larger Corinthian columns of the lower order. The height of the lower order to the summit of the cornice was about 33 feet, that of the upper to the summit of the pediment about 23." (Leake, p. 199.) The inscriptions upon either side of the frieze above the centre of the arch, describe it as dividing "Athens, the ancient city of Theseus" from the u City of Hadrian." On the north-western side:

On the sooth-eastern side:

AW eioJ *A5puwov Koux\ 8ij<r#*f m\ts.

These lines are an imitation of an inscription said to have been engraved by Theseus upon corresponding sides of a boundary column on the isthmus of Corinth (Pint. Thes. 25; Strab. iii. M7I):

T(£5' oi>xl Tl(\ov6yyr}<ro5 AAA1 'fovfo.

Td5' i<n\ Yl*\or6vwiaQS Ovk 'IwWa. (Comp. Bockh, Truer. No. 520.)

We know that a quarter of Athens was called HadrianopoHs in honour of Hadrian (Spartian. Hadrian. 20); and the above-mentioned inscription proves that this name was given to the quarter on the southern side of the arch, in which stood the mighty temple of Zeus Olympius, completed by this emperor.

16. The Aqueduct of Hadrian.

The position and remains of this aqueduct have been already described. [See p. 264, b.]

17. The Agora,

Before the publication of Forchhammer's work, it was usually supposed there were two marketplaces at Athens, one to the west and the other to the north of the Acropolis, the former being called the Old Agora, and the latter the New or Eretrian Agora. This error, which has led to such serious mistakes in Athenian topography, appears to have been first started by Menrsius, and has been adopted by subsequent writers on the subject, including even Leake and Miiller. Forchhammer, however, has now clearly established that there was only one Agora at Athens, which was situated west of Die Acropolis; and that there is no proof at all for the existence of the New Agora, which was placed by preceding writers directly north of the Acropolis in the midst of the modern town of Athens.

The general position of the Agora, vulgarly called the Old Agora, cannot admit of dispute; though it is almost impossible to determine its exact boundaries. The Agora formed a part of the Cerameicus. It is important to recollect this, since Pausanias, in lus description of the Cerameicus (i cc. 3—17), gives likewise a description of the Agora, but without mentioning the latter by name. It cannot, however, be doubted that he is actually giving an account of the Agora, inasmuch as the statues of Lycurgus, Demosthenes, Harmodius and Aristogeiton which he mentions as being in the Cerameicus, ani expressly stated by other authorities to have been in the Agora. The statue of Lycurgus is placed in the Agora by a Psephisma, quoted by Plutarch (Fife. X. Orat. p. 852); though the same writer, in his life of Lycurgus {Ibid. p. 384), says that it stood in the Cerameicus. So, also, the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton are described by Arrian (A nab. iii. 16), as being in the Cerameicus, but are placed in the Agora by Aristotle (Hhet. i. 9), Lucian (Parasit. 48), and Aristophanes (hyop&aw T' iv Toty SirAoir ^tjj 'Apurroytlrovt, Lysutr. 633.) On the east the Agora extended as far as the ascent to the Propylaea, This is evident from the position of the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, which stood on an elevated situation, near the temple of Nike, which, as we have already seen was immediately in front of the left wing of the Propylaea. (Ktivrai iv Kcpau.ttK$ at ctVoVcr, $ &vipfv 4s ir6\tv [i. e. the Acropolis] KarayriKpif rov Mnrpyov, Arrian, Anab. iii. 16.) The extent of the Agora towards the east is also proved by the position of the temple of Aphrodite Pandemus, which was at the foot of the Propylaea (Paus. i. 22. § 3; irtTpav trap* airr^v IlaAAdSo*, Eurip. Hippol. 30), but which is also expressly said to have been in the Agora. (Apollod. ap. Harpocrat. s. v. tldv Srifios 'A(ppo8(Tij.) On the west the Agora appears to have extended as far as the Pnyx. Thus, we find in Aristophanes, that Dicaeopolis, who had secured his seat in the Pnyx at the first dawn of day, looks down upon the Agora beneath him, where the logistae are chasing the people with their vermilion coloured rope (Aristoph. Acharn. 21, seq. with Schol.) For the same reason, when Philip had taken Elateia, the retail dealers were driven from their stalls in the market, and their booths burnt, that the people might assemble more quickly in the Pnyx. (Dem. de Cor. p. 284, quoted by Miiller.) It, therefore, appears that the Agora was situated in the valley between the Acropolis, the Areiopagns, the Pnyx, and the Museium, being bounded by the Acropolis on the east, by the Pnyx on the west, by the Areiopagns on the north, and by the Museium on the south. This is the site assigned to it by Miiller and Forchhammer; but Boss and Ulrichs place it north of the ravine between the Areiopagus and the Acropolis, and between these hills and the hill on which the Theseium stands. (Zeitschrifl fur die Alterthwnnmstenschaft, p. 22, 1844.) Some account of the buildings in the Agora will be given in the description of the route of Pausanias through the city.

The existence of a second Agora at Athens has been so generally admitted, that the arguments in favour of this supposition require a little examination. Leake supposed the new Agora to have been formed in the last century B. c, and conjectures that the ostensible reason of the change was the defilement of the old Agora by the massacre which occurred in the Cerameicus, when Athens was taken by Sulla, B. c. 86. Miiller, however, assigns to the new Agora a much earlier date, and supposes that it was one of the markets of Athens in the time of Aristophanes and Demosthenes, since both these writers mention the statue of Hermes Agoraeus, which he places near the gate of the new Agora.

