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road (c^ta|iTo*r), which was carried across it. (Harpocrat., Suid. s. v. aAfTrtiW; Xen. Hell ii. 4. § 30.) Under these circumstances the only spot which the ancient Athenians could use as a harbour was the south-eastern corner of the Phaleric bay, now called, as already remarked, Tp«?s Tltpyoi, which is a round hill projecting into the sea. This was accordingly the site of Phalerum (OfUijpov, also ♦oatjoo's: Eth. ♦a\i7p«7s), a demus belonging to the tribe Aeantis. This situation secured to the original inhabitants of Athens two advantages, which were not possessed by the harbours of the Peiraic peninsula: first, it was much nearer to the most ancient part of the city, which was built for the most part immediately south of the Acropolis (Thuc. ii. 15); and, secondly, it was accessible at every season of the year by a perfectly dry road.

The true position of Phalerum is indicated by many circumstances. It is never included by ancient writers within the walls of Peiraeeus and Munychia. Strabo, after describing Peiraeeus and Munychia, speaks of Phalerum as the next place in order along the shore (jicra rbv Tlctpeua ♦aYifpeiy S^fios 4v Ttj i<pe£7}s irapaXttj, ix. p. 398). There is no spot at which Phalerum could have been situated before reaching Tptts Tlupyot, since the intervening shore of the Phaleric gulf is marshy (to +aXfipat6r} Plut. Vti. X. Orat. p. 844, Tkem.'\2; Strab. ix. p. 400; Schol. ad ArUtoph. Av. 1693). The account which

Herodotus gives (v. 63) of the defeat of the Spartans, who had landed at Phalernm, by the Thessalian cavalry of the Peisistratidae, is in accordance with the open country which extends inland near the chapel of St. George, but would not be applicable to the Bay of Diandri, which is completely protected against the attacks of cavalry by the rugged mountain rising immediately behind it. Moreover, Ulrichs discovered on the road from Athens to St. George considerable substructions of an ancient wall, apparently the Phaleric Wall, which, as we have already seen, was live stadia shorter than the two Long Walls. [See p. 259, b.]

That there was a town near St George is evident from the remains of walls, columns, cisterns, and other ruins which Ulrichs found at this place; and we learn from another authority that there may still be seen under water the remains of an ancient mole, upon which a Turkish ship was wrecked during the war of independence in Greece. (Westermann, in Zeitschri/t fur die Altertkttjnsicissenschaft, 1843, p. 1009.)

Cape Colias (KwAi'ar), where the Persian ships were cast ashore after the battle of Salarnis (Herod, viii. 96), and which Pau»anias states to have been 20 stadia from Phalerum (i. 1. § 5), used to be identified with TptTj Uvpyot, but must now be placed SE. at the present Cape of St.Kosmasi near the latter are some ancient remains, which are probably those of the temple of Aphrodite Coh'as mentioned by Pausanias.

The port of Phalerum was little used after the foundation of Peiraeeus; but the place continued to exist down to the time of Pausanias. This writer mentions among its monuments temples of Demeter Zeus, and Athena Sciras, called by Plutarch (The*. 17) a temple of Scirus; and altars of the Unknown Gods, of the Sons of Theseus, and of Phalerus. The sepulchre of Aristeides (Pint. Arist. 1) was at Phalerum. The Phaleric bay was celebrated for its fish. (For authorities, see Leake, p. 397.)

B. Peiraeeus and Munychia.

1. Division of Peiraeeus and Munychia.—Peiraeeus (Tlupaieds: Eth. TlcipcueTs) was a demus belonging to the tribe Hippothontis. It contained both the rocky heights of the peninsula, and was separated from the plain of Athens by the low ground called Halipedon, mentioned above. Munychia (Mowux«0 was included in Peiraeeus, and did not form a separate demus. Of the site of Munychia there can no longer be any doubt since the investigations of Curtius (De Portubus A thenarum, Halis, 1842); Ulrichs also had independent ly assigned to it the same position as Curtius. Munychia was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus. It occupied the hill immediately above the most easterly of the two smaller harbours, that is, the one nearest to Athens. This hill is now called Kaore'AAa. It is the highest point in the whole peninsula, rising 300 feet above the sea; and at its foot is the smallest of the three harbours. Of its military importance we shall speak presently. Leake had erroneously given the name of Munychia to a smaller height in the westerly half of the peninsula, that is, the part furthest from Athens, and had supposed the greater height above described to be the Acropolis of Phalerum.

