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22 feet before the gate of the inclosure, which was 376 feet long, and 252 broad; round the inside of it, at a distance of 23 feet from the wall, are vestiges of a colonnade. In the northern wall, which still exists, are the remains of one large quadrangular recess or apartment in the centre 34 feet in length, and of two semicircular recesses nearly equal to it in diauieter. The church of Mcgili Panaghfa, which stands towards the eastern side of the inclosure, is formed of the remains of an ancient building, consisting on one side of a ruined arch, and oil the other of an architrave supported by a pilaster, and three columns of the Doric order, 1 foot 9 inches in diameter, and of a somewhat declining period of art. .... The general plan was evidently that of a quadrangle surrounded with porticoes, having one or more buildings in the centre: thus agreeing perfectly with that work of Hadrian which contained stoae, a colonnade of Phrygian marble, and

a library The building near the centre of

the quadrangle, which was converted into a church of the Panaglu'a, may have been the Pantheon. . . . Possibly also the temple of Hera and of Zeus Panhellenius stood in the centre of the inclosure." (Leake, p. 258, seq.)

E. Fourth Fart of the Route of Pausanias.From the Prytaneium to tlie Stadium. (Paus. i. 18. § 4—19.)

Pausanias went straight from the Prytaneium to the Olympieium, between which buildings he notices these objects, the Temple of Sarapis, the place of meeting of Theseus and Peirithous, and the Temple of Eileithyia. After describing the Olympieium, Pausanias mentions the temples of Apollo Pythius, and of Apollo Delphinius. The Pythium (n60u»>) was one of the most ancient sanctuaries in Athens. We know from Thucydides (a. 15) that it was in the same quarter as the Olympieium, and from Strabo (ix. p. 404), that the sacred inclosures of the two temples were only separated by a wall, upon which was the altar of Zeus Astrapaeus. The Delphinium (AtAp/nop) was apparently near the Pythium. It was also a temple of great antiquity, being said to have been founded by Aegeus. In its neighbourhood sat one of the courts for the trial of cases of homicide, called To M AcAfwi*-. (Pint. Thee. 12, 18; Pollux, viii. 119; Paus. i. 28. § 10.)

Pausanias next proceeds to The Gardens (of jrr/iroi), which must have been situated east of the aDovc-mentioned temples, along the right bank of the Ilissus. In this locality was a temple of Aphrodite: the statue of this goddess, called "Aphrodite in the Gardens," by Alcamenes, was one of the most celebrated pieces of statuary in all Athens. (Plin. xxxvi. 5. s. 4; Lucian, Imag. 4, 6.) Pliny (/. c), misled by the name "Gardens," places this statue outside the walls; but we have the express testimony of Pausanias in another passage (i. 27. § 3) that it was in the city.

Pausanias then visits the Cynosarges and Ly~ ceium, both of which were situated outside the walls, and are described below in the account of the suburbs of the city. From the Lyoeium he returns to the city, and mentions the A Itar of Boreas, who carried off Oreithyia from the banks of the Ilissus, and the Altar of the Ilissian Muses, both altars being upon the banks of the Ilissus. (Comp. Plat. Phaedr. c. 6; Herod, vii. 189.) The altar of Boreas is described by Plato (/. c.) as opposite the temple of Artemis Agrotera, which probably stands

upon the site of the church of Stavrome'nos Petros. To the east of the altar of Boreas stood the altar of the Ilissian Muses. In 1676 Spon and Wheler observed, about fifty yards above the bridge of the Stadium, the foundations of a circular temple, which had, however, disappeared in the time of Stuart This was probably the Temple of the Ilissian Muses, for though Pausanias only mentions an altar of these goddesses, there may have been also a temple.

