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the Gate" (t^j Kfpouting avvoucias, Tt)v irapA Tv Tvaiso, de Philoct. ktred. p. 53, Steph.). Sccondlj, with regard to the Doric portico in the Agora, it is evident from its style i that it was erected after the time of ir, to say nothing of an earlier period. It consists at present of four Doric columns 4 feet 4 inches in diameter at the base, and 26 feet high, including the capita], the columns supporting a pediment surmounted by a large acrotcriam in the centre, and by a much smaller one at either end. If there were any doubt respecting the comparatively late date of this building, it would be removed by two inscriptions upon it, of which the one on the architrave is a dedication to Athena Archegetis by the people, and records that the building had been erected by means of donations from C. Julius Caesar and Augustus(Bockh, Inter. 477); while the second on the central acroterium shows that a statue of Lucius Caesar, the grandson and adopted son of Augustus, had been placed on the summit of the pediment. (Bockh, No. 312.) It would seem to fblbw from the first of these inscriptions that these columns with their architrave belonged to a small temple of Athena Archegetis, and there would probably have never been any question about the matter, if it had not been for two other inscriptions, which seem to support the idea of its occupying part of the site of the so-called new Agora. One of these inscriptions is upon the pedestal of & statue of Julia, which was erected m the name of the Areiopagus, the Senate of Six Hundred, and the people, at the cost of Dionysius of Marathon, who was at the time Agoranomus with Q. Naevius Kufus of Melite. (Bockh, No. 313.) The statue itself has disappeared, but the basis was found near the portico. We do not, however, know that the statue originally stood where the pedestal has been found; and even if it did, it is absurd to conclude from this inscription that it stood in the Agora, simply because Dionysius, who defrayed the expenses of raising the monument, indulged in the pardonable vanity of indicating the time of its erection by the Agoranomia of himself and of Rutus. The other inscription is an edict of

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the emperor Hadrian, respecting the sale of oils and the duties to be paid upon them (Bockh, No. 355); but the large stone upon which the inscription has I'ten cut, and which now appears to form a part of the ancient portico, did not belong to it originally, and was placed in its present position in order to form the corner of a house, which was built close to the portico.

There is, therefore, no reason whatsoever for believing this portico to have been a gateway, to say nothing of a gate of the Agora; and, consequently, we may dismiss as quite untenable the supposition of two market-places at Athens. Of the buildings in the Agora an account is given below in the route of Pausanias through the city.

18. The Cerameicus. There were two districts of this name, called respectively the Outer and the Inner Cerameicus, both belonging to the demus al Kepa/ieTs, the former being outside, and the latter within, the city walls. («To*t

hub Keyn^fjKJi' 6 fxtv f£» Tci'xous, 6 5' ivr6st

Suid. Hesych. v. KtpafAttKos; Schol. ad Aristoph. Eq. 969.) Of the Outer Cerameicus we shall speak in our account of the suburbs of the city. Through the principal part of the Inner Cerameicus there ran a wide street, bordered by colonnades, which led from the Dipylum, also called the Ceramic gate, through the Agon between the Areiopagus and the Acropolis on one side, and the hill of Nymphs and the Pnyx on the other. (Himer. Sophist. Or. iii. p. 446, Wernsdorf; Liv.xxxi. 24; Flut. Sull. 14; com p. oi Kfpa^rjs iv Tfluff* vfoatf, Aristoph. Ran. 1125.) We have already seen that the Agora formed part of the Cerameicus. After passing through the former, the street was continued, though probably under another Ti;iine, as far as the fountain of Callirhoe. For a further account of this street, see pp. 297, a, 299, a.

B. First Part of the Route of Pausanias through the City. From the Peiraic Gate to the Cerameicus. (Paus. i. 2.)

There can be little doubt that Pausanias entered the citybythe Peiraic gate, which, as we have already ;-een, stood between the hills of Pnyx and Museium. [See p. 263.] The first object which he mentioned in entering the city was the Pompeium (TlofAirtiov), a building containing the things necessary for the processions, some of which the Athenians celebrate every year, and others at longer intervals. Leake and Mtiller suppose that Pausanias alludes to the Panaihenaea; but Forchhammer considers it more probable that he referred to the Eleusinian festival, for reasons which are stated below. In this building were kept vases of gold and silver, called Tlopweia, used in the processions. (Philochor. ap. BarpocraL a, v. Uo,uTTua; Dem. c. Androt. p. 615; Plut. Ale. 13; Andoc c. AJcib. p. 126.) The building must have been one of considerable size, since not only did it contain paintings and statues, among which was a brazen statue of Socrates by Lysippus (Diog. Liiert. ii. 43), a picture of Isocratcs (Plut. Fit. Jl. OraL p, 839), and some portraits by Craterus (Plin. xxxv. 11. s. 40); but we read of corn and flour bring deposited here, and measured before the proper officers, to be sold at a lower price to the people. (Dem. c. Phorm. p. 918.) The Pompeium was probably chosen for this purpose as being the most suitable place near the road to the Peiraeeus.

