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rcnventional. The common lotus (Nymphaea), rising oat of a clod of earth, represented the Upper country; the root of the papyrus, npon a clod, the Lower. Sebena was the goddess of the Upper, Neith of the Lower country. A white crown denoted the former, a red crown the latter; white and red crowns urjted composed the diadem of the king of all the land. The Upper country, however, was generally subdivided into two portions, (1) Upper Egypt Proper, or the Thebaid (fi &ngatt, oi Sua Towoi), which extended from Syene to Hermopolis Magna, in lat. 28° N.: and (2) Middle Egypt, also called Heptanomis, or the Seven Cantons (J) urra^ii x"Pa 'Eiraro/ifi), which reached from the neighbourhood of Hermopolis to the apex of the Delta. This threefold partition has been adopted by the Arabs, who denominated Upper, Middle, and Lower Egypt respectively, Said, Wustdni, and El-Rif.

The traveller who ascends the Kile from its months to Syene passes through seven degree* of latitude, and virtually surveys two distinct regions. Lower Egypt is an immense plain: Upper Egypt, a mrrowing valley. The former, in the main, resembles the neighbouring coastland of Africa; the latter is more akin to Nubia, and its climate, its Fiona and its Flora, indicate the approaching tropic. The line of demarcation commences about the 27th degree of N. latitude. Rain rarely falls in the Thebaid: the sycamore and the acacia almost disappear; the river plants and mollusca assume new types: the Tbeban or Dhoum palm, with its divaricated branches, grows beside the date palm: the crocodile, the jackal, the river-horse, and hyena become more numerous.

We most now return to the general boundaries of Egypt which affected, in various degrees, the climate, the population, and the social and political character of the Nile-valley.

1. The Eastern boundary. In this region lay the principal mineral wealth of Egypt, including the quarries, which furnished materials for this land of monuments. Beginning with the Pelusiac mouth of the Nile, and along the frontier of Stony Arabia, we find the barren and level region of Casiotis, whose only elevation is the ridge or table land of Mt. Cains (4 KaVioi, Strab. pp. 38, 50, 55, 58, &c; Mela, i. 10; Plin. v. 11, xii. 13; Lucan. viii. 539, i. 433). The Egyptian Casius (AV Kat or El Katiik) is, according to Strabo (xvi. 2), a round sandstone ridge (Ao<por diviSor;*). It contained the grave of Cn. Pompeius Magnus, and a temple of Zeus Casius. At a very early period the Egyptians established colonies upon the Idnmaean and Arabian border. Copper, mixed with iron ore, and heaps of scoriae from Egyptian smelting-houses, are still found on the western flank of Mt. Sinai, and irscriptions at Wady-Magara in this district, and hieroglyphics and fragments of pottery at SurabitKUKadim, on the modem road from Suez to Sinai, attest the existence of settlements coeval with at lm.-t the 18th dynasty of kings. Ascending from the head of the Delta, and about 50 miles from the Arabian Sea, we come upon a range of tertiary limestone bills (Tpuutoi XiBov boos, Ptol.; i\ofoorpiKov boos, id.) parallel with the Heptanomis, running north and south, and sloping westward to the Nile, and eastward to the Red Sea (pari ra 'Apaguia, Herod, ii. 8). A region of basalt and porphyry begins in the parallel of Antaeopolis, and extends to that of Tentyra or Coptos (riopo>up(Tou opes, id.). This is again succeeded by limestone at Ails or Aeas {Mas, id.; Plin. vi. 29. § 33),

and at Acabc ('AicdSr;, Ptol.), where, nearly opposite Latopolis, are vast quarries of white marble. From Mt. Smaragdus, which next follows, the Egyptians obtained the fine green breccia (Verde S Egittd), and emeralds in abundance. The breccia quarries, as inscriptions testify, were worked as far back as the 6th dynasty of kings (Manetho). The principal quarry was at Mount Zabnrah. From Berenice southward are found, in various proportions, limestone and porphyry again. Mt. Balanites (Bwrav'iTou ?d6ov boos, Ptol.), consisting of a species of homblend, terminated the eastern boundary of the Nile-valley. Beyond this, and of uncertain extent, are the gold mines SE. of the Thebaid. They are about ten days' journey SE. from Apolli. nopolis Magna, in the present Biehdree desert. The process of gold-washing appears to be represented on tombs of the age of Osirtasen. Silver and lead were also found, and sulphur abounded in this mineral region.