On the other side of the Ilissus Pausanias entered the district Agrae or Agra, in which was the Temple of Artemis Agrotera, spoken of above. A part of this district was sacred to Demeter, since we know that the lesser Eleusiuian mysteries were celebrated in Agrae, and were hence called ra iv "hypats. (Steph. B. *. r. 'Aypa; Plut. Demetr. 26.) Stephanus (l c.) says that Agra was a spot before the city (irpo T^s wd\«os), but this appears to be only a conclusion drawn from the name, which would seem to indicate that it was in the country, and may be classed together with the above-mentioned error of Pliny about the gardens. The Panathenaio StJulium was also in Agrae, after describing which [see p. 292], Pausanias retraces his steps to the Prytaneium. He has omitted to mention the hill Ardettus (ApS»rrros), situated above the Stadium, where the Dicasts were sworn. (Harpocrat., Hesych., Suid. s. v.; Pollux, viii. 122.) The high ground of Agrae appears to have been called Helicon in ancient times. (Cleidemus, ap. Bekker, Anecd. Graee. i. p. 326.)

F. Fifth Part of the Route of Pausanias.From the Prytaneium to Hie Propylaea of the Acropolis. (Paus. i. 20—22. § 3.)

In this part of his route Pausanias went round the eastern and southern sides of the Acropolis. Starting again from the Prytaneium, he went down the Street of the Tripods, which led to the Lenaeum or sacred enclosure of Dionysus. The position of this street is marked by the existing Choragic Monument of Lysierates [see p. 291], and by a number of small churches, which probably occupy the place of the tripod temples. The Lenaeum, which contained two temples of Dionysus, and which was close to the theatre, was situated in the district called Limnae. It was here that the Dionysiac festival, called Leuaea, was celebrated. (Thuc. ii. 15; Diet, of Ant. p. 411, b. 2nd ed.) The Lenaeum must be placed immediately below the theatre to the south. Immediately to the east of the theatre, and consequently at the north-eastern angle of the Acropolis, was the Odeium of Pericles. Its site is accurately determined by Vitruvius, who says (v. 9), that it lay on tne left hand to persons coming out of the theatre. This Odeium, which must be distinguished from the earlier building with this name near the Ilissus, was built by Pericles, and its roof is said to have been an imitation of the tent of Xerxes. (Plut. Per. 13.) It was burnt during the siege of Athens by Sulla, B. C. 85, but was rebuilt by Ariobarzanes II., king of Cappadocia, who succeeded to the throne about B.C. 63. (Appian, B. Mithr. 38; Vitruv. I. c; Bockh, No. 357; Diet, of Ant. pp. 822, 823, 2nd ed.) All traces of this building have disappeared.

On the western side of the theatre are some remains of a succession of arches, which Leake con ■ jectures may have belonged to a portico, built by Herodes Atticns, for the purpose of a covered comirranication between the theatre and the Odeium of Herodes. Perhaps they are tlie remains of the Purticus Eumenia, which appears from Vitruvius (/. c.) to have been close to the theatre. For an account of the theatre itself, see p. 284.

In proceeding from the theatre Pausanias first mentions the Tomb of Talos or Caht, below the steep rocks of the Acropolis, from which Daedalus is said to have hurled him down. Pausanias next omtes to the Aselepiehtm or Temple of Asclepius, which stood immediately above the Odeium of Herales Atticns. Its site is determined by the statement that it contained a fountain of water, celebrated it- the fountain at which Ares slew Ualirrhothius, the son of Poseidon. Pausanias makes no mention of the Odeium of Herodes, since this building was rmt erected when he wrote his account of Athens. £ See p. 286.] Next to the Asclepieium Pausanias, in his ascent to the Acropolis, passed by the Temple of Themis, with the Tomb of JJippolytus in front of it, the Temple of Aphrodite Pandemia <md Peitho, and the Temple of Ge Curotrophus and Itemeter Chloe At the temple of Aphrodite Pan<lemus, Pausanias was again close to the statues of Harmodiua and Aristogeiton. [See p. 297, a.] The proximity of this temple to the tomb of Hippolytus is alluded to by Euripides (Hippol. 29,seq.). The temple of Ge and Demeter was probably situated beneath the temple of Mike Apteros. At the foot of the wall, supporting the platform of the latter temple, there are two doors, coeval with the wall, ami conducting into a small grotto, which was probably the shrine of Ge and Demeter. It was situated on the right hand of the traveller, just before he commenced the direct ascent to the Propylaea; and from being placed within a wall, which formed one of the defences of the Acropolis, it is sometimes described as a part of the latter. (Soph, ad Oed. Col. 1600; Suid. s. v. Kovporp6<pot ri}.) The position of this temple is illustrated by a passage in the Lysistrata of Aristophanes (829), where, the Athenian women being in possession of the Acropolis, Lysistrata suddenly perceives a man at the temple of Demeter Chloe approaching the citadel:

AT. lot, *oo, ywaucts ....

a*5p' &r8p' 6pw TpofffoVra .... IT. now 5* itrrXv, forts iori\ AT. rapd rb TTJf Xaotjj.