2. Fortifications and Harbours. — The whole peninsula of Peiraeeus, including of course Munychia, was surrounded by Themistocles with a strong line of fortifications. The wall, which was 60 stadia jn circumference (Thuc. ii. 13), was intended to be impregnable, and was far stronger than that of the Asty. It was carried up only half the height which Themistocles had originally contemplated (Thuc. i. 93); and if Appian (Mitkr. 30) is correct in stating that its actual height was 40 cubits, or about 60 feet, a height which was always found sufficient, we perceive how vast was the project of Themistocles. "In respect to thickness, however, his ideas were exactly followed: two carts meeting one another brought stones, which were laid together right and left on the outer side of each, and thus formed two primary parallel walls, between which the interior space (of course at least as broad as the joint breadth of the two carts) was filled up, not with rubble, in the usual manner of the Greeks, but constructed, through the whole thickness, of squared stones, cramped together with metal. The result was a ftolid wall probably not less than 14 or 15 feet thick, since it was intended to carry so very unusual a height." (Grote, vol. v. p. 335; comp. Thuc. i. 93.) The existing remains of the wall described by Leake confirm this account. The wall surrounded not only the whole peninsula, but also the small rocky promontory of Etioneia, from which it ran between the great harbour and the salt marsh called Halae. These fortifications were connected with those of the Asty by means of the Long Walls, which

have been already described. [See p. 259, seq.J It is usually stated that the architect employed by Themistocles in his erection of these fortifications, and in the building of the town of Peiraeeus, was Hippodamus of Miletus; but C. F. Hermann has brought forward good reasons for believing that, though the fortifications of Peiraeeus were erected by Themistocles, it was formed into a regularly planned town by Pericles, who employed Hippodamus for this, purpose. Hippodamus laid out the town with broad straight streets, crossing each other at right angles, which thus formed a striking contrast with the narrow and crooked streets of Athens. (Hermann, Disputatio de Hippodamo MUesio, Marburg, 1841.)

The entrances to the three harbours of Peiraeeus were rendered very narrow by means of moles, which left only a passage in the middle for two or three triremes to pass abreast These moles were a continuation of the walls of Peiraeeos, which ran down to either side of the mouths of the harbours; and the three entrances to the harbours (to K\u9pa lav Xipivtov) thus formed, as it were, three large sea-gates in the walls. Either end of each mole was protected by a tower; and across the entrance chains were extended in time of war. Harbours of this kind were called by the ancients closed ports (*cA«<rrol \ifx4vts), and the walls were called X0^aU °r claws, from their stretching out into the sea like the claws of a crab. It is stated by ancient authorities that the three harbours of the Peiraeeus were closed ports (Hesych. s. v. Zta; Schol. ad AristopL Pac. 145; comp. Thuc ii. 94; Pint. Demetr. 7; Xen. Hell ii. 2. § 4); and in each of them we find remains of the chelae, or moles. Hence these three harbours cannot mean, as Leake supposed, three divisions of the larger harbour since there are traces of only one set of chelae in the latter, and it is impossible to understand how it could have been divided into three closed ports.

(i.) Phandri, the smallest of the three harbours, was anciently called Munychia, from the fortress rising above it. It was only used by ships of war; and we learn, from the inscriptions already referred to, that it contained 82 vK&a-oucot, or ship-houses. This harbour was formerly supposed to be Phalerum; bat it was quite unsuitable for trading purposes, being shut in by steep heights, and having no direct communication with the Asty. Moreover, we can hardly conceive the Athenians to have been so blind as to have used this harbour for centuries, and to have neglected the more commodious harbours of Stratiotiki and Drdko, in its immediate vicinity. The modern name of Phandri is probably owing to a lighthouse having stood at its entrance in the Byzantine period.

