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modelled or abolished nearly all the other institutions of the empire, this interdict remained in force. The dVjieodence of Egypt was therefore more absolute and direct than that of any other province of Rome. Its difficulty of access, and the facility which it presented to an enterprising and ambitious governor to render himself independent, dictated these stringent precautions. The prefect, however, possessed the some powers as the other provincial governors, although he did not receive the fasces and the other insignia of the latter. (Tac Ann. xii. 60j Poll. Trig. Ijr. 22.)

Augustus made very little change in the internal goremment of Egypt. It was divided into three great districts called Epistrategiae (inurrptrnrylat) —Upper Egypt (Thebais), of which the capital was Ptolemais, Middle Egypt (Heptanomis), and Lower Egypt (Strab. xvii. p. 787). Each of these three districts was divided into nomes, the nomes into toparchies, and the toparchies into Kvfiat and Tovoi, in which the land was carefully measured according to fyoi-poz. Each of the great districts was under an eputraUgug (eVio-rpd-nryos), who was a Roman, and possessed both civil and military authority, red to him all the officials in his district were amenable. Each Dome was governed by a strattgut (cT/mnn'Oj), in ancient times called vofiipxys, who carried into execution the edicts of the prefect, and superintended the collection of the taxes imposed upon his nome. The strategus was appointed by the prefect, and was selected from the natives, either Greeks or Egyptians: the term of his office was three years. The subdivisions of the nomes above mentioned were in like manner under the administration, each of its own officers, whose names and titles frequently occur in inscriptions.

The three Greek cities of Alexandria, Ptolemais, and Arsinoe were not subject to the authorities of the name, but were governed by their own municipal institutions (ffwrrnjua iro\iTucbv iv T$ 'EWnviKi? ■tpfatf, Strab. xvii. p. 813).

Two legions were found sufficient to keep Egypt in obedience. They were stationed at Elephantine and Parembole, in the south: at the Hennopolitan castle, on the borders of Heptanomis and the Thebaic at Memphis and Alexandria in the Delta: and as Paretonium in Libya. Cohorts of German horse were quartered in various portions of the Nile-valley. The native population were not allowed to possess arms — a precaution partly dictated by the fierce red excitable temper of the Egyptian people. (Amm. Marc. xxii. 16. § 23.)

The Romans presently set themselves to improve the revenues and restore the agriculture of their new province. Under the second prefect C. Petnmius (Sueton. Octtw. 18; Strab. xvii. p. 820) the canals of the Nile were cleared of sand, and many thousand acres brought again into cultivation. Egypt, under the emperors, shared with Sicily and northern Africa the distinction of being accounted a granary of Rome. To the general survey of the Kile-valley under Aelius Callus, the third prefect, we owe the accurate description of it by the geographer Strabo. He accompanied the prefect to Syene (xvi. p. 816), and explored both the vestiges of ancient grandeur in the Thebaid, and the new cities which, like Ptolemais, had been built and were occupied by Greeks alone. The Caesars were as tolerant as the Macedonian kings, and made no change in the religion of their Coptic subjects. The names of Wan emperors are inscribed on many of the Egyp

tian and Nubian temples; e. g., that of Augustus at Philae, and that of Tiberius at Thebes, Aphroditopolis, and Berenice. Augustus was invested with the titles of the native kings — Son of the Sun, of Ammon, king of Upper and Lower Egypt, &c. The country was well governed under Tiberius, who strictly repressed the avarice of his prefects (Joseph. Ant. xviii. 5; Dion Cass. lvii. 32). From Tacitus {Ann. ii. 64) we learn that the emperor was highly displeased with his adopted son Germanicus for travelling in Egypt without a previous licence from himself. Pliny (viii. 71) records that, on this tour, Germanicus consulted the sacred bull Apis, and received an answer indicative of his future misfortunes. The liberty of coining money was taken from the Egyptians by Tiberius in the tenth year of his reign (a. D. 23); but the right of mintage was restored to them by Claudius. Pliny (vi. 26) has given an interesting description of the Egyptian trade with the East in this reign. The history of Egypt from this period is so nearly identified with that of Alexandria, that we may refer generally to that head for the summary of its events. The country, indeed, had been so completely subjugated, that Vespasian could venture to withdraw from it nearly all the disposable military force, when in A. r>. 67—68 it was required to put down the rebellion of Judaea. The principal commotions of Egypt were, indeed, caused by the common hostility of the Greek and Hebrew population. This, generally confined to the streets of Alexandria, sometimes raged in the Delta also, and in the reign of Hadrian demanded the imperial interference to suppress. The Jews, indeed, were very numerous in Egypt, especially in the open country; and after the destruction of Jerusalem, their principal temple was at Leontopolis. Hadrian {Spartian. 14) visited Egypt in the 6th year of his reign, and ascended the Nile as far as Thebes. The most conspicuous monument of this imperial progress was the city of Antinopolis, on the east bank of the Nile, which he raised as a monument to his favourite, the beautiful Antinous. (Dion Cass. lxix. 16.)