The street from the Peiraic gate to the Ceraineicus passed between the hills of Pnyx and Museinm. The whole of this hilly district formed the quarter called Melite, which was a demos of Attica. Pausanias says, that close to the Pompeium was a temple of Demeter, containing statues of Demeter, Core (Proserpine), Ri:d Iacchus holding a torch; and as Hercules is said to have been initiated in Melite into the Lesser Elensinian mysteries (Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 504), we may infer that the above-mentioned temple is the one in which the initiation took place. It was probably for this reason that a temple was built to Hercules in Melite, in which at the time of the plague there was dedicated the celebrated statue of Hercules Alexicacus, the work of Ageladas. (Schol. ad Aristoph. L c.; Tzetz. ChiL viii. 191.) This temple is not mentioned by Pansanias, probably because it lay at a little distance to the right of the street.

This street appears to have been one of considerable length. After describing the Pompeium, the temple of Demeter, and a group representing Poseidon on horseback hurling his trident at the giant Polybotes, ho proceeds to say: "From the gate to the Cerameicus extend colonnades (oroal), before which are brazen images of illustrious men and women. The one of tlie two colonnades (r) ir(pa ruv Otowc) contains sanctuaries of the gods, a gymnasium of Hermes, and the house of Polytion, wherein some of the noblest Athenians are said to nave imitated the Elensinian mysteries. In my time the house was consecrated to Dionysus. This Diony. sus they call Melpomenus, for a similar reason that Apollo is called Musagetes. Here are statues of Athena Paeonia, of Zeus, of Mnemosyne, of the Muses, and of Apollo, a dedication and work of Enbulides. Here also is the daemon Acratus, one of the companions of Dionysus, whoso face only is seen projecting from the wall. After the sacred enclosure (tc/mimi) of Dionysus there is a building containing images of clay, which represent Amphictyon, king of the Athenians, entertaining Dionysus and other gods. Here also is Pegasus of Eleuthcrae, who introduced Dionysus among the Athenians."

It would appear that the oroal, of which Pansanias speaks in this passage, were a continuous scries of colonnades or cloisters, supported by pillars and open to the street, such as are common in many continental towns, and of which we had a specimen a few years ago in part of Regent Street in London. Under them were the entrances to the private houses and sanctuaries. That Pausanias was speaking of a continuous series of colonnades, on either side of the street, is evident from the words y irepa ratr arowv. Unfortunately Pausanias does not mention the name of this street. In sneaking of the house of Polytion, Pausanias evidently alludes to Alcibiodes and his companions; but it may be remarked that an accusation against Alcibiades speaks of the house of Alcibiodes as the place where the profanation took place, though it mentions Polytion as one of the accomplices. (Pint. Ale. 22.)

C. Second Part of the Route of Pausanias. From the Stoa Basileius in the Agora to the Temple of Eucleia beyond the Ilissus. (Pans. i. 3—14.)

In entering the Cerameicus from the street leading between the hills of Pnyx and the Museium, Pausanias turned to the right, and stood before the