The Eleusinimm, which Pausanias had mentioned (i. 14. § 3) in the description of his second route [see p. 297, b], Leake conjectures to have been the great cavern in the middle of the rocks at the eastern end of the Acropolis. The Eleusinium is said by Clemens of Alexandria (Protrept. p. 13, Sylburg), and Arnobius (adv. Gent. vi. p. 193, 31 aire) to have been below the Acropolis. The Eleu*inium is also mentioned by Thucydides (ii. 15) and Xenopbon {llipparch, 3), but without any positive indication of its site.

<J. Sixth Part of the Route of Pausanias.The Acropolis, Areiopagus and Academy. (Paus. L 22. § 4—30.)

The Acropolis has been already described. In descending from it Pausanias notices the cave of Pan and the Areiopagus [see pp. 286, 281], and the place :iear the Areioi«igus, where the ship was kept, which was dragged through the city in the great Pfcnathenaic festival, surmounted by the Peplus of

Athena as a sail (i. 29. § 1). He then proceeds through Dipyluin to the outer Cenimeicus and I lie Academy. The two latter are spoken of under the suburbs of the city.

H. Districts of the A sty.

It is remarked by Isocrates that the city was divided into Kupai and the country into Stjuoi (5k A/iuvot T-ftv fiiv iroA.iv Koto1 Ktufxas, rfyv xt*'Pav *aTtl 5?,u«m'v. Areop. p. 149, ed. Sieph.). In consequence of this remark, and of the frequent opposition between the *6\ts and the btfut, it wus formerly maintained by many writers that none of the Attic demi were within the city. But since it has been proved beyond doubt that the contrary was the case, it has been supposed that the city demi were outride the walls when the demi were established by Cleisthenes, but were subsequently included within the wulls upon the enlargement of the city by Themistot les. But even this hypothesis will not Apply to all ttie deini, since Melite and Cydathenaeum, fur example, as well as others, must have been included within the city at the time of Cleisthenes. A little consideration, however, will show the necessity of admitting the division of the city into the demi from the tirst institution of the latter by Cleisthenes. It is certain that every Athenian citizen was enrolled in some demus, and that the whole territory of Attica was distributed into a certain number of demi. Hence the city must have been formed by Cleisthenes into une or more demi; for otherwise the inhabitants of the city would have belonged to no demus, which we know to have been impossible. At the same time there is notliing surprising in the statement of Isocrates, since the demi within the walls of Athens were few, and had nothing to do with the organization of the city. For administrative purposes the city was divided into KWfuu or wards, the inhabitants being called Ku>nirrat. (Comp. Aristoph. Nub. 966, Lysistr. 5; Hesych. s. v. Kuuoi.)

The following is a list of the city demi: —

1. Cerameicus (Ktpcyuut&t; Eth. KfoonictV), divided into the Inner and the Outer Cerameicus, The Inner Cerameicus has been already described, and the Outer Cerameicus is spoken of below. [See p. 303.] The two districts formed only one demus, which belonged to the tribe Acamantis. Wordsworth maintains (p. 171) that the term Inner Cerameicus was used only by later writers, and that during the Peloponnesian war, and for many years afterwards, there was only one Cerameicus, namely, that outside the walls. But this opinion is refuted by the testimony of Antiphon, who spoke of the two Cerameici (ap. Harpocrat. s. v.), and of Phanodemus, who stated that the Leocorium was in the middle of the Cerameicus (ap. Harpocrat. s.v. AcawopioF).