In the reign of M. Aurelius, A. D. 166, occurred the first serious rebellion of Egypt against its Roman masters. It is described as a revolt of the native soldiers. But they were probably Arabs who had been drafted into the legions, and whose predatory habits prompted them to desert and resume their wild lite in the desert. The revolt lasted nearly four years (a. D. 171—175), and was put down by Avidius Cassius, who then proclaimed himself emperor of Egypt, and his son Maccianus praetorian prefect. Avidius and his son, however, were put to death by their own troops, and the clemency of the emperor speedily regained the affections of his Egyptian subjects. (Capitol. M. Anion, 25.)

On the death of Pcrtinax in A. D. 193, Pesccnnius Niger, who commanded a legion in Upper Egypt, and had won the favour of the natives by repressing the license of the soldiery, proclaimed himself emperor. He was defeated and slain at Cyzicus, A. I>. 196, and his successful rival the emperor Severus visited the vacant province, nnd examined the monuments at Thebes and Memphis. Sevcrus, however, was unpopular with the Egyptians, as well from his exactions of tribute as from his impolitic derision of the national religion. In the reign of Caracalla, Egyptians for the first time took their seat in the Roman senate, and the worship of Isis was publicly sanctioned at Home. (DionCass.lxxvii.23; Sparti:ui. Sever. 17.)

Tho next important revolution of Egypt was its temporary occupation by Zenobia, queen of Palmyra, in A. D. 269. The Egypto-Greeks were now at the end of six centuries again subject to an Asiatic monarch. But her power lasted only a few months. This invasion, however, stimulated the native population, now considerably intermingled with Arabs, and they set up, after a few months' submission to Aurelian, a Syrian of Seleucia, named Firmus, as emperor, A. D. 272. (Vopisc. Firm. 5.) Firmus was succeeded by a rebel chieftain named Domitius Domitianus (Zosim. i. 49); but both of these pretenders were ultimately crushed by Aurelian. Both Rome and Egypt suffered greatly during this period of anarchy: the one from the irregularity of the supply of corn, the other from the ravages of predatory bands, and from the encroachments of the barbarians on either frontier. In A. D. 276, Probus, who had been military prefect of Egypt, was, on the death of Tacitus, proclaimed emperor by his legions, and their choice was confirmed by the other provinces of the empire. Probus was soon recalled to Ms former province by the turbulence of the Blemmyes; and as even PtolcinaU, the capital of the Thebaid, was in possession of the insurgents, we may estimate the power of the Arabs in the Nile-valley. So dangerous, indeed, were these revolts, that Probus deemed his victory over the Blemmyes not unworthy of a triumph. (Vopisc. Prob. 9, seq.)

The reign of Diocletian, A. D. 285, was a period of calamity to Egypt A century of wars had rendered its people able and formidable soldiers; and Achilleus, the leader of the insurgents, was proclaimed by them emperor. Diocletian personally directed his campaigns, and reduced, after a tedious siege, the cities of Coptos and Busiris. In this reign also the Roman frontier was withdrawn from Aethiopia, and restored to Elephantine, whose fortifications were strengthened and garrisons augmented. Galenas and Maximin successively misgoverned Egypt: whose history henceforward becomes little more than a record of a religious persecution.