The eastern frontier was mostly arid and barren, but neither uninhabited nor unfrequented by travellers. More than one caravan track, whose bearings are still marked by ruined cisterns and brick pyramids, followed the gorges of the hills; and occasional temples imply a settled population in towns or villages. The sides and passes of the mountains afforded also pasture for flocks and herds, and wild deer, wolves, &c. found here their abode. Two principal roads, diverging from Coptos on the Nile — the northern leading to Philoteras (Kosseir), lat. 26° 9', and Myos Hormos or Arsinoe; the southern to Berenice — penetrated the mountainbarrier, and connected the Nile-valley with the Red Sea. The population of this district was more Arabian than Coptic, and its physical characteristics were Arabian, not Libyan.

2. The Western boundary of Egypt is more particularly described under Oasis. The Libyan desert is not, as the ancients believed, merely an ocean of drifting sand, tenanted by serpents, and swept by pestilential blasts (Lucan, ix. 765) : on the contrary, its gravelly surface presents considerable inequalities, and the blasts are noxious only in relaxing the human frame, or by obliterating the traveller's path with eddies of blinding sand. Everywhere this plateau rests upon a limestone basis, and descends in shelves to the Mediterranean.

3. The Northern boundary is the Mediterranean. , From the western limit of Egypt to Pelusium the coast-line extends to about 180 geographical miles, and presents the convex form common to the alluvial deposits of great rivers. From the depression

of its shore, the approach to Egypt is dangerous to the navigator. He finds himself in shallow water almost before he detects the low and sinuous mud banks which mask the land. Indeed, from Paraetoninm in Libya to Joppa in Syria, Pharos afforded the only secure approach, and the only good anchorage (Died. ii. 31). Nor is it probable that any considerable advance of the shore has taken place within historical times.

4. The Southern boundary is spoken of under Aethiopia.

II. Inhabitants.

The ancient Egyptians believed themselves to lw autochthonous. This was no improbable conception in a land yearly covered with the life-teeming mud of the Nile. When the conquests of Alexander had rendered the Greeks acquainted with Western In lia they inferred, from certain similarities of doctrine and usages, that the Indians, Ethiopians or Nubians, and Egyptians were derived from the same stock (Arrian, Indie, vi. 9); and Diodorus, who had conversed with Aethiopian envoys in Egypt about B. C. 58, derives both the Egyptians and their civilisation from Meroe (iii. 11). Both opinions have found numerous supporters in ancient and modern times, and Heeren has constructed upon Diodorus a theory of a priestly colonisation of Egypt from Meroe, which is interesting without being convincing.