The arguments for the existence of the new Agora to the north of the Acropolis may be thus stated:—

1. Apollodorus s[ieaks of the ancient Agora (i 4pXa'a iyopk), thereby implying that there was a second and more recent one. (ndyOTipiov ^AQ^mjaiv K\T]dTii>at rty cuitptSpudtiaav irept Tj/j/ &pxa*ay &yopav, Sid To liraOda iraira Tov Srjputy trvvdyfoBat To waAaiof iv reus iKK\i\aiw1 &? 4k(sl\ovv byopds, Apollod. ap. Harpocrat. >. v. ndVSn/ios AippoSiVij.)

2. It is maintained from a passage in Strabo that this new Agora bore the name of the Eretrian Agora. The words of Strabo are: "Eretria, some say, was colonised from Macistus in Triphylia under Eretriens, others, from the Athenian Eretria, which is now Agora." CEperpiav 5' ol uiv an-o Mokiotov rrjs TpupubXas bacoiKttjQfivaJL <paxnv far' 'EpfTpiewr, ol &' airb Tijj 'Ad^vrjfftv 'Epcrpfas, % vvv iffrw iyopd, Strab. x. p. 447.) 3. Pausanias, as we have already seen, gives a description of the buildings in the old Agora, but without once mentioning the latter by name. It is not till the 17th chapter that he speaks of the Agora, just before he describes the gymnasium of Ptolemy and the temple of Theseus. Hence it is inferred that the old Agora had ceased to be used as a market-place in the time of Pausanias; and that the Agora mentioned by him is the so-called new Agora. 4. The chief argument, however, for the existence of the new Agora is the Doric portico, which is situated at a distance of about 250 yards opposite the northern extremity of the rocks of the Acropolis. It is maintaiaed that the style of archi

tecture of this building, and still more the inscriptions upon it, prove it to have been the Propylaeum or gateway of the Agora; and it is thought to be the same as the gate, which Pausanias describes as close to the statue of Hermes Agoraeus, and in the neighbourhood of the Stoa Poecile (i. 15. § 1).

In reply to these arguments it may be observed: 1. Apollodorus did not speak of an ancient marketplace in contradistinction from a new market-place; he derives the name of iyopd from the assembling (avr&ytaBai) of the people, and calls the place where they assembled the ancient Agora, in order to distinguish it from their later place of assembly on the Pnyx. 2. The passage of Strabo is too obscure to be of any authority in such a controversy. It is doubtful whether the Agora mentioned in this passage is the market, or a market, and whether it was in Athens or in Attica. Supposing that Strabo meant the Agora at Athens, there is no reason why we should not understand him to allude to the socalled old Agora. 3. It is quits an accidental circumstance that Pausanias uses the word Agora for the first time at the beginning of the 17th chapter. He had previously described the Agora under the name of Cerameicus, of which it was a part, and he would probably not have used the name Agora at all, had not the mention of the Hermes Agoraeus accidentally given occasion to it. 4. It is most probable that the above-mentioned Doric portico was not the gate of any market, but the portal of a building dedicated to Athena Archegetis, and erected by donations from Julius Caesar and Augustus. This portico was quite different from the gate mentioned by Pausanias as standing close to the statue of Hermes Agoraeus; for this gate and statue stood in the middle of the so-called old Agora. A few words must be said on each of these points.

First, as to the Hermes Agoraeus, it is expressly stated by an ancient authority that this statue stood in the middle of the Agora. («V uerrp aVyopp ISpvrtu 'Epuov iyopalou &ya\pa, Schol. ad Aristoph. EquiL 297.) Near this statue, and consequently in the middle of the Agora, stood a gate (tvat)), which appears from the account of Pausanias (i. 15. § 1) to have been a kind of triumphal arch erected to commemorate the victory of the Athenians over the troops of Cassander. This archway probably stood upon the same spot as the Uv\k mentioned by Demosthenes (irepl rbv 'Epfirjv rbv wpbs Tt? wuAlSf, c. Eaerg. et Mntrib. p. 1146), and may even have been the same building as the latter, to which the trophy was subsequently added. The Hermes Agoraeus, which was made of bronze, was one of the most celebrated statues in Athens, partly from its position, and partly from the beauty of its workmanship. (Lucian, Jup. Trag. 33.) This "Hermes near the gate" ('Ep/i^y wpoy Tji Wvxisi, or irapck T6» m\uva) was frequently used to designate the part of the Cerameicus (Agora) in which it stood. (Dem. /. c.; Harpocrat, Stud., Phot Lex. 'Epun' npbs Tp Tvxisi.1) It was erected by the nine archons at the time when the fortifications of the Peiraeeus were commenced, as was shown by the inscription upon it, preserved by Philochoras (ap. Harpocrat. *. v. Tlpbs Trj Ituaisi 'Epjiijt). According to Philochorus (i. c.) it was called 6 XluKiv t 'atTimit: for the latter word, which is evidently corrupt, Leake proposes to read 'AffTucoj, and Forchhammer 'A7opaioy. Sometimes the "Gate " alone was employed to indicate this locality: thus Isaeus i speaks of a lodging-house " in the Cerameicus near

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