After the time of Constantine, the administration and division of Egypt were completely changed. It was then divided into six provinces: (1) Acgyptus Propria; (2) Augustamnica; (3) Heptanoniis(afterwards Arcadia); (4) Thcbais; (5) Libya Inferior; (6) Libya Superior (consisting of the Cyrenaic Pentapolia). The division into nomes lasted till the seventh century after Christ All the authorities having any relation to the Roman province of Aegypt are collected by Marquardt, in Becker's Handbuch der Roviischen Alterthiimer, vol. iii. pt. i. p. 207, scq.

Under the Romans the chief roads in Egyptwercsix in number. One extended from Contra-Pselcis in Nubia along the eastern bank of the Nile to Babylon opposite Memphis, and thence proceeded by Heliopolis to the point where Trajan's canal entered the Red Sea. A second led from Memphis to Pelusium. A third joined the first at Serapion, and afforded a shorter route across the desert. A fourth went along the western bank of the Nile from Hiera Sycaminos in Nubia to Alexandria. A fifth reached from Palestine to Alexandria, and ran along the coast of the Mediterranean from Raphia to Pelusium, joining the fourth at Andropolis. The sixth road led from Coptos on the Nile to Berenice on the Red Sea, and contained ten stations, each about twentyfive miles apart from one another. The Roman roods in Egypt are described in the Itinerarium

Anlonini, which is usually ascribed to the emperor M. Aurelius Antoninus.

According to the traditions of the Church, Christianity was introduced into Egypt by the evangelist St. Mark. Its reception and progress must be read in ecclesiastical annals. We can only remark here, that the gloomy and meditative genius of the Egyptians was a favourable soil for the growth of heresy; that the Arians and Athanasians shed torrents of blood in their controversies; and that monachism tended nearly as much as civil or religious wars to the depopulation of the Nile-valley. The deserts of the Thebaid, the marshes of the Delta, and the islands formed by the lagoons and estuaries of the Nile,, were thronged with convents and hermitages; and the legends of the saints are, in considerable proportion, the growth of Egyptian fancy and asceticism. In the reign of Theodosius I., A. D. 379, the edict which denounced Paganism levelled at one blow the ancient Polytheism of the Nile-valiey, and consigned to rain and neglect all of its temples which had not previously been converted, partially or wholly, into Christian Churches. From this epoch we may regard the history of the Egyptians, as a peculiar people, closed: their only subsequent revolutions henceforward being their subjugation by Persia in A. D. 618, and their conquest by Amrou, the general of the Khaliph Omar, in A. D. 640. The yoke of Arabia was then finally imposed upon the land of Misraim, and its modern history commences — a history of decrepitude and decline until the present century.

The sources of information for Egyptian history and geography are of four kinds. (1) Works of geography, such as those of Ptolemy, Strabo, Eratosthenes, Pliny and Mela. (2) Of history, such as those of the fragments of Manctho, African us, the Syncellus, Eusebius, Herodotus and Diodorus already cited. (3) The Arabian chorographers, — and (4) the researches of modern travellers and Egyptologers from Kircher to Bunseo and Lcpsius; among the former we specially designate the works of the elder Niebuhr, Pococke and Bruce, Burckhardt and Bclzoni; the splendid collections of Dlnon and the French savans, 1798; Gau's work on the monuments of Lower Nubia, and Sir Gardner Wilkinson's Manner* and Custom* of the A orient Egyptian*, 6 vols. 8vo. To these may be added, as summaries of the writings of travellers and scholars, Heeren's Re*earche* into the Politic*, Intercourse, and Trade of the Carthaginian*, Aethiopiani, and Egyptian*, 2 vols. 8vo. Engl, trans. 1838; the recent work, Kenrick's Ancient Egypt, 2 vols. 8vo. 1850; and the two volumes in the Library of Entertaining Knowledge, entitled The British Museum, Egyptian Antiquities, which, under an unpretending form, contain a tund of sound and various information. It would be easy to extend this catalogue of authorities; but the general reader will find all he seeks in the authors we have enumerated. [W. B. D.]