(ii.) Stratiotiki (called Paschalimdnibj Ulrichs), the middle of the three harbours, is the ancient Zra. (Z«'a), erroneously called by the earlier topographers Munychia. (Timeaus, Lex., Plat; Phot. Lex. s. v. Zea.) It was the largest of the three harbours fbr ships of war, since it contained 196 ship-houses, whereas Munychia had only 82, and Cantharos only 94. Some of the ship-houses at Zea appear to have been still in existence in the time of Pausanias; for though he does not mention Zea, the vtucoiKoi which he speaks of (i. 1. § 3) were apparently at this port. This harbour probably derived its name from Artemis, who was worshipped among the Athenians under the surname of Zea, and not, as Meursius supposed, from the corn-vessels, which were confined to the Emporium in the great harbour.

(in) Dr6ko or Porto Leone, the largest of the three harbours, was commonly called by the ancients simply Peiraeeus (ncyxucfr), or The Hakbour (& \ifnjv). It derives its modern name from a colossal lion of white marble, which Spon and Wheler observed upon the beach, when they visited Athens; and which was carried to Venice, after the capture of Athens by the Venetians in 1687. Drdho is the name used by the modern Greeks, since BpaKwv, which originally meant only a serpent, now signifies a monster of any kind, and was hence applied to the marble lion.

It has been already stated that Leake and other writers, misled by a passage of the Scholiast on Aristophanes (Pac. 145), divided the harbour of Peiraeeus into three separate ports, named Cantharus, Aphrodisinm, and Zea, but the words of the Scholiast warrant no such conclusion:—6 ncipatevs Jfcaassvs fx*1 rP***t wnu K\€utto6i' tts fitv 6 Ka*$dpov \iftnv iv $ ra vcApta. ttra rb *A<ppoZlaiov efra rtiicXtp rov \tfi4vos Otocli vevrt. It is evident that the Scholiast does not intend to give the names of the three harbours of Peiraeeus; but, after mentioning Cantharus, he proceeds to speak of the buildings in its immediate vicinity, of which the Aphrodisium, a temple of Aphrodite, was one; and then followed the five Stoae or Colonnades. Leake supposed Zea to be the name of the bay situated on the right hand after entering the harbour, Aphrodisinm to be the name of the middle or great harbour, and Cantharus to be the name of the inner harbour, now filled up by alluvial deposits of the Cephissus. It is, however, certain that the last-mentioned spot never formed part of the harbour of Peiraeeus, since between this marsh and the harbour traces of the ancient wall have been discovered; and it is very probable that this marsh is the one called Halae ('AAoQ by Xenophou. (HeU. ii. 4. § 34.)

The harbour of Peiraeeus appears to have been divided into only two parts. Of these, the smaller on:\ occupying the bay to the right hand of the entrance to the harbour, was named Cantharus. It was the third of the Athenian harbours for ships of war, and contained 94 ship-houses. Probably upon the shores of the harbour of Cantharus the armoury {irw\tBi)Kri) of Philo stood, containing arms for 1000 ships. (Strab. ix. p. 395; Plin. vii. 37. s. 38; Cic. dfl Oral. L 14; Vitruv. vii. Pracf.; Appian, Mithr. 41.) 1

The remainder of the harbour, being about twothirds of the whole, was called Emporium, and was appropriated to merchant vessels. (Timaeus, Lex. PiaL; Harpocrat. a, v. Aeryyta.) The surrounding shore, which was also called Emporium, contained the five Stoae or Colonnades mentioned above, all of which were probably appropriated to mercantile purposes. One of these was called the Macra Stoa {fuucpa Otoo), or the Long Colonnade (Fans. L 1. § 3); a second was the Deigma (Afrypa), or place where merchants exhibited samples of their goods for sale (Harpocrat. s. v. Ac?7fu>; Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 974; Dem. c. t*acr\L p. 932); a third was the Alphitopolis ('AA^iToirwAir), or Corn-Exchange, said to have been built by Pericles (Schol. ad Aristoph. Equit. 547): of the other two Stoae the names have not been preserved. Between the Stoae of the Emporium and Cantharus stood the Aphrodisinm, or temple of Aphrodite, built by Conon after his victory at C nidus. (Pans. L C.; Schol. ad Aristoph. Pac. I c.) The limits of the Emporium towards Can