No nation has bequeathed to us so many or such accurate memorials of its form, complexion, and physiognomy as the Egyptian. Wo have in its mummies portraits, and upon its tombs pictures of its people as they looked and lived, individually and socially. That the Egyptians were darker in hue than either the Greeks or even the neighbouring Asiatics, is shown by the terms in which Greek, Latin, and Hebrew writers mention them. To their progenitor the Hebrews gave the name of Ham, or adust {Genes, x. 6): Herodotus, speaking of the Colchians, says that they were an Egyptian colony because they were black in complexion (fitkAyxpofs), and curly-liaired (ouAtSrpixw, ii. 104): Lucian, in his Navigium (vol. viii. p. 155, Bipont ed.), describes a young Egyptian mariner as like a negro; and Ammiauus (xxii. 16. § 23) calls them subfusculi et atratl. But the Egyptians were not a negro race — a supposition contradicted alike by osteology and by monumental paintings, where negroes often appear, but always either as tributaries or captives. It is probable, indeed, that the Nile-valley contained three races, with an admixture of a fourth. On the eastern frontier the Arabian type prevailed: on the western, the Libyan; while the fourth variety arose from intermarriages between the Egyptians Proper and the Nubians or Aethiopians of Meroe. The ruling caste, however, was an elder branch of the SyroArabian family, which in two separate divisions descended the Tigris and the Euphrates; and while the northern stream colonised the land of Canaan and the future empires of Babylon and Nineveh, the southern spread over Arabia Felix, and entered Egypt from the cast. This supposition, and this alone, will account for the Caucasian tyjw of the Coptic skull and facial outline, and corresponds with the Mosaic ethnology in the 10th chapter of Genesis, which derives the Egyptians from Ham, We may allow, too, for considerable admixture, even of the ruling castes, with the cognate races to the south and cast; and hence, on the one hand, the fullness of lips, and, on the other, the elongated Nubian eye, need not compel us to define the inhabitants of the Nile-valley as an African rather than an Asiatic race. The Egyptians may be said to be intermediate between the Syro-Arabian and the Ethiopic type; and as at this day the Copt is at once recognised in Syria by his dark hue (wn peau noiratre, Volney, Voyage, vol. i. p. 114), the duskier complexion — brown, with a tinge of red — of the ancient Egyptians may be ascribed solely to their climate, and to those modifying causes which, in the course of generations, affect both the osteology and the physiology of long-settled races. Nor does their language contradict this statement, although the variations between the Coptic and Syro-Arabian idioms are more striking than those of form and colour. The Coptic, the language of the native Christian population of Egypt, is now universally acknowledged to be sub

stantially the same as the old Egyptian. It is

imperfectly understood, since it has long ceased to be a living speech. Yet the ultimate analysts of its elements shows it to have been akin to the Semitic, and derived from a common source.

III. Population,

Many causes combined to give the Greek and Roman writers an exaggerated conception of the population of Egypt, — the great works of masonry, the infinitesimal cultivation of the soil, and the fact that, the kings and higher order of priests excepted, every Egyptian was either a husbandman or a manufacturer. To these causes, implying a vast amount of disposable labour, yet arguing also a complete command of it by the government, must be added the cheapness of food, and the small quantity of it consumed by the people generally. Health and longevity were common in a land where the climate was salubrious, diet simple, and indolence almost unknown. The Egyptian women were unusually fruitful; though we can hardly give credence to the statements of ancient writers, that five children at a birth were common (Aristot. UisL Anim. viL 5), and that even seven were not reckoned prodigious (Plin. H.N. vii. 3; Strab. xvi. 605). Still there is reason to think that the population fell short of the estimates transmitted by ancient writers.

That a census was periodically taken, is probable from the fact that Sesostris caused the Land to be accurately surveyed, and Amasis, towards the end of the monarchy, compelled every male to report to a magistrate his means of livelihood. (Herod, ii. 109, 177.) Herodotus, however, gives no estimate of the population, nor has any record of a census been hitherto discovered on the native monuments. Diodorus (i. 31) says that it amounted, in the Pharaonic era, to seven millions, and that it was not less in his own day (b. C. 58). Germanicus (Tac Arm. ii. 60; compare Strab. p. 816) was informed, in A. D. 16, by the priests of Thebes, that Egypt, in the reign of Kameses Sesostris, contained 700,000 men of the military age. If that age, as at Athens, extended from eighteen to sixty, and 4; be allowed for adults between those periods of life, the entire population (5 x 700,000) will amount to 3,500,000. Allow 500,000 for error, and add & for slaves and casual residents, and 6,000,000 will be the maximum of the census of Egypt. In the Macedoniaa and Roman eras, 300,000 must be included for the fixed or floating population of Alexandria (Joseph. B.J. U. 16). According to Herodotus (ii. 177), there were, in the reign of Amasis, 20,000 inhabited towns, and Diodorus c.) says that 18,000 towns were entered on the register. Many of these, however, were probably little more than walled villages, nor have we any means of knowing their average area or population. Yet it should be remembered that, even allowing for the less perfect system of embankment and irrigation in modern times, the extent of productive soil has not decreased. Two centuries ago the population of modern Egypt was loosely estimated at 4 millions. During the French occupation of the counlry in 1798—1801, it was computed at 2£ millions. Sir Gardner Wilkinson (Modern Egypt and Thebes* vol. i. p. 256) reduces it to 1 £ million.