AEGYS (Afyut: Eth. A'tyuarnt, Paus.; S'ryvtit, Theopomp. ap. Steph. B. s. v.), a town of Laconia, on the frontiers cif Arcadia, originally belonged to the Arcadians, but was conquered at an early period by Charilaus, the reputed nephew of Lycurgns, and annexed to Laconia. Its territory, called AegVtis (Klyvrii), appears to have been originally of some extent, and to have included all the villages in the districts of Maleatis and Cromitis. Even at the time of the foundation of Megalopolis, the inhabitants of these Arcadian districts, comprising Scirtoniuir., Malca, Cromi, Bclbina, and Leuctrum, continued to be called Aegytae. The position of Aegys is uncertain. Leake placed it at Kamdra, near the sources of the river Xerilo, the ancient Camion. (Pans, iil 2 § 5, viii. 27. § 4, 34. § 5; Strab. p. 446; Pol. ii. 54; Leake, Peloponnesiaca, p. 234.)

AELANA (ta AfAayo, Strab. p. 768; At'AaHJ, Jr«pL Ant. viii. 6. § 4; 'EAdVa, PtoL v. 17. § 1; Aftajw, Steph. B. *. P.; Al\d$, Pnocop. B. Pers. i. 19; in 0. T. Klatii, in LXX. At\dB, AlAdv; Eth. AUarmp: Ababa), an Idumaean town in Arabia I'etraea, situated at the head of the eastern gulf of the Red Sea, which was called after this town Aelauiticus Sinus. It was situated 10 miles £. of Petra (Eoseb, Onom. s. v. 'HAdfl), and 150 miles SE. of Gus(Plin. v. 11. 8. 12). It was annexed to the Jriagdom of Judah, together with the other cities of ldomsea, by David (2 Sam. viii. 14), and was one of the harbours on the Red Sea, from which the fleet of Solomon sailed to Ophir (1 Kings, ix. 26; 2 Chron. viii. 17); but it subsequently revolted from the Jeers, and became independent. (2 Kings, xiv. 22.) It continued to be a place of commercial importance under the Romans, and was the head quarters of the tenth legion. (Hieron. Onom.; Not Imp.) ltwasthe residence of a Christian bishop, and is mentioned by Pracopius in the sixth century as inhabited by Jews, who, after having been for a long time independent, bad become subject to the Romans in the reign of Justinian. (Procop. B. Pers. i 19.) The site of Aehna is now occupied by a fortress called A kaba, ia whkh a garrison is stationed, because it lies on the route of the Egyptian pilgrims to Mecca. (Niebuhr, Beschreibung von Arabien, p. 400; Riippel, Urise in Nubien, p. 248; I-aborde, Journey through Arabia Petraea, vol. i. p. 116.) AELANITICUS SINUS. [arabiccs Sinus.] AE'LtA CAPITOLI'NA. [JuntSALiEM.] AE'MODAE or HAE'MODAE, the Shetland Isfcmds (Mela, iii. 6), described by Pliny (iv. 16. § 30), as a group of seven. The islands Oeitis CO*iTi$)t and Dumna (Aoy/xva) mentioned by Ptolemy (ii. 3. § 31) were apparently part of this proup, and answer respectively to St. Ronaldsha and /%. Camden and the elder antiquaries, however, refer the Aemodae to the Baltic Sea. [W. B. D.] ^ AEMO'XA, HAEMO'XA, EMO'NA ("h/i*»ko, 'tiuatva, Orelli, fnscript. 72; 'H/ia, Herodian. viii. 1 : Eth. Aemonensis: Laybach), a strongly fortified town with a well-frequented market in Psnnoma, situated on the river Saave and on the road from Aquileia to Celeia, answering to the i Laybach, the capital of Illyria. Lay bach, * the Roman remains around its walls attest, does not equal in extent the ancient Aemona. According to tradition, the Argonauts were the (winders of Aemona (Zoslm. v. 29). It subsequently became a Roman colony with the title of Julia Augusta (Plin. iv. 21. § 28), and its name occurs on coins and inscriptions (PtoL ii. 15. § 7; Orelli, InscripL nos, 71, 72, et alib.). [W.B.D.] AENA'RLA (Afrapta, App.), called by the Greeks MTHECC'SA (nibntcQvaaa), or PITHECU'SAE (niftjirowrffax), and by the Latin poets INA'RIME, now Ischia, is an island of considerable size, which lies off the coast of Campania, nearly opposite to Cape Misenum, and forms, in conjunction with that lieadlaod, the northern boundary of the Bay of Naples. It is about 15 miles in circumference, and b distant between five and six miles from the nearest point of the mainland, and 16 from Capri, which forms the southern boundary of the bay. The small

