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to the hammers and forges of the god and his workmen the Cyclopes. (Thuc. iii. 88; Scymn. Ch. 257 —261; Schol. ad ApoU. Rhod. iii. 41; Virg. Aen. viii. 418). According to Strabo there were three craters on this island, the largest of which was in a state of the most violent eruption. Polybius (ap. Strab. vi. p. 276), who appears to have visited it himself, described the principal crater as five stadia in circumference, but diininishing gradually to a width of only fifty feet, and estimated its depth at a stadium. From this crater were vomited forth sometimes flames, at others red hot stones, cinders and ashes, which were carried to a great distance. No ancient writer mentions streams of lava (JtvaKf s) similar to those of Aetna. The intensity and character of these eruptions was said to vary very much according to the direction of the wind, and from these indications, as well as the gathering of mists and clouds around the summit, the inhabitants of the neighbouring island of Lipara professed to foretell the winds and weather, a circumstance which was believed to have given rise to the fable of Aeolus ruling the winds. The modern Lipariots still maintain the same pretension. (Strab. /, c.; Smyth's Sicily, p. 270.) At a later period Hiera seems to have abated much of its activity, and the younger Lucilius (a contemporary of Seneca) speaks of its fires as in a great measure cooled. (Lucil. Attn. 437.)

We hear much less from ancient authors of the vok-anic phenomena of Strongyle than those of Hiera: but Diodorus describes them as of similar character, while Strabo tells us that the eruptions were less violent, but produced a more brilliant light. Pliny says nearly the same thing: and Mela speaks of both Hiera and Strongyle as "burning with perpetual fire." Lucilius on the contrary (Aetna, 434) describes the latter as merely smoking, and occasionally kindled into a blaze, but for a short time. Diodorus tells us that the eruptions both of Hiera and Strongyle were observed for the most part to alternate with those of Aetna, on which account it was supposed by many that there was a subterranean communication between them.

Besides these ordinary volcanic phenomena, which appear to have been in ancient times (as they still are in the case of Stromboli) in almost constant operation, we find mention of several more remarkable and unusual outbursts. The earliest of these is the one recorded by Aristotle (Meteorol. ii. 8), where he tells us that " in the island of Hiera the earth swelled up with a loud noise, and rose into the form of a considerable hillock, which at length burst and sent forth not only vapour, but hot cinders and allies in such quantities that they covered the whole city of Lipara, and some of them were earned even to the coa-st of Italy." The vent from which they issued (he adds) remained still visible: and this was ]frobubly one of the craters seen by Polybius. At a later period Posidonius described an eruption that took place in the sea between Hiera and Euonymus, which after producing a violent agitation of the waters, and destroying all the fish, continued to pour forth mud, fire and smoke for several days, and ended with giving rise to a small island of a rock like millstone (lava), on which the praetor T. Flamininus landed and offered sacrifices. Posidon. ap. Strab. vi. p. 277.) This event is mentioned by Pnsidonius as occurring within his own memory; And from the mention of Flaminiuus as praetor it is almost certain that it is the same circumstance

recorded by Pliny (ii. 87) as occurring in 01. I6&. 3, or B. c. 126. The same plienomenon is less accurately described by Julius Obhequens (89) and Orosius (v. 10), both of whom confirm the above date: but the last author narrates (iv. 20) at a much earlier period (b. c. 186) the sudden emergence from the sea of an island which he erroneously supposes to have been the Vulcani Insula itself: but which was probably no other than the rock now called Vulcanello, situated at the NE. extremity of Vulcano, and united to that island only by a narrow isthmus formed of volcanic sand and ashes. It still emits smoke and vapour and contains two small craters.*