IV. The Nomes.

The Nile-valley was parcelled out into a number of cantons, varying in size and number. Each of these cantons was called a nome (vapor) by the Greeks, praefectnra oppidorum by the Romans. Each hid its civil governor, the Nomarch (vopapYfl?), who collected the crown revenues, and presided in the local capital and chief court of justice. Each none, too, had its separate priesthood, its temple, chief and inferior towns, its magistrates, registration and peculiar creed, ceremonies, and customs, and each was apparently independent of every other nome. At certaiu seasons delegates from the various cantons met in the palace of the Labyrinth for consultation on public arl'airs (Strab. p. 811). According to Diodorus (L 54), the nomes date from Sesostris. But they did not originate with that monarch, but emanated probably from the distinctions of animal worship; and the extent of the local worship probably determined the boundary of the nome. Thus in the nome of Thebais, where the ramheaded deity was worshipped, the sheep was sacred, the goat was eaten and sacrificed: in that of Mendes, where the goat was worshipped, the sheep was a victim and an article of food. Again, in the nome of Ombos, divine honours were paid to the crocodile: in that of Tentyra, it was hunted and abominated; and between Ombos and Tentyra there existed an internecine feud. (Jnv. Sai. xv.) The extent and number of the nomes cannot be ascertained. They probably varied with the political state of Egypt. Under a dynasty of conquerors, they would extend eastward and westward to the Bed Sea and Libyan deserts: under the Hyksos, the Aethiopian conquest, and the times of anarchy subsequent to the Persian invasion, they would shrink within the Nile-valley. The kingdoms of Sais and Xois and the foundation of Alexandria probably multiplied the Deltaic cantons: and generally, commerce, or the residence of the military caste, would attract the nomes to Lower Egypt. According to Strabo (pp. 787, 811), the Labyrinth, or hall of the Nomarchs, contained 27 chambers, and thus, at one period, the nomes must have been 27 in comber, 10 in the Thebaid, 10 in the Delta, and 7, as its name implies, in the Heptanomis. But the Heptanomis, at another period, contained 16 somes, and the sum of these cantons is variously given. From the dodecarchy or government of 12 kings, and from Herodotus' assertion (ii. 148) that there were only 12 halls in the Labyrinth, we are disposed to infer, that at one time there were only 12 of these cantons, and that there were always 12 larger or preponderating nomes. According to the lists given by Pliny (v. 9. § 9) and Ptolemy, there must have been at least 45 nomes; but each of these writers gives several names not found in the other, and if we should add the variations of the one list to the other, the sum would be much greater.

There was, tinder the Macedonian kings, a subdivision of the nomes into toparchies, which was probably an arrangement to meet the fiscal system ■J the Greeks. (Herod, ii. 164; Died. i. 54; Strab. xvii; Cyril Alex, ad Jsaiam, xix. 2; Epiphan iiamx. 24. § 7.)

The following list of the principal Nomes will illustrate the variety of these territorial subdivisions ss regards religious worship.

A. Nomes Of The Delta. The most important were: —

1. The Menelaite; chief town Canobns, with a celebrated temple and oracle of Serapis (Strab. p. 801; Plat /*. et Otir. c 27.)