2. Melite (M«AiT7j: Eth. MeAiTeis), was a demus of the tribe Cccropis, west of the Inner Cerameicus. The exact limits of this demus cannot be ascertained; but it appears to have given its name to the whole hilly district in the west of the Asty, comprising the hills of the Nymphs, of the Pnyx and of the Museium, and including within it the separate demi of Scambomdae and Collytus. Melite is said to have been named from a wife of Hercules. It was one of the most populous parts of the city, and contained several temples as well as houses of distinguished men. In Melite were the Hephaesteium, the Enrysaceium, the Colonus Agorae ua [respecting these three, see p. 298]; the temple of Hercules Alexicacus [see p. 296, a]; the Melanippeium, in which Melanippus, the son of Theseus, was buried (Harpocrat s.v. MeAwhrireioi'); the temple of Athena Aristobula, built by Themistocles near his own house (Pint Them. 22); the house of Callias (Plat Parmen, p. 126, a.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 504); the house of Phocion, which still existed in Plutarch's time (Plut Pkoc. 18); and a building, called the "House of the Melitians," in which tragedies were rehearsed. (Hesych. Phot. Lex. s. v. MtAiTtW Oikos.) This is, perhaps, the same theatre as the one in which Aesohines played the part of Oenomaus, and which is said to have been situated in Collytus (Harpocrat. s. v. "laxaySpos; Anonym. Fit A etch.'); since the district of Melite, as we have already observed, subsequently included the demus of Collytus. It is probable that this theatre is the one of which the remains of a great part of the semicircle are still visible, hewn out of the rock, on the western side of the hill of Pnyx. The Melitian Gate at the SW. corner of the city were so called, as leading to the district Melite. [See p. 263, b.] Pliny (iv. 7. s. 11) speaks of an " oppidum Melite," which is conjectured to have been the fortress of the Macedonians, erected on the lull Museium. [See p. 284, a.]

3. Scambonidae (Sxa/xfuvi'Sai), a demus belonging to the tribe Leontis. In consequence of a passage of Pausanias (L 38. § 2) Miiller placed this demus near Eleusis; but it is now admitted that it was one of the city demi. It was probably included within the district of Melite, and occupied the Hills of the Nymphs and of Pnyx. Its connexion with Melite is intimated by the legend, that Melite derived its name from Melite, a daughter of Myrmex, and the wife of Hercules; and that this Myrmex gave his name to a street in Scambonidae. (Harpocrat s. v. M«Mrn; Hesych., s. v. MvpfniKos arpairSs; comp. Aristoph. Thesm. 100; and Phot Lex.) This street, however, the " Street of Ants," did not derive its name from a hero, but from its being crooked and narrow, as we may suppose the streets to have been in this hilly district Scambonidae, also, probably derived its name from the same circumstance (from oKapGSs, "crooked.")

4. Collytus (komuto's, not KoAirrrdy; Eth. KoAAvrcif), a demus belonging to the tribe Acgeis, and probably, as we have already said, sometimes included under the general name of Melite. It appears from a passage of Strabo (i. p. 65) that Collytus and Melite were adjacent, but that their boundaries were not accurately marked, a passage which both Leake and Wordsworth have erroneously supposed to mean that these places had precise boundaries. (It is evident, however, that Collytus and Melite are quoted as an example of /ij) hmuv UKpiSuv Spuv.) Wordsworth, moreover, remarks that it was the least respectable quarter in the whole of Athens: but we know, on the contrary, that it was a favourite place of residence. Hence Plutarch says (d» Exril. 6, p. 601), "neither do all Athenians inhabit Collytus, nor Corinthians Craneium, nor Spartans Pitane," Craneium and Pitane being two favourite localities in Corinth and Sparta respectively. It is described by Himerins (ap. Phot Cod. 243, p. 375, Bckker),' as a artpans (which does not mean a narrow street, but simply a street, comp. Died. xii. 10; Hesych. *.».), situated in the centre of the city, and much valued for its use of the market (a-yopis XP^t TuuifuPQi), by which words we are probably to understand that it was conveniently situated for the use of the market