None of the Aeolian islands, except Lipara, appear to have been inhabited in ancient times to any extent. Thucydides expressly tells us (iii. 88) that in his day Lipara alone was inhabited, and the other islands, Strongyle, Didyme, and Hiera, were cultivated by the Liparaeans; and this statement is confirmed by Diodorus (v. 9). Strabo however speaks of Euonymus as uninliabited in a manner that seems to imply that the larger islands were not so: and the remains of ancient buildings which have been found not only on Salina and Strontboli, but even on the little rock of Basiluzzo, prove that they were resorted to by the Romans, probably for the sake of medical baths, for which the volcanic vapours afforded every facility. Hiera on the contrary apparently remained always uninhabited, as it does at the present day. But the excellence of its port (Lucil. Attn. 442) rendered it of importance as a naval station, aud we find both Hiera and Strongyle occupied by the fleet of Augustus during the war with Sex. Pompeius in B. C. 3£ (Appian. B. C. v. 105.) All the islands suffered great disadvantage, as they still do, from the want of water, consequent on the light and porous nature of the volcanic soil. (Thuc. iii. 88; Smyth's Sicily, p. 249.) But though little adapted for agriculture they possessed great resources in their stores of alum, sulphur, and pumice, which were derived both from Hiera and Strongyle, and exported in large quantities. The sea also abounded in fish; and produced coral of the finest quality. (Plin. xxxii. 2. § 11, xxxv. 15. §§ 50, 52, xxxvi. 21. § 42; Lucil. Aetn. 432.)

It is scarcely necessary to inquire which of the Aeolian islands has the most claim to be considered as the residence of Aeohis himself. Homer certainly speaks only of one island, and is followed in this respect by Virgil. But the " floating island " of the elder poet, " girt all around with a wall of brass," hi scarcely susceptible of any precise geographical determination. The common tradition among the later Greeks seems to have chosen the island of Lipara itself as the dwelling of Aeolus, and the explanation of the fable above alluded to is evidently adapted to this assumption. But Strabo and Pliny both place the abode of the ruler of the winds in Strongyle, and the latter transfers to that island what others related of Hiera. Ptolemy on the contrary, by a strange confusion, mentions the island of Aeolus (AidKov vijffos, iii. 4. § 17) as something altogether distinct from the Aeolian islands, which he had previously enumerated separately: while Eustathius (ad Horn. Odyss. x. 1) reckons it as one of the seven, omitting Euonymus to make room for it, though in another

* The same event appears to be more obscurely alluded to by Livy (xxxix. 56).

passage (ad Dhynys. 7Yr. 461) lie follows Stmbo's authority, and identifies it with Strutigyle.

For an account of the present state of the Lipart Islands arid their volcanic phenomena the reader may evnsult Smyth's Sicily, chap. vii. p. 274—278; Femra, Campi Flegrei ditto, Sicilia, p. 199—252; Daubeny, On Volcanoes, ch. 14, pp. 245—263,2nd edit. Tlie history of the islands is almost wholly dependent on that of Lipara, and will be found in that article. [E. H. B.]

AE'OLIS (AtoX:j, Aeolia), a district on the west CT*st of Asia Minor, which is included by Strabo in the larger division of Mysia. The limits of Aeolis are variously defined by the ancient geographers. Strabo (p. 582) makes the river Hernias and Phocaea the southern limits of Aeolis and the northern of Ionia. He observes (p. 586), that " as Homer makes one of Aeolis and Troja, and the Aeolians occupied the whole country from tlie Hennas to the coast in the neighbourhood of Ctslcus and founded cities, neither shall I imprfectly make my description by putting together that which is now properly called Aeolis, which extends from the Hennus to Lectum, and tlie country which extends from Lectum to the Aesppus." Aeolis, therefore, properly so called, extended as far north as the promontory of Lectum, at the northern entrance of the bay of Adramyttium. The bay of Adramyttium is formed by the S. coast of the mountainous tract in which Ilium stood, by the island of Lesbos, and by the coast of Aeolis S. of Adramyttium, which runs from that town in a SW. direction. The coast is irregular. South of the bay of Adramyttium is a recess, at the northern point of which are the Hecatonnesi, a numerous group of email islands, and the southern boundary of which is the projecting point of the mainland, which lies nearest opposite to the southern extremity of Lesbos. The peninsula on which the town of Phocaea «tood, separates the gulf of Cume on the N. from the bay of Smyrna on the S. The golf of Game receives the rivers Evenus and CaTcus. The territory of the old Aeolian cities extended northward from the Hermus to the CaTcus, comprising the coast and a tract reaching 10 or 12 miles inland. Between the bay of Adramyttium and the CaTcus were the following towns:—Cisthene (KurWjnj, Chirin-koi), on a promontory, a deserted place in Strata's time. There was a port, and a copper mine in the interior, above Cisthene. Further south were Coryphantis (Kopv^arrfj), Heracfeia ('HpeucAcUt),and Attea Cattwi, Aja*mat~ko%). Cnrrphantis and Heracleia once belonged to the Mytilenaeans. Herodotus (i. 149) describes the tract of country which these Aeolian* possessed, as superior in fertility to the country occupied by the cities of the Ionian confederation, but inferior in climate. He enumerates the following 11 cities: Cume, called Phriconis; Lerissae, Neon Teichos, Temnus, Cilia, Notium, Aegiroessa, Pitane, Aegaeae, Myrina, and Grynexa. Smyrna, which was originally one of them, and made the number 12, fell into the hands of the Ionians. Herodotus says, that these 11 were all the Aeolian cities on the mainland, except those in the Ida; " for these are separated"* (i. 151); and in another place (v. 122) Herodotus calls those people Aeolians who inhabited the IKas. or district of Ilium. [G. L.]