2. The Andropolite; chief town Andropolis.

3. The Sebennytic; capital Pachnamunis (PtoL), worshipped Latona.

4. The Chemmite (Herod, ii. 165); capital Bnto. Its deity was also called Buto, whom the Greeks identified with Leto. Ptolemy calls this canton ♦fltvorijr, and Pliny (v. 9) Ptenetha.

5. The Onuphite; chief town Onuphis. (Herod, ii. 166.)

6. The Phthemphuthite: capital Tava. (+0ep<t>oM vo/udr, Ptol.; Phthempha, Plin. v. 9.)

7. The Saite; chief city Sais, worshipped Neith or Athene, and contained a tomb and a sanctuary of Osiris. (Herod, ii. 170; Strab. p. 802.) Under the dynasty of the Saitic Kings this was the principal of the Deltaic cantons.

8. The Busirite; capital Busiris, worshipped Isis, and at one epoch, according to Hellenic tradition at least, sacrificed the red-coloured men who came over the sea, i. e. the nomades of Syria and Arabia (Herod, i. 59, 33, 165; Strab. p. 802; Plut. de It. et Ot. p. 30.)

9. The Thmuite; chief town Thmnis (Herod, ii. 168), afterwards incorporated with the following:

10. The Mendesian; capital Mendes (Herod, ii. 42, 46; Diod. i. 84), worshipped the goat Mendes, or the horned Pan.

11. The Tanite; chief town Tanis. (Herod, ii. 166; Strab. p. 802.) In this nome tradition affirmed that the Hebrew legislator was born and educated.

12. The Bubastite; capital Bubastus, contained a noble temple of Bubastis or Artemis. (Herod, ii. 59, 67, 137.)

13. The Athribite; capital Athribis, where the shrewmouse and crocodile were held in reverence.

14. The Hcliopolite, west of the Delta, and sacred to the sun, from whom its capital Heliopolis (On) derived its name. (Herod, ii. 9; Diod. v. 56; Joseph. Ant. ii. 3.)

15. The Heroopolite; chief town Heroopolis, a principal seat of the worship of Typhon, the evil or destroying genius.

Besides these the Delta contained other less important nomes, — the Nitriote, where the Natron Lakes, Nitrariae (Plin. v. 9) were situated; the Letopolitc(Strab.p. 807); the Prosopite; the Lcontopolite; the Mentelite; the Pharbaethite; and the Sethraite.

B. Nomes Of The Heptanomis. The most important were :—

1. The Memphite, whose chief city Memphis was the capital of Egypt, and the residence of the Pharaohs, who succeeded Psammetichus B.C. 616. The Memphite Nome rose into importance on the decline of the kingdom of Thebais, and was itself in turn eclipsed by the Hellenic kingdom of Alexandria. [memphis.]

2. The Aphroditopolite; chief town Aphroditopolis, was dedicated to Athor or Aphrodite.

3. The Arsinoite, the Fayoom, celebrated for its worship of the crocodile, from which its capital Crocodilopolis, afterwards Arsinoe, derived its name. [aksinoe.] The Labyrinth and the Lake of Moeris were in this canton.

4. The Heracleote, in which the ichneumon was worshipped. Its principal town was Heracleopolis Magna.

5. The Hermopolite, the border nome between Middle and Upper Egypt. This was at a very early period a nourishing canton. Its chief city Hcrmopolis stood near the frontiers of the Heptanomis, a Tittle to the north of the castle and toll-house ('Ep^oiro\iT(in| <pv\aK-<i, Strab. p. 813), where the portage was levied on all craft coming from the Upper Country.

6. The Cynopolite, the seat of the worship of the hound and dog-headed deity Anubis. Its capital was Cynopolis, which must however bo distinguished from the Deltaic city and other towns of the same name. (Strab. p. 812; Ptol.; Pint. Is. ft Otir. c. 72.)

The Greater Oasis (Ammonium) and the Lesser were reckoned among the Heptanomite Cantons: but both were considered as one nome only. [oases.]