island of Prochyta (Procida) lies between it and Cape Misenum. The whole island is of volcanic origin, and though it contains no regular crater, or other vent of igneous action, was subject in ancient, as it has continued in later, times, to violent earthquakes and paroxy.-mal outbursts of volcanic agency. It was first colonized by Greek settlers from Chalcis and Eretria, either simultaneously with, or even previous to, the foundation of Cumae on the neighbouring mainland; and the colony attained to great prosperity, but afterwards suffered severely from internal dissensions, and was ultimately compelled to abandon the island in consequence of violent earthquakes and volcanic outbreaks. (Liv. viii. 22; Strab. v. p. 248.) These are evidently the same described by Timaeus, who related that Mt. Epoineus, a bill in the centre of the island, vomited forth flames and a vast mass of ashes, and that a part of the Island, between this mountain and the coast, was driven forcibly into the sea. (Timaeus ap. Strab. v. p. 248.) The same phenomena are related with some variation by Pliny (ii. 88). At a later period, a fresh colony was established there by Hieron, the tyrant of Syracuse (prcbably after his great naval victory over the Tyrrhenians in B.c.474), but these were also compelled to quit the island for similar reasons. (Strab. I. c; Mommsen, UnterItaliscken D'wlekte, p. 198.) After their departure it was occupied by the Neapolitans, and Scylax (§ 10. p. 3) speaks of it as containing, in his time, a Greek city. It probably continued from henceforth a dependency of Neapolis, and the period at which it fell into the hands of the Romans ia unknown: but we find it in later times forming a part of the public property of the Roman state, until Augustus ceded it once more to the Neapolitans, in exchange for the island of Capreac. (Suet. Avg.92.) We have scarcely any further information concerning its condition; but it seems to have effectually recovered from its previous disasters, though still subject to earthquakes and occasional phenomena of a volcanic character. It was indebted to the same causes for its warm springs, which were frequented for their medical properties. (Strab. v. pp. 248. 258; Plin. xxxi. 5; Stat. Silv. iii. 5. 104; Lucil. Aetna, 430; Jul.Obseq. 114.) Strabo notices the fertility of the soil, and speaks of gold mines having been worked by the first settlers; but it would seem never to have enjoyed any considerable degree of prosperity or importance under the Romans, as its name is rarely mentioned. At the present day it is a fertile and flourishing island, with a population of 25,000 inhabitants, and contains two considerable towns, Ischia and Porta. The position of the ancient town is uncertain, no antiquities having been discovered, except a few inscriptions. The Monte di San Nicola, w hich rises in the centre of the island to an elevation of 2500 feet, and bears unquestionable traces of volcanic action, is clearly the same with the El'OMKtrsof Timaeus (/, c.) which is called by Pliny Muns Emrrs. (Concerning the present slate of the island, and its volcanic phenomena, t-co Description Topogr. et IlisUrr. des lies dfachia, de Ponza, tfc, Naples, 1822; Scrope, On the Volcanic District of Naples, in the Trans, of the Gcol. Soc. 2nd series, vol. ii.; Daubeny on Volcanoes, p. 240, 2nd edit.) The name of Pithkcusak appears to have been sometimes applied by the Greeks to the two islands of Aenaria and Prochyta collectively, but the plural form as well as the singular is often used to designate the larger island alone. Strabo, indeed, uses both indifferently. (See also Appian, B. C. v. 69.) Livy, in one passage (viii. 22), speaks of "Aenaria at Pithecusas," and Mela (ii. 7) also enumerates separately Pithecnsa, Aenaria, and Prochyta. Bnt this is clearly a mere confusion arising from the double appellation. Pliny tells us (iii. 6. 12) that the Greek name was derived from the pottery (wldoi) mannfactnred there, not as commonly supposed from its abounding in apes (ti0t)koi). But the latter derivation was the popular one, and was connected, by some writers, with the mythological tale of the Ccrcopes. (Xenagoras ap. Harpocr. ». v. KtpKaifi; Ovid. Met. xiv. 90.)