Stoa Basileius, or Royal Colonnade, in which the Archon Basileus held his court. It is evident from what has been said previously, that Pausanias had now entered the Agora, though he does not mention the name of the latter; and the buildings whkh he now describes were all situated in the Agora, or its immediate neighbourhood. Upon the roof of the Stoa Basileius were statues of Theseus throwing Sciron into the sea, and of Hemcra (Aurora) carrying away Cephalus: hence it has been inferred that there was a temple of Hemcra under or by the side of this Stoa. It appears to have faced the east, so that the statues of Hemera and Cephalus would witness the first dawn of day. Near the portico there were statues of Conon, Timotheus, Evagoras, and Zeus Eleutherius. Behind the latter, says Pausanias, was a stoa, containing paintings of the gods, of Theseus, Democracy, and the People, and of the battle of Mantineia. These paintings were by Euphranor, and were much celebrated. (Plut. de Glor. Ath. 2; Plin. xxxv. 11. s. 40; Val. Max. viii. 12.) Pausanias docs not mention the name of this stoa, but we know from other authorities, and from his description of the paintings, that it was the Stoa Eleutherius. In front of it stood the statue of Zeus Eleutherius, as Pausanias describes. This stoa probably stood alongside of the Stoa Basileius. (Plat. Theag. init.; Xen. Oeconom. 7. § 1; Harpocrat Hesych. s. v. fiaoi\tws 2rod; Eustath. ad Odyss. i. 395.) Near the Stoa Basileius was the Temple of Apollo Patrons, the same as the Pythian Apollo, but worshipped at Athens as a guardian deity under the name of Patrons (top 'AirriAAw Top nlidtov, us T\arp$6s ian Tp Woau, Dem. de Cor. p. 274; Aristid. Or. Panath. i. p. 112, Jebb; Harpocrat. s. v.)

Pausanias next mentions "a Temple of the Mother of the Gods (the Metroon, Vlrrrpyov), whose statue was made by Pheidias, and near it the Bouleuierium (BovXfvrtipiov), or Council House of the Five Hundred." He gives no indication of the position of these buildings relatively to those previously mentioned; but as we know that the statues of Harmodius and Aristogciton, which stood higher up, near the ascent to the Acropolis, were over against the Metroum (jcaTamiKph rod Mnrptpov, Arrian, Anab. iii. 16), we may, perhaps, conclude that they stood on the side of the Agora at right angles to the side occupied by the Stoa Basileius and Stoa Eleutherius. In the Metroum the public records were kept. It is also said by Aeschincs to have been near the Bouleuterium (Aesch. c. Ctesiph. p. 576, Reiskc; Dem. de Fals. Leg. p. 381, c. Aristog. i. p. 799; Lycurg. c. Leocrat. p. 184; Harpocrat. *. v. Mifrpyov; Suidas, s. v. Mirrpa'yfymjs.) In the Bouleuterium were sanctuaries of Zeus Boulaeus and Athena Boukca, and an altar of Hestia Boulaea. Suppliants placed themselves under the protection of these deities, and oaths were taken upon their altars. (Xcn. Hell. ii. 3. § 52; Andoc. de Mys. p. 22, de Redit. p. 82, Reiskc; Antiph. de Fals. Leg. p. 227; Died. xiv. 4.)

The Thohis, which Pausanias places near the Bouleuterion (i. 5. § 1), probably stood immediately above the latter. It was a circular building, and was covered with a dome built of stone. (Timaeus, Lex. Plat., Hesych., Suid., Phot. s. v. edAoj; Bekkcr, Anted. Gr. i. p. 264.) It contained some small silver images of the gods, and was the place where the Prytanes took their common meals, and offered their sacrifices. (Pollux, viii. 155; Dem. de Fals. Leg p. 419.) After the Tholus there followed, higher up (avon-toot), the Statues of the Kponymi, or heroes, from whom were derived the names of the Attic tribes; and after the latter (m«to 8^ Toj (jkovck Toic twerrvfiuy, i. 8. § 2) the statues of Amphiaraus, and of Eirene (Peace), bearing Plutus as her son. In the same place (imavOa) stood also statues of Lycnrgus, son of Lycrophron, of Callias, who made peace with Artaxerxes, and of Demosthenes, the Utter, according to Plutarch ( Vit. X. Orat. p. 847), being near the altar of the 12 gods. Pausanias, however, says, that near this statue was the Temple of A ret, in which were two statues of Aphrodite, one of Ares by Alcamenes, an Athena by Locrus of Faroe, and an Enyo by the sons of Praxiteles: around the temple there stood Hercules, Theseus, and Apollo, and likewise statues of Calades and Pindar. Not far from these (ou wo^w) stood the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, of which we have already spoken. The Altar of the Twelve Gods, which Pausanias has omitted to mention, stood near this spot in the Agora. (Herod, ri. 108; Thuc vi. 54; Xen. HipparcL 3; Lycurg. e. Leorr. p. 198, Eeiske; Pint. Nic. 13, ViU X. Orat. I e.) Close to this altar was an inclosure, called rupioxolriaim, where the votes for ostracism were taken. (Plut. ViL X. Oral. I. c.) In the same neighbourhood was the Temple of Aphrodite Pandemus, placed by ApoUodorus in the Agora (ap. Harpocrat. *. v. Tld»hr)uos 'AippoShrt), but which is not mentioned by Pausanias (i. 22. § I—3) till he returns from the Theatre to the Propylaea. It must, therefore, have stood above the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, more to the east.