Forchhammer places Collytus between the hills of Pnyx and Museium, in which case the expression of its being in the centre of the city, must not be interpreted strictly. The same writer also supposes artvarSs not to signify a street, but the whole district between the Pnyx and the Museium, including the slopes of those hills. Leake thinks that Collytus bordered upon Diomeia, and accordingly places it between Melite and Diomeia; but the authority to which he refers would point to an opposite conclusion, namely, that Collytus and Diomeia were situated on opposite sides of the city. We are told that Collytus was the father of Diomus, the favourite of Hercules; and that some of the Melitenses, under the guidance of Diomus, migrated from Melite, and settled in the spot called Diomeia, from their leader, where they celebrated the Metageitnia, in memory of their origin. (Plut. de ExtU. I c.; Steph. B. s. v. AtoVf'a; Hesych. s. v. Atofuius.) This legend confirms the preceding account of Collytus being situated in Melite. We have already seen that there was a theatre in Collytus, in which Aesehines played the port of Oenomaus; and we are also told that he lived in tliis district 45 years. (Aesch. Ep. 5.) Collytus was also the residence of Timon, the misanthrope (Lucian, Timon, 7, 44), and was celebrated as the demus of Plato.

5. Cydaihenaeum (Kvoa&fivaiov: Eth. KuSafhjpaiets), a demus belonging to the tribe Pandionis. (Harp. Suid. Steph. Phot) The name is apparently compounded of Kvtos "glory," and AOijraiof, and is hence explained by Hesycnius (s. r.) as tySo(ot 'AthtvaTos. It is, therefore, very probable, as Leake has suggested, that this demus occupied the Theseian city, that is to say, the Acropolis, and the parts adjacent to it on the south and south-east. (Leake, p. 443; Miiller, Dor. vol. ii. p. 72, trans].)

6. Diomeia (AicVeia: Eth. Aio^e?j), a demus belonging to tie tribe Aegeis, consisting, like Cerameicus, of an Outer and an Inner Diomeia. The Inner Diomeia comprised the eastern part of city, and gave its name to one of the city-gates in this quarter. In the Outer Diomeia was situated the Cynosarges. (Steph., Suid. ». v. Aioyma; Hesych. $. v. Aieyuu; Steph., Hesych. *. v. Kw6aapyts; Schol. ad Aristoph. Ran. 664; Plut. da Exsil. t C.) The Outer Diomeia could not have extended far beyond the walls, since the demus Alopece was close to Cynosarges. and only eleven or twelve stadia from the walls of the city. (Herod, v. 63; Aesch. c. Tim. p. 119, Eeiske.)

7. Code (KoiAn), a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. It lay partly within and partly without the city, in the valley between the Museium and the bills on the southern side of Hissus. In this district, just outside the Melitian gate, were the sepulchres of Thncydides and Cimon. [For authorities, see p. 263.]

8. Ceiriadae (KftoutScu), a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothoontis. (Harpocrat., Suid., Steph. B., Hesych. s. v.) The position of this demus is uncertain; but Sauppe brings forward many arguments to prove that it was within the city walls. In this district, and perhaps near the Metroum, was the BctpafyoK, into which criminals were cast (For authorities, see Sauppe, pp. 17, 18.)

9. Agrae ('Aypai), was situated south of the Ilissus, and in the SE. of the city. Respecting ite site, see p. 300, b. It does not appear to have been a separate demus, and was perhaps included in the demus of Agryle, which was situated south of it.

10. Ltmnae (Af/tvo*), was a district to the south of the Acropolis, in which the temple of Dionysus was situated. (Thuc ii. 15.) It was not a demus, as stated by the Scholiast on Callimachus (//. in Del. 172), who has mistaken the Limnae of Messenia for the Limnae of Athens.

Colonut, which we have spoken of as a hill in the city, is maintained by Sauppe to have been a separate demus; but see above, p. 298, b.

The Euboean cities of Eretria and Histiaea were said by some to have been named from Attic demi (Strab. x. p. 445); and from another passage of Strabo (x. p. 447) it has been inferred that the socalled New Agora occupied the site of Eretria. [See p. 298, b.] It is doubtful whether Eretria was situated in the city; and at all events it is not mentioned elsewhere, either by writers or inscriptions, as a demus.