tharus were marked by a boundary stone discovered in situ in 1843, and bearing the inscription:—


i. e., *Ztiwoptov nal dbov Spot. The forms of the letters, and the use of the H for the spiritus asper, prove that the inscription belongs to tho period before the Pcloponnesian war. The stone may have been erected upon the first foundation of Peiraeeus by Themistocles, or when the town was laid out regularly by Hiprjodamus in the time of Pericles. It probably stood in a street leading from the Emporium to the docks of the harbour of Cantharus.

3. Topography of Munychia and Peiraeeus.— The site of Munychia, which was the Acropolis of Peiraeeus, has been alrendy explained. Remains of its fortifications may still be seen on the top of the hill, now called Castella, above the harbour of PAonari. From its position it commanded the whole of the Peiraic peninsula, and its three harbours (wroiriirTovo-i 6' at'nw AiutVf s rpus, Strab. ix. p. 395); and whoever obtained possession of this hill became master of the whole of Peiraeeus. Epimenides is said to have foreseen the importance of this position. (Plut. Sol 12; Diog. Laert, L 114.) Soon after the close of the Peloponnesian war, the seizure of Munychia by Thrasybulus and his party enabled them to carry on operations with success against the Thirty at Athens. (Xen. Hell ii. 4.) The successors of Alexander the Great kept a Macedonian garrison in Munychia for a long period, and by this means secured the obedience of Athens. The first Macedonian garrison was placed in this fortress by Antipater after the defeat of the Greeks at Crannon, B. c. 322. (Paus. i. 25. § 4; Plut. Dem. 28.) When Athens surrendered to Cassander, in B.C. 318, Munychia was also garrisoned by the latter; and it was by the support of these troops thai Demetrius Phalereus governed Athens for the next ten years. In B.C. 307 the Macedonians were expelled from Munychia by Demetrius Poliorcetes; but the latter, on his return from Asia in B.C. 299, again placed a garrison in Munychia, and in the Museium also. These garrisons were expelled from both fortresses by the Athenians, under Olympiodorus, when Demetrius was deprived of the Macedonian kiDgdom in B.C. 287. (Paus. i. 25. § 4, seq., 26. § 1, seq.; Diod. xviiL 48, 74, xx. 45; Plut. Demetr. 8, seq., 46, Phoc. 31, seq.) During the greater part of the reign of Antigonus and of his son Demetrius II., the Macedonians had possession of Munychia; but soon after the death of Demetrius, Aratus purchased the departure of the Macedonian garrison by the payment of a large sum of money. (Plut. Arat. 34; Paus. ii. 8. § 5.) Strabo (L c.) speaks of the hill of Munychia as full of hollows and excavations, and well adapted for dwelling-houses. In the time of Strabo the whole of the Peiraeeus was in ruins, and the hollows to which he alludes were probably the remains of cisterns. The sides of the hill sloping down to the great harbour appear to have been covered with houses rising one above another in the form of an amphitheatre, as in the city of Rhodes, which was laid out by the same architect, and was also celebrated for its beauty