Upon reaching the temple of Aphrodite Pandemus, which he would afterwards approach by another route, Pausanias retraced his steps, and went along the wide street, which, as a continuation of the Cerameicus, led to the Ilissus. In this street there appear to have been only private houses; and the first monument which he mentions after leaving the statues of Harmodius and Aristogeiton, was "the theatre, called the Odeium, before the entrance to which are statues of Egyptian kings" (i. 8. § 6). Then follows a long historical digression, arid it is not till he arrives at the 14th chapter, that he resumes his topographical description, by saying: "Upon entering the Athenian Odeium there is, among other things, a statue of Dionysus, worthy of inspection. Near it is a fountain called Enneacrunus (i. e. of Nine Pipes), since it was so constructed by Peisistratus."

The Odeium must, therefore, have stood at no great distance from the Ilissus, to the SE. of the Olympieium, since the site of the Enneacrunus, or fountain of Caliirhoe, is well known. [See p. 292.] This Odeium must not be confounded with the Odeium of Pericles, of which Pausanias afterwards speaks, and which was situated at the foot of the Acropolis, and near the great Dionysiac theatre. As neither of these buildings bore any distinguishing epithet, it is not always easy to determine which of the two is meant, when the ancient writers speak of the Odeium. It will assist, however, in distinguishing them, to recollect that the Odeium of Pericles must have been a building of comparatively small size, since it was covered all over with a pointed roof, in imitation of the tent of Xerxes (Plut. Pericl. 13); while the Odeium on the Ilissus appears to have been an open place surrounded with rows of seats, and of considerable size. Hence, the

latter is called a Tovoj, a term which could hardly have been applied to a building like the Odeium of Pericles. (Hesych. s. v. tpStiov; Schol. ad Arutoph. Veep. 1148.) This Odeium is said by Hesyt-hiiw (/. c.) to have been the place in which the rhapsodists and citharodists contended befure the erection of the theatre; and, as we know that the theatre was commenced as early as B. c. 500, it must liuve been built earlier than the Odeium of Pericles. Upon the erection of the latter, the earlier Odeium ceased to be used fur its original purpose; and was employed especially as a public granary, where, in times of scarcity, com was sold to the citizens at a fixed price. Here, also, the court sat for trying the cases, called O'ikcu ohov, in order to recover the interest of a woman's dowry after divorce: this interest was called Oitos (alimony or maintenance), because it was the income out of which the woman had to be maintained. It is probable, from the name of the suit, and from the place in which it was tried, that in earlier times the defendant was called upon to pay the damages in kind, that is, in corn or some other sort of provisions; though it was soon found more convenient to commute this for a money payment. (Dem. c. Phorm. p. 918, c. Neatr. p. 1362; I.ys. c. Agor. p. 717, ed. Reiske; Suid. s. v. tfietov; Harpocrat. a. v. aiTOsJ) Xenophon relates, that the Thirty Tyrants summoned within the Odeium all the boplites (3000) on the catalogus, and the cavalry; that half of the Lacedaemonian garrison took up their quarters within it; and that when the Thirty marched to Eleusis, the cavalry passed the night in the Odeium with their horses. (Xen. Bell. ii. 4. §§ 9,10, 24.) It is evident that this could not have been the roofed building under the Acropolis. If we suppose the Odeium on the Ilissus to have been surrounded with a wall, like the Colosseum, and other Roman amphitheatres, it would have been a convenient place of defence in case of an unexpected attack made by the inhabitants of the city.

After speaking of the Odeium and the fountain Enneacrunus, Pausanias proceeds: "Of the temples beyond the fountain, one is dedicated to Demeter and Core (Proserpine), in the other stands a statue of Triptolemus." He then mentions several legends respecting Triptolemus, in the midst of which he breaks off suddenly with these words: "From proceeding further in this narrative, and in the tilings relating to the Athenian temple, called Eleusinium, a vision in my sleep deterred me. But I will return to that of which it is lawful for all men to write. In front of the temple, in which is the statue of Triptolemus [it should be noticed, that Pausanias avoids, apparently on purpose, mentioning the name of the temple], stands a brazen ox, as led to sacrifice: here also is a sitting statue of Kpimenides of Cnossus. Still further on is the Temple of Eucleia, a dedication from the spoils of the Medes, who occupied the district of Marathon."