The name of Lnarime is peculiar to the Latin poets, and seems to have arisen from a confusion with the "Apifioi of Homer and Hesiod, after the fable of Typhoens had been transferred from Asia to the volcanic regions of Italy and Sicily. (Strab. v. p. 248, xiii. p. 626; Pherecyd. ap. Schol. ad Apoll. Jihod. ii. 1210.) The earthquakes and volcanic outbursts of this island were already ascribed by Pindar (Pyth. i. 18) to the struggles of the imprisoned giant, but the name of lnarime is first found in Virgil, from whom it is repeated by many later poets. Ovid erroneously distinguishes lnarime from Pithecusae. (Virg. Am. ix. 716; Ovid. Met. xiv. 90; Sil. Ital. viii. 542, xii. 147; Lucan. v. 100; Stat. Silv. ii. 2. 76; and see Heyne, Exc. ii. ad Virg. A en. ix.; Wemsdorf, Exc. iii. ad Lucil. Aetnam.) The idea, that both this and the neighbouring island of Prochyta had been at one time united to the mainland, and broken off from it by the violence of the same volcanic causes which were still in operation, is found both in Strabo and Pliny, and was a natural inference from the phenomena actually observed, but cannot be regarded as resting upon any historical tradition. (Strab. ii. p. 60, v. p. 258; Plin. ii. 88.) [E. H. B.]

AEN'EIA (AlWia: Eth. AiVeittfi, Aiwttjj), a town of Chalcidice in Macedonia, said to have been founded by Aeneas, was situated, according to Livy, opposite Pydna, and 15 miles from Thessalonica. It appears to have stood on the promontory of the great Karaburnu, which forms the NW. corner of the peninsula of Chalcidice, and which, being about 10 geographical miles in direct distance from Thessalonica, may be identified with the promontory Aeneium of Scymnus. Aeneia must therefore have been further N. than Pydna. It was colonised by the Corinthians. (Scymnus Ch. 627.) It is mentioned by Herodotus, and continued to be a place of importance down to the time of the Roman wars in Greece, although we are told that a great part of its population was removed to Thessalonica, when the latter city was founded by Cassauder. (Herod, vii. 123; Strab. p. 330; Dionys. i. 49; Lyccjphr. 1236 and Schol.; Virg. Aen. iii. 16; Steph. B. s. v.; Liv. xL 4, xliv. 10, 32; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. iii. p. 451.)

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through which one of the mouths of the Hebroa makes its way into the sea. According to Virgil {Aen. iii. 18), it was founded by Aeneas when he lauded there on his way from Troy, bnt there does not seem any more authority for this statement than the similarity of the names; but its antiquity is attested by the fact of its being mentioned by Homer (II. iv. 519). According to Herodotus (vii. 58) and Thucydides (vii. 57), Aenus was an Aeolic colony. Neither of them, however, mentions from what particular place it was colonised. Scymnus Chilis (696) attributes its foundation to Mytilene; Stephanus liyzant. to Cumae, or, according to Meineke's edition, to the two places conjointly. According to Strabo (p. 319), a more ancient name of the place was Poltyobria, Stephanus says it was also called Apsinthus.

Little especial mention of Aenus occurs till a comparatively late period of Grecian history. It is mentioned by Thucydides (I. c.) that Aenus sent forces to the Sicilian expedition as a subject ally of Athens. At a later period we find it successively in the possession of Ptolemy Philopator, B. c. 222 (Pol. v. 34), of Philip, king of Macedonia, B. c 200 (Liv. xxxi. 16), and of Antiochus the Great. After the defeat of the latter by the Romans, Aenus was declared free. (Liv. xxxviii. 60.) It was still a free city in the time of Pliny (iv. 11).

Athenacus (p. 351) speaks of the climate of Aenus as being peculiarly ungeniaL He describes the year there as consisting of eight months of cold, and four of winter. [H. W."]