Respecting the city demi the best account is given by Sauppe, Dt Demit Urbanti A thenarujn, Weimar, 1846.

X. Suburbs Of The City.

1. The Outer Cerameicus and the Academy.— The road to the Academy ('Axoofytfa), which was distant six or eight stadia from the gate named Dipylum, ran through the Outer Cerameicus. (Liv. xxxi. 24; Thuc vi. 57; Plat. Parm. 2; Plut. SulL 14; Cic de Fin, v. 1; Lucian, Scyth. 2.) It is called by Thucydides the most beautiful suburb of the city rod KaXXlmov xpoaartiou rijs mjAcm, Thuc ii. 34). On each side of the road were the monuments of illustrious Athenians, especially of those who had fallen in battle; for the Outer Cerameicus was the place of burial for all persons who were honoured with a public funeral. Hence we read in Aristophanes (J re*, 395):—

6 Kfp<mfilths 6V{«rcu «6.

5ijX<wf<y yap tva raipwfiw.

Over each tomb was placed a pillar, inscribed with the names of the dead and of their demi. (Paus. i. 29. § 4; ccmp. Cic. de Leg. ii. 26.) In this locality was found an interesting inscription, now in the British Museum, containing the names of those who had fallen at Potidaea, B. c 432.

The Academy is said to have belonged originally to the hero A cad em us, and was afterwards converted into a gymnasium. It was surrounded with a wall by Hipparchus, and was adorned by Cinion with walks, groves, and fountains. (Diog. Laiirt. iii. 7; Suid. s. v. 'lwwdpx°v Tuxwy, Plut. Can, 13.) The beauty of the plane trees and olive plantations was particularly celebrated. (PUn. xii. 1. B. 5.) Before the entrance were a statue and an altar of Love, and within the inclosure were a temple of Athena, and altars of the Muses, Prometheus, Hercules, &c (Paus. L 30. § I.) It was from the altar of Prometheus that the race of tlie Lampadephoria commenced. The Academy was the place where Plato taught, who possessed a small estate in the neighbourhood, which was his usual place of residence. (Diog. Laert. I c.; Aclian, V. If. ix. 10.) His roiccessors continued to teach in the same spot, and were hence called the Academic philosophers. It continued to be one of the sanctuaries of philosophy, and was spared by the enemy down to the time of Sulla, who, during the siege of Athens, caused its celebrated groves to be cut down, in order to obtain timber for the construction of his military machines.

(Plut. SuU. 12; Appian, Mithr. 30.) The Academy, however, was replanted, and continued to enjoy its ancient celebrity in the time of the emperor Julian. Near the temple of Athena in the Academy were the Moriae, or sacred olives, which were derived from the sacred olive in the Erechtheiurn. The latter, as we have already seen, was the first olive tree planted in Attica, and one of the Moriae was shown to Pausan'ias as the second. They were under the guardianship of Zeus Morius. (Comp. Suid. s. v. Moplat; Schol. ad Soph. Oed. Col 730.) A little way beyond the Academy was the hill of Colonus, immortalised by the tragedy of Sophocles; and between the two places were the tomb of Plato and the tower of Timon. (Paus. i. 30. §§ 3, 4.) The name of Akadhimia is still attached to tliis spot. u It is on the lowest level, where some water-courses from the ridges of Lycabettus are consumed in gardens and olive plantations. These waters still cau.se the spot to be one of the most advantageous situations near Athens for the growth of fruit and potherbs, and maintain a certain degree of verdure when all the surrounding plain is parched with the heat of summer." (Leake, p. 195.)