It will be seen from the preceding account that Pausanias makes no mention of the city walls, which he could hardly have passed over in silence if they had passed between the Odeium and the fountain of Enneacrunus, as Leake and others suppose. That he has omitted to speak of bis crossing the Ilissus, which he must have done in order to reach the temple of Demeter, is not surprising, when we recollect that the bed of the Ilissus is in this part of its course almost always dry, and only filled for a few hours alter heavy rain. Moreover, as there can be little doubt that this district was covered with houses, it is probable that the dry bed of the river was walled in, and mar thus have escaped the notice of Pausanias.

It is evident that the temple of Demeter and of Core, and the one with the statue of Triptolemus, Btood near one another, and apparently a little above the fountain. Here there is still a small chapel, and in the neighbourhood foundations of walls. Whether the Eleusinium was either of these temples, or was situated in this district at all, cannot be in the least determined from the words of Pausanias. In the same neighbourhood was a small Ionic building, which, in the time of Stuart, formed a church, called that of Panaghia on the Rock (Tlavaryla trritv •Ktrpav). It has now totally disappeared, and is only known from the drawings of Stuart. This beautiful little temple was "an amphiprostyle, 42 feet long, and 20 broad, on the upper step of the etylobate. There were four columns at either end, 1 foot 9 inches in diameter above the spreading base. Those at the eastern end stood before a pronaos of 10 feet in depth, leading by a door 7 feet wide into a <ri)(tor of 15{ feet; the breadth of both 12 feet." (Leake, p. 250.) Leake supposes that this is the temple of the statue of Triptolemus; but Forchhammer imagines it to have been that of Kucleia. If the latter conjecture is correct , we have in this tempi' a building erected immediately after the battle of Marathon.

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D. Third Part of the Route of Pausanias.From the Stoa Basileius in the Agora to the Prytaneium. (Paus. i. 14. § 6—18. § 3.)

After speaking of the temple of Eucleia beyond the Ilissus, Pausanias returns to the point from which he had commenced his description of the Cerameicus and the Agora. Having previously described the monuments in the Agora to his right, he now turns to the left, and gives an account of the buildings on the opposite side of the Agora. "Above the Cerameicus and the Stoa, called Basileius," he continues, "is a temple of Hephaestus. . . Near it is a sanctuary of Aphrodite Urania (c. 14). .... In approaching the Stoa, which is called Poodle* (notK:A7j), from its pictures, is a bronze Hermes, snmamcd Agoracus, and near it a gate, upon which in a trophy of the Athenians, the victors in an

equestrian combat of Pleistarchus, who had been entrusted with the command of the cavalry and foreign troops of his brother Cassander." (c 15. § 1.) Then follows a description of the paintings in the Stoa Poecile" after which he proceeds: "Before the Stoa stand brazen statues, Solon, who drew up laws ftir the Athenians, and a little further Seleucus (c. 16. § 1). ... In the Agora of the Athenians is an Altar of Pity ('EAe'ow $tou6 r), to whom the Athenians alone of Greeks give divine honours " (c. 17

.... It would appear that the three principal buildings.

mentioned in this passage, the Temple of Hephaestus, the Sanctuary of Aphrodite Urania, and the Stoa Poecile, stood above one another, the last, at all events, having the hill of Pnyx behind it, as we shall see presently. Of the celebrated statue of Hermes Agoraeus, and of the gate beside it, we have already spoken. [See p. 294."] Near the temple of Hephaestus was the Eurysaceium, or heroum of Eurysaces, which Pausanias has not mentioned. (Harpocmt. 8. v. KoKwvlras.1) Eurysaces was the son of Ajax. According to an Athenian tradition he and his brother Philaeos had given up Salamis to the Athenians, and had removed to Attica, Philaeus taking up his residence in Brauron, and Eurysaces in Melite. (Plut Sol 10.) It was in the latter district that the Eurysaceium was situated (Harpocrat. s. v. TLvpxMrdxfiov), which proves that Melite must have extended as far as the side of the Agora next to the hill of Pnyx.