AEPEIA (Aftma: Eth. AnreaVijs). 1. One of the seven Messenian towns, offered by Agamemnon to Achilles, is supposed by Strabo ta be the same

as Thuria, and by Pausanias tlie same as Corone. (Horn. //. ix. 152; Strab. p. 360; Paus. iv. 34. § 5.)

2. A town in Cyprus, situated on a mountain, the ruler of which is said to have removed to the plain, upon the advice of Solon, and to have named the new town Soli in honour of the Athenian. There is still a plat e, called Epe, upon the mountain above the ruins of Soli. (Plut. Sol 26; Steph. B. s. v., Engel, Kypros, vol. i. p. 75.)

AEPY (Afro; Eth. Ajjtutjjs), a town in Elis, so called from its lofty situation, is mentioned by Homer, and is probably the same as the Triphylian town Epeium ("Hircm**, "ewioi*, Atwlov'), which stood between Macistus and Heraea. Leake places it on the high peaked mountain which lies between the villages of Vrind and Smema, about 6 miles in direct distance from Olympia. B >blayc supposes it to occupy tlio site of IfellenUta, the name of some ruins on a hill between.Platiana and Barakou. (Horn. //. ii. 592; Xen.Hetl. iii. 2. §30; Pol.iv.77. §9, iv. 80. § 13; Strab. p. 349; Steph. B. *. r.; Stat. Theb. iv/lgO; Leake, J/orea, vol. ii. p. 206; Boblaye, Hecherches, &c, p. 136.)

AEQUI, AEQUI'CULI or AEQUICULA'NI (Afoot and Afrovoi, Strab.; Alitavoi, Dion. Hal.; AtKoiftxAof, Ptol.; AfriftAoi, Diod.), one of the most ancient and warlike nations of Italy, who play a conspicuous part in the early history of Rome. They inhabited the mountainous district around the upper valley of the Anio, and extending from thence to the Lake Fucinus, between the Latins and the Marsi, and adjoining the Hernici on the east, and the Sabines on the west. Their territory was subsequently included in Latium, in the more extended sense given to that name under the Roman empire (Strab. v. p. 228, 231). There appears no doubt that the Aequiculi or Af.quicoli are the same people with the Aequi, though in the usage of later times the former name was restricted to the inhabitants of the more central and lofty rallies of the Apennines, while those who approached the borders of the Latin plain, and whose constant wars with the Romans have made them so familiarly known to us, uniformly appear under the name of Aequi. It is probable that their original abode was in the highland districts, to which we find them again limited at a later period of their history. The Aequiculi are forcibly described by Virgil as a nation of rude mountaineers, addicted to the chase and to predatory habits, by which they sought to supply the deficiencies of their rugged and barren soil (Virg. Aen. vii. 747; Sil. Ital. viii. 371; Ovid. Fast. iii. 93). As the only town he assigns to them is Nersae, the site of which is unknown, there is some uncertainty as to the geographical position of the people of whom he is speaking, but he appears to place them next to the Marsians. Strabo speaks of them in one passage as adjoining the Sabines near Cures, in another as bordering on the Latin Way (v. pp. 231, 237): both of which statements are correct, if the name be taken in its widest signification. The form Aequiculani first appears in Pliny (iii. 12. § 17), who however uses Aequiculi also as equivalent to it: he appears to restrict the term to the inhabitant* of the vallies bordering on the Marsi, and the only towns he assigns to them are Carseoli and CI Hernia At a later peri'id the name appears to have been almost confined to the population of the upper valley of the Salto, between Reate and the Lake Fucinus, a district which still retains the name of Cicolano, evidently a corruption from Aeqniculanum.