C. Nomes Of Uppeu Egypt. The most important were: —

1. The Lycopolite, dedicated to the worship of the wolf. Its chief town was Lycopolis.

2. The Antaeopolite, probably worshipped Typhon (Diod. i. 21); its capital was Antaeopolis (Plut de Solert. Anim. 23.)

3. The Aphroditopolito [Comp. Nome (2), Heptanomis.] In cases where a southern and a northern canton possessed similar objects of worship, the latter was probably an offset or colony of the former, as the Thebaid was the original cradle of Egyptian civilisation, which advanced northward.

4. The Panopolite or, as it was afterwards called, the Chemmite,offered hero-worship to an apotheosized man, whom the Greeks compared to the Minyan hero Perseus. (Herod, ii. 91.) This canton, whose chief town was Panopolis or Chemmis (Diod. i. 18), was principally inhabited by linen-weavers and stonemasons.

5. The Thinite, probably one of the most ancient, as it was originally the leading nome of the Thebaid, and the nome or kingdom of Mencs of This, the founder of the Egyptian monarchy. The Thinite nome worshipped Osiris, contained a Memnonium, and, in Boman times at least (Aim Marc six. 12; Spartian. Hadrian. 14), an oracle of Besa. Its capital was Abydus, or, as it was called earlier, This. [abidus.]

6. The Tentyrite worshipped Athor (Aphrodite), Isis, and Typhon. Its inhabitants bunted the crocodile, and were accordingly at feud with the Ombite nome. (Juv. xv.) Its chief town was Tentyra.

7. The Coptite, whose inhabitants were principally occupied in the caravan trade between Berenice, Myos Hormos, and the interior of Arabia and Libya. Its capital was Coptos. [coptos.]

8. The Hermonthite, worshipped Osiris and his son Orus: its chief town was Hermonthis.

9. The Apollonite, like the Tentyrite nome, destroyed the crocodile (Strab. p. 817; Plin. v. 9; Aelian, H. An. x. 21 ; Plut Is. et Os. 50), and reverenced the sun. Its capital was Apollinopolis Magna. This nome is sometimes annexed to the preceding.

10. The Ombite (Ombites praefectura, Plin. H. N. v. 9), worshipped die crocodile as the emblem of Sebak (oomp. supra (6) and (9), and the Arsinoite (3), Heptanomite nomes). Ombos was its capital. The quarries nf sandstone, so much employed in Egyptian architecture, were principally seated in this canton.

V. Animal Worship, Animal worship is so intimately connected with the division of the country into nomes, and, in some degree, with the institution of castes, that we must briefly allude to it, although the subject is much