In the Agora, and close to the Eurysaceium and temple of Hephaestus, was the celebrated hill called Colonus, more usually Colonus Agoraeus, or Mitthius (Kokwvbs d-yopaioj, or /xiaBios), which, from its central position, was a place of hire for labourers. It received its surname from this circumstance, to distinguish it from the demus Colonus beyond the Academy. (Pollux, vii. 133; Harpocrat. *. v. Ko\oivhas; Argum. iii. ad Soph. Oed. Colon, ed. Hermann.) This hill was a projecting spur of the hill of Pnyx. Here Meton appears to have lived, as may be inferred from a passage in Aristophanes (Av. 997), in which Meton says, "Meton am I, whom Hellas and Colonus know n (tarts rift' 4yt*\ Me'rctfc, by nToev 'EAA&y x« Koawfo's). This is confirmed by the statement that the house of Meton was close to the Stoa Poecile. (Aelian, V. II. xiii. 12.) On the hill Colonus Meton placed some " astronomical dedication " (avdSrjfxd Ti affrpoAoyucoV), the nature of which is not mentioned; and near it upon the wall of that part of the Pnyx where the assemblies of the people were held, he set up a ri\torp6iriovi which indicated the length of the solar year. (rjKtorpSvtov iv Tp vvv otan ttocKvciq., irpbi T$ T«fx«t iv rrj UvvKi, Schol. ad Aristopk. Vesp. 997; Suid. *. v. Mc'twk.) The Scholiast also says, that the Colonus Agoraeus was behind the Macra Stoa (y Manpa Xroa); but as no other writer mentions a Stoa of this name in the Asty, it is piubable that the Scholiast meant the Stoa Basileius.

The Stoa Poecile was the Stoa from which the Stoic philosophers obtained their name. (Diog. Loert. vii. 5; Lucian, Demon. 14.) It was originally called 5ro<i ntunavdnTios. (Plut. Cim. 4; Diog. Laert. L c.; Suid. s. v. 2to(£.) It had threa walls covered with paintings; a middle wall with two large paintings, representing scenes from the mythical age, and one at each end, containing a painting of which the subject was taken from Athenian history. On the fL~»t wall was the battle of Oeuoo in the Argeia, between the Athenians and Lacedaemonians. On the great central wall was a picture of the Athenians under Theseus fighting against the Amazons, and another representing an assembly of the Greek chiefs after the capture of Troy deliberating respecting the violation of Cassandra by Ajax. On die third wall was a painting of the battle of Marathon. These paintings were very celebrated. The combat of the Athenians and Amazons was the work of Mi con. (Aristoph. Lysistr. 681; Arrian, Anab. vii. 13.) The battle of Marathon was painted by Polygnotns, Micon, and l'antaenus. (Plut Cim. 4; Diog. Laert. vii. 5; Flin. zzzv. 8. s. 34; Aelian, de Xat. An. vii. 38.)

After describing the Stoe Poecile, and mentioning the statues of Solon and Seleucus, and the Altar of Pity, Pausanias quits the Agora and goes up the street of the Cerameicus towards Dipylum. He passes between the Pnyx and the Areiopagus without mentioning either, since the lower parts of both were covered with houses. The first object which he mentions is the Gymnasium of Ptolemy, which he describes as not far from the Agora (tt)s ayopUt 4»i'xoiti oit woAif), and named after its founder Ptolemy: it contained Hennas of stone, worthy of inspection, a bronze image of Ptolemy, and statues of Juba the Libyan, and of Chrysippus of Soli. He next describes the Temple of -Theseus, which he places near the Gymnasium (wpor yvupaoltp, c 17. § 2). The proximity of these two buildings is also noticed by Plutarch. (OrjatisKutoi Iv uiori Tti xoKti Trapa To vvv yvuv&autv, Thes. 36.) Of the temple of Theseus we have already spoken. [See p. 287.] At this spot Pausanias quitted the Cerameicus and turned to the right towards the east. If he had gone further on in the direction of Dipylum, he would at least have mentioned the Leocorium, or monument of the daughters of Leos, which stood near the Dipylum in the inner Cerameicus. (Thuc i. 20, ii. 57; Aelian, V. H. xii. 28; Cic. <fe Nat Dear. iii. 19; Strab. ix. p. 396; Harpocrat. Hesych. $. v. Acwko'dcoi'.)