No indication is found in any ancient author of their origin or descent: but their constant association with the Volscians would lead us to refer them to a common stock with that nation, and this circumstance, as well as their position in the rugged upland districts of the Apemiines, renders it probable that they belonged to the great Oscan or Ausonian race, which, so tar as our researches can extend, may be regarded as the primeval population of a Large part of central Italy. They appear to have received at a later period a considerable amount of Sabine influence, and probably some admixture with that race, especially where the two nations bordered on one another: but there is no ground for assuming any community of origin (Niebuhr, vol. L p. 72; Abeken, MitUl Itaiieny pp. 46, 47, 84).

The Aequians first appear in Roman history as occupying the rugged mountain district at the back of Tibur and Praeneste (both of which always continued to be Latin towns), and extending from thence to the confines of the Hernicans, and the valley of the Trerus or Sacco. But they gradually encroached upon their Latin neighbours, and extended their power to the mountain front immediately above the plains of Latium. Thus Bola, which was originally a Latin town, was occupied by them for a considerable period (Liv. iv. 49): and though they were never able to reduce the strong fortress of Praeneste, they continually crossed the valley which separated them from the Alban hills and occupied the heights of Mt. Algidus. The great development of their power was coincident with that of the Volscians, with whom they were so constantly associated, that it is probable that the names and operations of the two nations have frequently been confounded. Thus Niebuhr has pointed out that the conquests assigned by the legendary history to Coriolanus, doubtless represent not only those of the Volscians, but of the Aequians also: and the "castellum ad lacum Fucinum," which Livy describes (iv. 57) as taken from the Volscians in B. C. 405, must in all probability have been an Acquian fortress (Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 72, vol. ii. pp. 244, 259). It is impossible here to recapitulate the endless petty wars between the Aequians and Romans: the following brief summary will supply a general outline of their principal features.

The first mention of the Aequi in Roman history is during the reign of Tarquinius Priscus*, who waged war with them with great success, and reduced them to at least a nominal submission (Strab. v. p.231; Cic.de jRep.'u. 20). The second Tarquin is also mentioned as having concluded a peace with them, which may perhaps refer to the same transaction (Liv. i. 55; Niebuhr, vol. i. p. 359). But it was not till after the fall of the Roman monarchy that they appear in their more fornudable aspect. In B. c. 494 they are first mentioned as invading the territory of the Latins, which led that people to apply for assistance to Rome: and from this time forth the wars between the Aequians and Volscians on the one side, and the Romans assisted by the Latins and Hernicans on the other, were events of almost regular and annual recurrence ('' statum jam

* A tradition, strangely at variance with the other accounts of their habits and character, represents them as the people from whom the Romans derived the Jus Fetiale (Liv. i. 32; Dion. Hal. ii. 72). Others with more plausibility referred tliis to the Aequi Falisci (Serv. ad A en. vii. 695).