Within the fortress of Munychia was a temple of Artemis Munychia, who was the guardian deity of this citadel. The temple was a celebrated place of asylum for state criminals. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § XX* Paus. L 1. § 4; Dem. de Coron. p. 222, Reiske; Lya. c. Agorat. pp. 460, 462, Reiske.) Near the preceding, and probably also within the fortress, was the Bendideium (BtrofSfier), or temple of the Tnracian Artemis Bendis, whose festival, the Bendideia, was celebrated on the day before the lesser Panatbenaea. (Xen. Bell. ii. 4. § 11; Plat. de Rep. i. pp. 327, 354.) On the western slope of the hill was the Dionysiac theatre, facing the great harbour: it must have been of considerable size, as the assemblies of the Athenian people were sometimes h?ld in it. (Thuc. viii. 93; Xen. HeU. ii. 4. § 32 ; Lya. c. Agorat. pp. 464, 479 ; comp. Dem. de Pais. Leg. p. 379.) It was in this theatre that Socrates saw a performance of one of the plays of Euripides. (Aelian, V. H. ii. 13.) Some modern writers distinguish between the theatre at Munychia and another in Peiraeeus; but the ancient writers mention only one theatre in the peninsula, called indifferently the Peiraic or the Munychian theatre, the latter name being given to it from its situation upon the hill of Munychia. The ruins near the harbour of Zea, which were formerly regarded as those of the Peiraic theatre, belonged probably to another building.

The proper agora of Peiraeeus was called the Hippodameian Agora (*Ijnro5cf/i«ior ayopd), to distinguish it from the Macra Stoa, which was also used as an agora. The Hippodameian Agora was situated near the spot where the two Long Walls joined the wall of Peiraeeus; and a broad street led from it up to the citadel of Munychia. (Xen. Hell. ii. 4. § II; Andoc. de MysU p. 23, Reiske; Dem. c. Timoth. p. 1190.)

At the entrance to the great harbour there was on the right hand the promontory Alcimus (*AAKiu<m), on the left hand the promontory Eetionia ('HeTittJi'ia, or 'Heneirt'cta). On Alcimus stood the tomb of Themistocles, whose bones are said to have been brought from Magnesia in Asia Minor, and buried at this place. (Plut. Them. 32; Paus. i. 1. § 2). Eetionia was a tongue of land commanding the entrance to the harbour ; and it was here that the Four Hundred in B.C. 411 erected a fort, in order to prevent more effectually the entrance of the Athenian fleet, which was opposed to them. (Thuc. viii. 90; Dem. c. Theocr. p. 1343; Harpocrat., Suid., Steph. B. *. v. 'Htrttoytta.) The small bay on the outer side of the promontory was probably the Kw-;hs \iprqv mentioned by Xenophon. {Hell. ii. 4. § 31.)

The buildings around the shore of the great harbour have been already mentioned. Probably behind the Macra Stoa was the t em en us of Zeus and Athena, which Pausanias (i. 1. § 3) mentions as one of the most remarkable objects iu Peiraeeus, and which is described by other writers as the temple of Zeus Soter. (Strab. ix. p. 396; Liv. xxxi. 30; Plin. xxxiv. 8. s. 19. § 14.) Phreattys, which was one of the courts of justice for the trial of homicides, was situated in Peiraeeus; and as this court is described indifferently iv Z4a or iv GpfarroT, it must be placed either in or near the harbour of Zea. The accused pleaded their cause on board ship, while the judges sat upon the shore, (Paus. i. 28. §11; Dem. c. Aristocr. p. 645; Pollux, viii. llO; Becker, Anecd. Graee. i. p. 311.)

Peiraeeus never recovered from the blow inflicted upon it by its capture by Sulla, who destroyed its fortifications and arsenals. So rapid was its decline that in the time of Strabo it had become u a email

village, Fit unfed around the ports and the temple of Zeus Soter." (Strab. ix. p. 395.)

The most important work on the Topography of Athena is Col. Leake's Topography of Athens, London, 1841, 2nd edition. In common with all other writers on the subject, the writer of the present article is under the greatest obligations to Col. Leake, although he has had occasion to differ from him on some points. The other modern works from which most assistance have been derived are Forchhammer, Topographic von A then, in Kieler Philologische Studien, Kiel, 1841; Kruse, Hellas, vol. ii. pt. i., Leipzig, 1826; K. 0. Miiller, art. Attika in Ersch and Gruber's Encycfapatlie, vol. vi., translated by Lockhart, London, 1S42; Wordsworth, Athens and Attica, London, 1836; Stuart and Revett, Antiquities of Athens, London, 1762—1816, 4 vols., fo. (2nd ed. 1825—1827); Dodwell, Tour through Greece, vol. i. London, 1819; Prokesch, Denkumrdigkeiten, <fe., vol. ii., Stuttgart, 1836; Mure, Journal of a Tour in Greece, voL ii. Edinburgh, 1842.