It has been already mentioned that the Cerameicus was a long wide street, extending from Dipylum to the Agora, and continued under another name as far as the fountain of Callirhoe, and the temple with the statue of Triptolemus, which Forchhammer conjectures to be the same as the Pherephattium. This street, like the Corso of the Italian towns, appears to have been the grand promenade in Athens. The following passage from the speech of Demosthenes against Conon (p. 1258) gives a lively picture of the locality: "Not long afterwards," says Ariston, "as I was talcing my usual walk in the evening m the Agora along with Phanostratus the Cephisian, one of my companions, there comes up to us Ctesias, the son of this defendant, drunk, at the Leocorium, near the house of Pythodorus. Upon seeing us he shouted out, and having said something to himself like a drunken man, so that we could not understand what he said, he went past us up to Melite (wpoj MeAirnf &pw~). In that place there were drinking (as we afterwards learnt) at the house of Pamphilua the fuller, this defendant Conon, a certain Theotirous, Archebiades, Spintharus the son of Eubulus, Throgenes the son of Andromenes, a number of persons whom Ctesias brought down into the Agora. It happened that we met these men as we were returning from the Pherephattium, and had in our walk again reached the Leocorium." It is evident from tiiit account that the house of Pamphilus was some

where on the hill of the Nymphs; and that the Pherephattium was in any case to the south of the Leocorium, and apparently at the end of the promenade: hence it is identified by Forchhammer with the temple with the statue of Triptolemus.

After leaving the Theseium, Pausanias arrives at the Temple of the Dioscuri, frequently named the Anaceium, because the Dioscuri (Castor and Pollux) were called oi "AcaK*?, or 'Avaicol, by the Athenians. (Plut. 7Ae». 33; Aelian, V. H. iv. 5; Suid. Etym. M. 9. V. 'Avaxoi; Harpocrat. s. v. 'Avaitetov, I"IoKvyvturos.') He does not, however, mention either the distance of the Anacei:im from the Theseium, or tbe direction which he took in proceeding thither. It is evident, however, that he turned to the east, as has been already remarked, since he adds in the next paragraph, that above the temple of the Dioscuri is the sacred enclosure of Aglaurus. The latter, as we know, was situated on the northern side of the Acropolis, immediately under the Erechtheium [see p. 286]; and that the Anaceium was near the Aglaurium, appears from the talo of the stratagem of Peisistratus (Polyaen. i. 21), which has been already related. The proximity of the Anaceium and Aglaurium is also attested by Lucian. {Piscator. 42.) And since Pausanias mentions the Anaceium before the Aglaurium, we may place it north-west of the latter.

Near to the Aglaurium, says Pausanias, is the Prytaneium, where the laws of Solon were preserved. Hence the Prytaneium must have stood at the northeastern comer of the Acropolis; a position which is confirmed by the narrative of Pausanias, that in proceeding from thence to the temple of Sarapis, he descended into the lower parts of the city (^i ri Koltw rrjs ir<j\t»s), and also by the fact that the street of the Tripods, which led to the sacred enclosure of Dionysus near the theatre commenced at the Prytaneium. (Paus. i. 20. § I.)

North of the Acropolis there were some other monuments. Of these two of the most celebrated are the portico of Athena Archegetis, erroneously called tbe Propylaeum of the new Agora [see p. 295]i and the Horologinm of Andronicus Cyrrhestes. Apparently north of these should be placed certain buildings erected by Hadrian, which Pansanias does not mention till he had spoken of the Olympieium, the greatest of the works of this emperor. After describing the Olympieium, Pausanias remarks (i. 18. § 9): "Hadrian constructed other buildings for the Athenians, a temple of Hera and of Zeus Panhellenius, and a sanctuary common to all the god a (a Pantheon). The most conspicuous objects are 120 columns of Phrygian marble. The walls of the porticoes are made of the same material. In the same place are apartments (ourfyjara) adorned with gilded roofs and alabaster stone, and with statues and paintings: books are deposited in them (or in this sanctuary). There is also a gymnasium named after Hadrian, in which there are 100 columns from the quarries of Libya." The ancient remains north of the portico of Athena Archegetis are supposed to belong to a portion of these buildings. "The Corinthian colonnade, of which the southern extremity is about 70 yards to the north of the above-mentioned portico, was the decorated facade (with a gateway in the centre) of a quadrangular inclosure, which is traceable to the eastward of it. A tetrastyle propylaeum, formed of columns 3 feet in diameter and 29 feet high, similar to those before the wall, except that the latter are not fluted, projected

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