ac propc solenne in singulos annos bellum," Lit. iii. 15). Notwithstanding the exaggerations and poetical embellishments with which the history of these wars has been disguised, we may discern pretty clearly three different periods or phases into which they may be divided. 1. From B. C. 494 to about the time of the Decemvirate B. C. 450 was the epoch of the greatest power and successes of the Aequians. In B. c. 463 they are first mentioned as encamping on Mount Algidus, which from thenceforth became the constant scene of the conflicts between them and the Romans: and it seems certain that during this period the Latin towns of Bola, Vitellia, Corbiu, Labicum, and Pedum fell into their hands. The alleged victory of Cincinnatus in B. C. 456, on which so much stress has been laid by some later writers (Floras i. 11), appears to have in reality done little to check their progress. 2. From B. c. 450 to the invasion of the Gauls their arms were comparatively unsuccessful: and though we find them still contending on equal terms with the Romans and with many vicissitudes of fortune, it is clear that on the whole they had lost ground. The great victory gained over them by the dictator A. Postumius Tubertus in B. c. 428 may probably be regarded as the turning-point of their fortunes (Liv. iv. 26"—29; Diod. xii. 64; Ovid. Fast. vi. 721; Niebuhr, voL ii. p. 454): and the year B. c. 415 is the last in which we find them occupying their customary position on Mount Algidus (Liv. iv. 45). It is not improbable, as suggested by Niebuhr, that the growing power of the Samnites, who were pressing on the Volscians upon the opposite side, may have drawn off the forces of the Aequians also to the support of their allies, and thus rendered them less able to cope wi;h the power of Rome. But it is certain that before the end of this period most of the towns which they had conquered from the Latins hail been again wrested from their hands. 3. After the invasion of the Gauls the Aequians appear again in the field, but with greatly diminished resources: probably they suffered severely from the successive swarms ot barbarian invaders which swept over this part ot Italy: and after two unsuccessful campaigns in B. C. 386 and 385 they appear to have abandoned the contest as hopeless: nor does their name again apjtear in Roman history for the space of above SO years. But in B. C. 304 the fate of their neighbours the Hernicans aroused them to a last struggle, which terminated in their total defeat and subjection. Their towns fell one after another into the hands of the victorious Romans, and the Aequian nation (says. Livy) was almost utterly exterminated (Liv. ix. 45). This expression is however certainly exaggerated, for we find them again having recourse to arms twice within the next few years, though on both occasions without success (Liv. x. 1, 9). It was probably after the last of these attempts that they were admitted to the rights of Roman citizens: and became included in the two new tribes, the Aniea*us and Terentina, which were created at this period (Gic. de Of. i. 11; Liv. x. 9; Niebuhr, vol. iii. p. 267).

From this time the name of the Aequi altogether disappears from history, and would seem to have fallen into disuse, being probably merged in that of the Latins: but those of Acquiculi and Aequiculani still occur for the inhabitants of the upland and more secluded vallies which were not included within the limits of Latium, but belonged to the fourth region of Augustus: and afterwards to the province called Valeria. In Imperial times we even Cnd the AequkuUni in the valley of the Sal to constituting a regular municipal body, so that " lies Pubiiea Aequiculanoruni" and a " Municipium AeqaicoJanorumn are found in inscriptions of that period (OrelL no. 3931; Ann. dell. Inst. vol. vi. p. 111, not.). Probably this was a mere aggregation of scattered villages and hamlets such as are still found in the district of the Cicolano. In the Liber Coioniarum (p. 255) we find mention of the " Ecicylanus ager," evidently a corruption of Aequiculanus, as U shown by the recurrence of the same form in charters and documents of the middle ages (Holsten. mL ad C/uwr. p. 156).