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AENUS (Aim, Ptol. ii. 11. § 5; Oenns, Itin. Anton.: Inn), a river rising in the Rhaetian or Tridcntine Alps, dividing Rhaetia Secunda (Vindelicia) from Noricum, and flowing into the Danube, of which it was one of the principal feeders, at Passau. (Tac. Hist iii. 5.) [W. B. D.]

AE'OLES (AioAm) or AEO'LIT, one of the fbur races into which the Hellenes are usually divided, are represented as descendants of the mythical Aeolus, the son of Hellen. (Diet of Bioffr. t. v. .4 .../•».) Hellen is said to have left his kingdom in Thessaly to Aeolus, his eldest son. (Apollod. i. 7. § 3.) A portion of Thessaly was in ancient times called Aeolis, in which Arne was the chief town. It was from this district that the Aeolian Boeotians were driven out by the Thessalians, and came to Boeotia. (Herod, vii. 176; Diod. iv. 67; Thuc. L 12.) It is supposed by some that this Aeolis was the district on the Pagasetic gulf; but there are good reasons for believing that it was in the centre of Thessaly, and nearly the same as the district Thessaliotis in later times. (Miiller, Dorians, vol. ii. p. 475, seq.) We find the Aeolians in many other parts of Greece, besides Thessaly and Boeotia; and in the earliest times they appear as the most powerful and the most numerous of the Hellenic races. The wealthy Minyae appear to have been Aeolians; and we have mention of Aeolians in Aetolia, and Locris, at Corinth, in Elk, in Pylus and in Messexiia. Thus a great part of northern Greece, and the western side of Peloponnesus were inhabited at an early period by the Ae»Uan race. In most of these Aeolian settlements we find a predilection for maritime situations; and Poseidon appears to have been the deity chiefly worshipped by them. The Aeolians also migrated to Asia Minor where they settled in the district called after them Aeolis [aeolis], and also in the island of Lesbos. The Aeolian migration is generally represented as the first of the series of movements produced by the irruption of the Aeolians into Boeotia, and of the Dorians into Peloponnesus. The Achaeans, who had been driven from their homes in the Peloponnesus by the Dorians, were believed to hare been joined in Boeotia by a part of the ancient inhabitants of Boeotia and of their Aeolian conquerors. The latter seem to have been predominant in influence, for from them the migration was called the Aeolian, r>d sometimes the Boeotian. An account of the early settlements and migrations of the Aeolians is £iren at length by Thirlwall, to which we must refer oor readers for details and authorities. {Hist, of Great, vol. i. p. 88, seq. vol. ii. p. 82, seq.; comp. Grote, Bist. of Greece, vol. i. p. 145, seq., vol. ii. p. 26, seq.) The Aeolian dialect of the Greek Ianfwecomprised several subordinate modifications; bat the variety established by the colonists in Lesbos ■ad on the opposite coasts of Asia, became eventually its popular standard, having been carried to perfection by the Lesbian school of lyric poetry. (Mure, History ofike. Language, <fc. of Greece, vol. i. p. 108, seq.) Tiiqs we find the Roman poets calling Sappho Aeolia p&Ua (hot. Carm, iv. 9/12), and the lyric poetry of Akaeus and Sappho A eolium carmen, A eolia fides and Atolia Igra, (Hor. Carm. iii. 30.13, ii. 13. 24; Or. Her. xv. 200.)

AEOLIAE l'NSULAE (AioA(J« vfjcrot, Diod. AtoAxB/ Itjo-oi, Thuc. Strab.), a group of volcanic islands, lying in the Tyrrhenian Sea to the north of &cily, between that island and the coast of Lucania. They derived the name of Aeolian from some fancied c«inection with the fabulous island of Aeolus mentisted by Homef in the Odyssey (x. 1, &c.), but li^T were also frequently termed Vulcantae or Hephaestiae, from their volcanic character, which ascribed to the subterranean operations of Vulcan, as well as Liparaeax (of Anrapalocv yrfaoi, Strab.

ii. p. 123), from Lipara, the largest and most important among them, from which they still derive the wa* of the IApari Islands.