2. Cynosarges (Kwdcapyts'). was a sanctjary of Hercules and a gymnasium, situated to the east of the city, not far from the gate Dioineia. It is said to have derived its name from a white dog, which carried off part of the victim, when sacrifices were first offered by Diomus to Hercule-*. (Paus. i. 19. § 3; Herod, v. 63, vi. 116; Plut. Them. 1; Harpocrat. *. v. 'HpebcActa; Hesych. Suid. Steph. B. s. v. Kvv6aapyts.') Antisthencs, the founder of the Cynic school, taught in the Cynosarges. (Diog. Laert. vi. 13.) It was surrounded by a grove, which was destroyed by Philip, together with the trees of the neighbouring Lyceium, when he encamped at this spot in his invasion of Attica in B. c. 200. (Liv. xxxi. 24.) Since Cynosarges was near a rising ground (Isocr. Vit. X. Orat. p. 838), Leake places it at the foot of the south-eastern extremity of Mount Lycabettus, near the point where the arch of the aqueduct of Hadrian and Antoninus formerly stood. The name of this gymnasium, like that of the Academy, was also given to the surrounding buildings, which thus formed a suburb of the city. (Forchhammer, p. 368.)

3. Lyceium (avkhov), a gymnasium dedicated to Apollo Lyceius, and surrounded with lofty plane tr^es, was also situated to the east of the city, and a little to the south of the Cynosarges. It was the chief of the Athenian gymnasia, and was adorned by Peisistratus, Pericles, and Lycurgus. (Paus. i. 19. § 3; Xen. J/ipp. 3. § 6; Hesych. Harpocrat. Suid. v, hvKttov.') The Lyceium was the place in which Aristotle and his disciples taught, who were called Peripatetics, from their practice of walking in this gymnasium while delivering their lectures. (Diog. Laiirt. v. 5; Cic. Acad. Quatst. i. 4.) In the neighbourhood of the Lyceium was a fountain of the hero Panops, near which was a small gate of the city, which must have stood between the gates Diocliaris and Diomeia. (Plat. Lys. 1; Hesych. 8. v ndronj/.)

4. Lycabettus (AuKa$nTTO*s), was the name of the lofty insulated mountain overhanging the city on its north-eastern side, and now called the UUl of SL George, from the church of St. George on its summit. [See p. 255, a.] This hill was identified by the ancient geographers with Anchesmus ( A7XCff^ujs), which is described by Pausanias (i. 32 § 2) as a small mountain with a statue of Zens Anehesmius. Pausanias is the only writer who mentions Anchesmus; but since all the other hills around Athens have names assigned to them, it was supposed that the hill of St, George must have been Anchesmus. But the same argument applies with still greater force to Lycabettus, which is frequently mentioned by the classical writers; and it is impossible to believe that so remarkable an object as the Hill of St. George could have remained without a name in the classical writers. Wordsworth was, we believe, the first writer who pointed out the identity of Lycabettus and the Hill of St. George; and his opinion has been adopted by Leake in the second edition of his Topography, by Forchhammer, and by all subsequent writers. The celebrity of Lycabettus, which is mentioned as one of the chief mountains of Attica, is in accordance with the position and appearance of the Hill of St. George. Strabo (x. p. 454) classes Athens and its Lycabettus with Ithaca and its Neriton, Rhodes and its Atabyris, and Lacedaemon and its Taygetus. Aristophanes {Han. 1057), in like manner, speaks of Lycabettus and Parnassus as synonymous with any celebrated mountains:

oiv ah \4yps Aoko§tjttouj
Hal Uapvaauv ijiuy ntye&jj, Tout* 4ot\ To

Its proximity to the city is indicated by several passages. In the edition of the Clouds of Aristophanes, which is now lost, the Clouds were represented as vanishing near Lycabettus, when they were threatening to return in anger to Pames, from which they had come, (Phot. Lex. ». v. Tldpvns.') Plato (Crttiat, p. 112, a) speaks of the Pnyx and Lycabettus as the boundaries of Athens. According to an Attic legend, Athena, who had gone to Pallene, a demus to the north-eastward of Athens, in order to procure a mountain to serve as a bulwark in front of the Acropolis, was informed on her return by a crow of the birth of Erichthonius, whereupon she dropt Mount Lycabettus on the spot where it still stands. (Antig. Car. 12; for other passages from the ancient writers, see Wordsworth, p. 57, seq.; Leake, p. 204, seq.) Both Wordsworth and Leake suppose Anchesmus to be a later name of Lycabettus, since Pausanias does not mention the latter; but Kiepert gives the name of Anchesmus to one of the hills north of Lycabettus. [See Map, p. 256.]