• ATHENAEON ('AdnvaiAv: Sudak or SitgdajaT) also called 11 a harbour of the Seythotauri," was a port on the south coast of the Tauric Chersonesus. (Anon. PeripL p. 6.)

ATHENAEUM (Vfl^aToc). 1. A fortress in the S. of Arcadia, and in the territory of Megalopolis, is described by Plutarch as a position in advance of the Lacedaemonian frontier {tjj.€o\ri Ttjs AaKwviKrjs), and near Belemina. It was fortified by Cleomenes in B.C. 224, and was frequently taken and retaken in the wars between the Achaean League and the Spartans. Leake supposes that it occupied the summit of Mount Tzimhani, on which there are some remains of an Hellenic fortress. In that case it must have been a different place from the Athenaeum mentioned by Pausanins on the rcwid from Megalopolis to Asea, and 20 stadia from the latter. (Plut. Cleom. 4; Pol. ii. 46, 54, iv. 37, 60, 81; Paus. viii. 44. §§ 2, 3; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 248.)

2. A fortress in Athamania in Epeirus, described by Livy as "Ambus Macedoniae subjectum," and apparently near Gomphi. Leake places it on a height, a little above the deserted village of Apom Porta, or Porta Panaghia. (Liv. xxviii. 1, xxxix.25 Leake, NortJiem Greece, vol. iv. pp. 212, 525.)

ATHENOTOLIS, a city on the coast of Gallia KarboneiuM, dependent on Massilia. (Mela, ii. 5; Piin iii. 4.) Stephanus (#. v. Aftircu) mentions an Athenae of the Ligystii, which may be this place. There are no measures for determining the position of Athenopulis. DAnville observes, that Pliny and Mela seem to place this Massaliot settlement south of Fomm Jolii (Frejus); and yet in his map he fixes it north of Frejus, at a place called Agay. Walckenaer, at a guess, places it at St. Trope*, which is on a bay nearly due south of Frejos. The Athenaeopolitae of Varro (L. L. viii. 35) are assumed to be the inhabitants of this place. [G. L.]

ATHESIS ('Anjo-iyot, Strab.; 'Arurdv, Flut.), orie of the principal rivers of Northern Italy, now called the Adige. It rises in the Rhaetian Alps, in a small lake near the modern village of Reschen, and after a course of about 50 miles in a SE. direction, receives the waters of the At AG is or Eiiach, a stream almost as considerable as its own, which descends from the pass of the Brenner. Their united waters now nearly due S. through a broad and deep valley, passing under the walls of Tridentum (Treato), until they at length emerge into the plains of Italy, close to Verona, which stands on a kind of peninsula almost encircled by the Athesis, (Verona Athesi circumflua, Sil. Ital. viii. 597.) From hence it pursues its course, first towards the SE., and afterwards due E. through the plains of Venetia to the Adriatic, which it enters only a few miles from the northernmost mouth of the Fadus, but without having ever joined that river. From its source to the sea it has a course of not less than 200 miles; and in the volume of its waters it is inferior only to the Fadus among the rivers of Italy. (Strab. iv. p. 207, where there is little doubt that the names 'A-rnairos and 'Iadpas have been transposed; Plin. iii 16. a. 20; Virg. Am. ix. 680; Claudian, de VI. Cons. Hon. 196.) Servius (ad Am. Le.) and Vibius Sequester (p. 3) erroneously describe the Athesis as falling into the Fadus; a very natural mistake, as the two rivers run parallel to each other at a very short interval, and even communicate by various ride branches and artificial channels, but their main streams continue perfectly distinct.

It was in the plains on the banks of the Athesis, probably not very far from Verona, that Q. Catulua was defeated bv the Cimbri in B. C. 101. (Liv. Epit. lxviii.; Flor. iii. 3; Plut. Mar. 23.) [E. H. B.]

ATHMO'NIA, A'THMON'UM. [attica.]