too extensive for more than allusion. The worship of animals was either general or particular, common to the whole nation, or several to the nome. Thus throughout Egypt, the ox, the dog, and the cat, the ibis and tbe hawk, and the fishes lepidotus and oxyrrynchns, were objects of veneration. The sheep was worshipped only in the Saitic and Thebaid nomes: the goat at Mendes; the wolf at Lycopolis; the cepus (a kind of ape) at Babylon, near Memphis; the lion at Leontopolis, the eagle at Thebes, the shrewmouse at Athribis, and others elsewhere, as will be particularly noticed when we speak of their respective temples. As we have already seen, the object of reverence in one nome was accounted common and unclean, if not, indeed, the object of persecution hi another. Animal worship has been in all ages the opprobrium of Egypt (comp. Clem. Alex. iii. 2, p. 253, Potter; Diod. L 84). The Hebrew prophets denounced, the anthropomorphic religionists of Hellas derided it To the extent to which tho Egyptians carried it, especially in tbe decline of the nation, it certainly approached to the fetish superstitions of the neighbouring Libya. But we must liear in mind, that our vergers to the Coptic temples are Greeks who, being ignorant of the language, misunderstood much that they heard, and being preoccupied by their own ritual or philosophy, misinterpreted much that they saw. One good effect may lie ascribed to this form of superstition. In no country was humanity to the brute creation so systematically practised. The origin of animal worship has been variously, but never satisfactorily, accounted for. If they were worshipped as the auxiliaries of the husbandman in producing food or destroying vermin, how can we account for the omission of swine and asses, or for the adoption of lions and wolves among the objects of veneration? The Greeks, as was their wont, found many idle solutions of an enigma which probably veiled a feeling originally earnest and pions. They imagined that animals were worshipped because their effigies were the standards in war, like tbe Roman Dii Castromm. This is evidently a substitution of cause for effect The representations of animals on martial ensigns were the standards of the various nomes (Diod. i. 85). Lncian (Astrolog. v. p. 215, seq. Bipont) suggested that the bull, the lion, the fish, the ram, and the goat, &c. were correlates to the zodiacal emblems; but this surmise leaves the crocodile, the cut, and the ibis, Ac. of the temples unexplained. It is much more probable that, among a contemplative and serious race, as the Egyptians certainly were, animal-worship arose out of the detection of certain analogies between instinct and reason, and that to the initiated the reverence paid to beasts was a primitive expression of pantheism, or the recognition of the Creator in every type of his work. The Egyptians are not the only people who have converted type into substance, or adopted in a literal sense the metaphorical symbols of faith.

VI. Casta and Political Institutions. The number of the Egyptian castes is very variously stated. Herodotus (ii. 164) says that they were seven — the sacerdotal and the military, herdsmen, swineherds, shopkeepers, interpreters, and boatmen. Plato (Timaeus, iii. p. 24) reckons six; Diodorus, in one passage (i. 28) represents them an three — priests and husbandmen, from whom the army was levied, and artisans. But in another (1.74 i fa? extf "ids the number to five, by the addition of soldiers and shepherds. Strabo limits them to three — priests, soldiers, and husbandmen — and as this partition is virtually correct, we shall adopt it after brief explanation. The existence of castes is a corroborative proof of the Asiatic origin of the Egyptians. The stamp of caste was not in Egypt, as is sometimes asserted, indelible. The son usually, but not inevitably, followed bis father's trade or profession. From some of the pariah classes indeed — snch as that of the swineherds — it was scarcely possible to escape.

The land in Egypt upon which the iastitntion of castes rested belonged in fee only to the king, the priests, and the soldiers. We know from Genesis (jlrii. 26) that all other proprietors of the soil had surrendered their rights to the crown, and received their lands again subject to an annual rent of T of the produce. The priests we know (Genes. I. c), the soldiers we infer (Diod. i. 74), retained their absolute ownership; and in so productive a country as Egypt the husbandman was too important a person to be deprived at once of all his political rights. He was in fact an integral although an inferior section of the war-caste. The privileged orders however were the king, the priest, the soldier: —

1. The King was at first elective, and always a member of the priesthood. He afterwards became hereditary, and was taken indifferently from the sacerdotal and military orders. If however he were by birth a soldier, he was adopted on his accession by the priests. Even the Ptolemies were not allowed to reign without such previous adoption. His initiition into the sacred mysteries was represented on monuments by the tau, the emblem of life and the key of secrecy, impressed upon his lips (Pint, de Is. it Otir. p. 354, B.; Plat. Rep. ii. p. 290).