Ancient authors generally agree in reckoning them as seven in number (Strab. vi. p. 275 ; Plin.

iii. 8.14; Scymn. Ch.255; Diod.v.7; Mela,h\7; Dwaya. perieget, 465; SchoL ad A poll. Rhod. iii. 41), which is correct, if the smaller islets be omitted. Bat there is considerable diversity with regard to their names, and the confusion has been greatly augmented by some modern geographers. They are enumerated as follows by Strabo, Diodorus, and Pliny:

1. Lipara, still called Lipari; the most considerable if the seven, and the only one which contained a town of any importance. [lipara.]

2. Hiera, situated between Lipara and the coast of&cily. Its original name according to Strabo was Thennessa (©epfwetra), or, as Pliny writes it, Therasia, but it was commonly known to the Greeks as 'Upa or *I«pA 'Htpalcrov, being considered sacred te Vulcan on account of the volcanic phenomena which it exhibited. For the same reason it was called by

the Romans Vulcani Insula, from whence its modem appellation of Vulcano. It is the southernmost of the whole group, and is distant only 12 G. miles from Capo Calava, the nearest point on the coast of Sicily.

3. Strongyle (ZTpoyyvAri, now Stromboli), so called from its general roundness of form (Strab. I.e.; Lucil. Aetna, 431): the northernmost of the islands, and like Hiera an active volcano.

4. Didyme (Ai^vuv), now called Salina, or Isola delle Saline, is next to Lipara the largest of the whole group. Its ancient name was derived (as Strabo expressly tells us, vi. p. 276), from its form, which circumstance leaves no doubt of its being the same with the modern Salina, that island being conspicuous for two high conical mountains which rise to a height of 3,500 feet (Smyth's Sicily, p. 272; Ferrara, Campi Fkgrei delta Sicilia, p. 243; Daubeny, On Volcanoes, p. 262). Groskurd (ad Strab. I. c), Mannert, and Forbiger, have erroneously identified Didyme with Panaria, and thus thrown the whole subject into confusion. It is distant only three miles NW. from Lipara.

5. Phoesicusa (JbotviKovava, Strab. QowiKtaSns, Diod.), so called from the palms (<poivtKts) in which it abounded, is evidently Ftlicudi about 12 miles W. of Salina,

6. Ericusa ('EpifcotWa or >EptKu>Svs'), probably named from its abundance of heath (^/wi'in)), is the little island of A licudi, the westernmost of the whole group. These two were both very small islands and were occupied only for pasturage.

7. Euonymus (Eutici/^ioj), which we are expressly told was the smallest of the seven and uninhabited. The other six being clearly identified, there can be no doubt that this is the island now called Panaria, which is situated between Lipara and Strongyle, though it does not accord with Strabo's description that it lies the farthest out to sea (ireAeryfa ixaKitrra). But it agrees, better at least than any other, with his statement that it lay on the left hand as one sailed from Lipara towards Sicily, from whence he supposes it to have derived its name.

Several small islets adjacent to Panaria, are now called the JJattole, the largest of which Basiluzzo, is probably the Hicesia of Ptolemy ('iKtala, Ptol. iii. 4. § 16; 'iKtaiov, Eustath. ad Horn. Odyss. x. 1), whose list, with the exception of this addition, corresponds with that of Strabo. That of Mela (ii. 7) is very confused and erroneous: he is certainly in error in including Osteodes in the Aeolian group.

The volcanic character of these islands was early noticed by the Greeks: and Diodorus justly remarks (v. 7) that they had all been evidently at one time vents of eruptive action, as appeared from their still extant craters, though in his time two only, Hiera and Strongyle, were active volcanoes. Strabo indeed (/. c. p. 275) appears to speak of volcanic eruptions in the island of Lipara itself, but his expressions, which are not very precise, may probably refer only to outbreaks of volcanic vapours and hot springs, such as are still found there. Earlier writers, as Thucydides and Scymnus Chi us, allude to the eruptions of Hiera only, and these were probably in ancient times the most frequent and violent, as they appear to have attracted much more attention than those of Strongyle, which is now by far the most active of the two. Hence arose the idea that this was the abode of Vulcan, and the peculiar sounds that accompanied its internal agitations were attributed

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