ATHOS ("Aflwi, "Afar, Ep. 'Aflooit, gen. 'A66u: Eth. Adwirnj), the lofty mountain at the extremity of the long peninsula, running out into the sea from Chalcidice in Macedonia, between the Singitic gulf and the Aegaean. This peninsula was properly called Acte ( Akhi, Time iv. 109), but the name of Athos was also given to it, as well as to the mountain. (Herod, vii. 22.) The peninsula, as well as the mountain, is now called the Holy Mountain ("Ayiov 'Opos, Monte Santo), from the great number of monasteries and chapels with which it is covered. There are 20 of these monasteries, meet of which were founded during the Byzantine empire, and some of them trace their origin to the time of Constantino the Great. Each of the different nations belonging to the Greek Church, has one or more monasteries of its own; and the spot is visited periodically by pilgrims from Russia, Servia, Bulgaria, as well as from Greece and Asia Minor. No female, even of the animal kind, is permitted to enter the peninsula.

According to Pliny (iv. 10. a. 17. § 37, Sillig), the length of the peninsula is 75 (Roman) miles, and the circumference 150 (Roman) miles. Its real length is 40 English miles, and its average breadth about four miles. The general aspect of the peninsula is described in the following terms by a modern traveller:—" The peninsula is rugged, being intersected by innumerable ravines. The ground rises almost immediately and rather abruptly from the isthmus at the northern end to about 300 feet, and for the first twelve miles maintains a table-land elevation of about 600 feet, for the most part beautifully wooded. At this spot the peninsula is narrowed into rather less than two miles in breadth. It immediately afterwards expands to its average breadth of about four miles, which it retains to its southern extremity. From this point, also, the land becomes mountainous rather than hilly, two of the heights reaching respectively 1700 and 1200 feet above the sea. Four miles farther south, on the eastern slope of the mountain ridge, and at a nearly equal distance from the east and west shores, is situated the town of Karyes, picturesquely placed amidst vineyards and gardens.

Immediately to the southward of Karyei

the ground rises to 2200 feet, whence a rugged broken country, covered with a forest of dark-leaved foliage,extends to the foot of the mountain, which rears itself in solitary magnificence, an insulated cone of white limestone, rising abruptly to the height of 6350 feet above the sea. Close to the cliffs at the southern extremity, we learn from Captain Copeland's late survey, no bottom was found with 60 fathoms of line." (Lieut. Webber Smith, in Journal of Royal Geogr. Soc. vol. vii. p. 65.) The lower bed of the mountain is composed of gneiss and argillaceous slate, and the upper part of grey limestone, more or less inclined to white. (Sibthorp, in Wal pole's Travels, dv. p. 40.)

Athos is first mentioned by Homer, who represents Hera as resting on its summit on her flight from Olympus to Lemnos. (//. xiv. 229.) The name, however, is chiefly memorable in history on account of the canal which Xerxes cut through the isthmus, connecting the peninsula with Chalcidice. (Herod. * vii. 23, seq.) This canal was cut by Xerxes for the passage of his fleet, in order to escape the gales and high seas, which sweep around the promontory, and which had WTecked the fleet of Mardonius in B. c 492. The cutting of this canal has been rejected as a falsehood by many writers, both ancient and modern; and Juvenal (x. 174) speaks of it as a specimen of Greek mendacity:

"creditor olim Velificatus Athos, et qnidqnid Graecia tnendax Audet in historia."

Its existence, however, is not only attested by Herodotus (I. c), Thucydides (/. c), and other ancient writers, but distinct traces of it have been discovered by modem travellers. The modern name of the isthmus is Provlaka, evidently the Romaic form of Tl0oali\at, the canal in front of the peninsula of Athos. The best description of the present condition of the canal is given by Lieut Wolfe : — "The canal of Xerxes is still most distinctly to be traced all the way across the isthmus from the Gulf of Monte Santo (the ancient Singitic Gulf) to the Bay of Erto in the Gulf of Conteua, with the exception of about 200 yards in the middle, where the ground beArs no appearance of having ever been touched. But as there is no doubt of the whole

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