XI. The Port-towns,

Between four and five miles SW. of the Asty is the peninsula of Peiraeeus, consisting of two rocky heights divided from each other by a narrow isthmus, the eastern, or the one nearer the city, being the higher of the two. This peninsula contains three natural basins or harbours, a large one on the western side, now called Drako (or Porto Leone), and two smaller ones on the eastern side, called respectively StratiotiH (or PaschaUmdni), and Fandri; the latter, which was nearer the city, being the smaller of the two. Hence Thucydides describes (i. 93) Peiraeeus as xupt°v Ai/ifVas (xov Tpus airrotputts.

We know that down to the time of the Persian wars the Athenians had only one harbour, named Phalerum; and that it was upon the advice of Themistocles that they fortified the Peiraeeus, and made use of the more spacious and convenient harbours in this peninsula. Pausanias says (i. 1. § 2): * The Peiraeeus was a demus from early times, but

was not used as a harbour before Themistocles administered the affairs of the Athenians Before that time their harbour was at Phalerum, at the spot

where the sea is nearest to the city But

Themistocles, when he held the government, perceiving that Peiraeeus was more conveniently situated for navigation, and that it possessed three ports instead of the one at Phalerum (Ktutvas rpets ivff ivbs ?x€i|/ T0" ♦aAijpoi), made it into a receptacle of ships." From this passage, compared with the words of Thucydides quoted above, it would seem a natural inference that the three ancient ports of Peiraeeus were those now called Drdko, Stratiotiki, and Fanari; and that Phalerum had nothing to do with the peninsula of Peiraeeus, but was situated more to the cast, where the sea-shore is nearest to Athens. But till within the last few years a very different situation has been assigned to the ancient harbours of Athens. Misled by a false interpretation of a passage of the Scholiast upon Aristophanes (Pac. 145), modem writers supposed that the large harbour of Peiraeeus {Drdko) was divided into three ports called respectively Cantharus (KdvQapos), the port for ships of war, Zea (Zta) for corn-ships, and Aphrodisium ('AQpotiiaiov) for other merchantships; and that it was to those three ports that the words of Pausanias and Thucydides refer. It was further maintained that StratiotiH was the ancient harbour of Munychia, and that Fanari, the more easterly of the two smaller harbours, was the ancient Phalerum. The true position of the Athenian ports' was first pointed out by Ulrichs in a pamphlet published in modern Greek (ot Kifitvts xal ra fuiKpi, rtix>, T»k 'AfWjiw, Athens, 1843), of the arguments of which an abstract is given by the author in the ZeittchriftfSr die Alterthumncissenichaft (for 1844, p. 17, seq.). Ulrichs rejects the division of the larger harbour into three parts, and maintains that it consisted only of two parts; the northern and by far the larger half being called Emporium (^Efiir6piOv), and appropriated to merchant vessels, while the southern bay upon the right hand, after entering the harbour, was named Cantharus, and was used by ships of war. Of the two smaller harbours he supposes StratiotiH to be Zea, and Phandri Munychia. Phalerum he removes altogether from the Peiraic peninsula, and places it at the eastern comer of the great Phaleric bay, where the chapel of St. George now stands, and in the neighbourhood of the Tptis Xlvpyot, or the Three Towers. Ulrichs was led to these conclusions chiefly by the valuable inscriptions relating to the maritime affairs of Athens, which were discovered in 1834, near the entrance to the larger harbour, and which were published by Bockh, with a valuable commentary under the title of Urkunden uber dot Seewesem da attischen Staatet, Berlin, 1834. Of the correctness of Ulrichs's views there can now be little doubt j the arguments in support of them are stated in the sequel

A. Phalerum.

The rocky peninsula of Peiraeeus is said by the ancient writers to have been originally an island, which was gradually connected with the mainland by the accumulation of sand. (Strab. i. p. 59; Plin. iii. 85; Suid. ». v. ZpSapos.) The space thus filled up was known by the name of Halipedum (*AAiirtiov), and continued to be a marshy swamp, which rendered the Peiraeeus almost inaccessible in the winter time till the construction of the broad carriage

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