The king, when not engaged in war, was occupied in jurisdiction and the service of religion. The royal life was one long ceremony. His rising and his lying down; his meals,his recreations, and the order of his employments, were rigidly prescribed to him. Some liberty in law-making indeed was allowed him, since we read of the laws of Sesostris, Amasis, and other Egyptian rulers: and, with vigorous occupants of the throne, it is probable that the soldier occasionally transgressed the priestly ordinances. As but few, however, of the Egyptian monarchs seem to have grossly abused their power, we may conclude that the hierarchy at least tempered royal despotism. In paintings the king is always represented as many degrees taller and more robust than his subject warriors. A thousand fly before him, and he holds strings of prisoners by the hair. The Egyptian king wears also the emblems and sometimes even the features of the gods; and it is frequently difficult to distinguish on the monuments Sesortasen, Amunopht, &c. from Osiris. It is remarkable that females were not excluded from a throne so sacerdotal. A queen, Nitocris, occurs in the sixth dynasty; another, Scemiophris, in the twelfth, and other examples are found in the sculptures. On the decease of a sovereign a kind of posthumous judgment was exercised on his character and government. His embalmed body was placed in the sepulchre, and all men were permitted to bring accusations against him. Virtuous princes received a species of deification: condemned princes were debarred from sepulture.

2. The Priests however were, in ordinary times, the real governing body of Egypt. Their lands were

exempt from tribute: their persons were greeted with servile homage; they were the sole depositaries of learning and science: and they alone were acquainted with all the formularies which in Egypt regulated nearly every action of life. Their various and incessant occupations appear even in the titles of the subdivisions of the priest-caste. "Each deity," says Herodotus (ii. 37), " had several priests [priestesse*] and a high priest." The chiefs or pontiffs were the judges of the land, the councillors of the sovereign, the legislators and the guardians of the great mysteries. The minor priests were prophets, inferior judges and magistrates, hierophants, biero-granimats or sacred scribes, basilico-grammats or royal scribes, dressers and keepers of the royal and sacerdotal wardrobes, physicians, heralds, keepers of the sacred animals, architects, draughtsmen, beadles, vergers, sprinklers of water, fan bearers, &C. (Wilkinson, il. and C. vol. i. p. 238). So numerous a staff was not in the peculiar polity of Egypt altogether superfluous, neither does it seem to have been peculiarly burdensome to the nation, since it derived its support from regular taxes and from its proprietary lands. Nowhere in the ancient world was the number of temples so great as in Egypt: nowhere were there so many religious festivals; nowhere was ordinary life so intimately blended with religion. The priest therefore was mixed np in affairs of the market, the law court, the shop, the house, in addition to his proper vocation in the temple. His life was the reverse of ascetic: in the climate of Egypt frequent ablutions, linen garments, papyrus sandals, were luxuries, — only polygamy was forbidden him. But he was enjoined to marry, and the son succeeded the father in the sacred office (Herod, ii. 143). Herodotus (comp. ii. 35, 55) contradicts himself in saying that females could not fulfil sacerdotal duties,— women might be incapable of the highest offices, but both sculptures and documents prove, that they were employed in many of the minor duties connected with the temples.

3. The Soldiers. The whole military force of Egypt amounted to 410,000 men (Herod, ii. 165—166; Diod. i. 54). It was divided into two corps, the Calasirians and the Hcrmotybians. The former were the more numerous, and in the most flourishing era of Egypt, the 18th and 19th dynasties, were estimated at 250,000 men. Each of these divisions furnished a thousand men annually to perform the duty of royal body guards. During the term of their attendance they received from the king daily rations of bread, beef, and wine. When summoned to the field or to garrison duty, each soldier provided himself with the necessary arms and baggage. The principal garrisons of Egypt were on its southern and eastern borders, at Syene and Elephantine, at Hieracompolis and Eilethyas, which towns, on opposite sides of the river, commanded the Nile-valley above Thebes, and at Marea and Pelusium. The western frontier was, until Egypt stretched to the Cyrenaica, guarded sufficiently by the Libyan desert. In time of peace the troops who were not in garrisons or at court were settled in various nomes principally east of the Nile, and in the Delta; since it was in that quarter Egypt was most exposed to invasion from the pastoral Arabs or the yet more formidable nomade tribes of Assyria and Palestine. According to Herodotus (ii. 168), each soldier was allowed 12 arourae of land, or about six acres free from all charge or tribute, from which allotment he defrayed the cost of his arms and equipment. To the Egyptian soldier

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