It is not a little remarkable that the names of scarcely any cities belonging to the Aequians have been transmitted to us. Livy tells us that in the decisive campaign of B. C. 3(M, forty-one Aequian towns were taken by the Roman consuls (ix. 45): bat be mentions none of them by name, and from the rase and rapidity with which they were reduced, it is probable that they were places of little importance. Many of the smaller towns and villages now scattered in the hill country between the vallies of the Sacco and the Anio probably occupy ancient sites: two of these, Civitella and Olevano, present remains of ancient walls and substructions of rude polygonal masonry, which may probably be referred to a very early period (Abeken, Mittel IUdien, pp. 140,147; BtdUU.delL Tn$t. 1841, p. 49). The numerous vestiges of ancient cities found in the valley of the Salto, may also belong in many instances to the Aequians, rather than the Aborigines, to whom they have been generally referred. The only towns expressly assigned to the Aequiculi by Pliny and Ptolemy are Carseoli in the upper valley of the Turano, and Cltternia in that of the Salto. To these may be added Alba Fucensis, which we are expressly told by Livy was founded in the territory of the Aequians, though on account of its superior importance, Pliny ranks the Albenses as a separate people (Pliny iii. 12.17; Ptol.iii. 1. § 56; Li v. x. 1). Varia, which is assigned to the Aequians by several modem writers, appears to have been properly a Sabine town. Nersae. mentioned by Virgil (Aen. viL 744) as the chief place of the Aequiculi, is not noticed by any other writer, and its site is wholly uncertain. Besides these, Pliny (L c.) mentions the Comhn, Tadiates, Caelici, and Alfaterni as towns or communities of the Aequiculi, which had ceased to exist in his time: all four names are otherwise wholly unknown. [E. H. B.]

AEQUINOCTIUM or AEQUINOCTIAE (Fisrhement), a Roman fort in Upper Paunonia, situated upon the Danube, and according to the Notitia Imperii, the quarters of a squadron of Dalmatian cavalry. (Tab. Pent.; Itin. Antonin.) [W.B.D.]

AEBOPUS, a mountain in Greek Illyria, on the river Aous, and opposite to Mount Asnaus. Aeropus probably corresponds to Trebtuin, and Asnaus to NemertzUca. (Liv. xxxii. 5; Leake, Northern Greece, vol. i. p. 389.)

AESETUS (6 Atmjwot), a river of Northern Mvsia, mentioned by Homer (It iu 825, &c.) as sowing past Zeleia. at the foot of Ida; and in another passage (II. xii. 21) as one of the streams that flow from Ida. According to Strabo's interpretation of Homer, the Aesepus was the eastern boundary of • Mysia. The Aesepus is the largest river of Mysia. According to Strabo, it rises in Mount Cotylus, one of the summits of Ida (p. 602), and the distance between its source and its outlet is near 500 stadia.

It is joined on the left bank by the Caresus, another stream which flows from Cotylus; and then tuking a XE. and N. course, it enters the Propontis, between the mouth of the G rani ens and the city of Cyzicus. The modern name appears not to be clearly ascertained Leake calls it BoHu. [G. L.] AESE'KNIA (AurepWa: Eth. Aeseminus; but Plinyand later writers have Eserninus),a city of Samnium, included within the territory of the Pentrian tribe, situated in the valley of the Vulturnus, on a small stream flowing into that river, and distant 14 miles from Venafrum. The Itinerary (in which the name is corruptly written Semi) places it on the road from Aufidena to Bovianum, at the distance of 28 M.P. from the former, and 18 from the latter; but the former number is corrupt, as are the distances in the Tabula. (Itin. Ant p. 102; Tab. Peut.; Plin. iii. 12. 17; Ptol. iii. 1. § 67; Sil. Ital. viii. 568.) The modern city of hernia retains the ancient site as well as name. The first mention of it in history occurs in B. C. 295, at which time it had already fallen into the hands of the Romans, together with the whole valley of the Vulturnus. (Liv x. 31.) After the complete subjugation of the Samnites, a colony, with Latin rights (colonia Latina) was settled there by the Romans in B. C. 264; and this is again mentioned in B. C. 209 as one of the eighteen which remained faithful to Rome at the most trying period of the Second Punic War. (Liv, Epit. xvi. xxvii. 10; Veil. Pat. i. 14.) During the Social War it adhered to the Roman cause, and was gallantly defended against the Samnite general VettiusCato, by Marcellus, nor was it till after a long protracted siege that it was compelled by famine to surrender, B. C. 90. Henceforth it continued in the hands of the confederates ; and at a later period of the contest afforded a shelter to the Samnite leader, Papius Mutilus, after his defeat by Sulla. It even became for a time, after the successive fall of Corfinium and Bovianum, the head quarters of the Italian allies. (Liv. Epit. lxxii, lxxiii.; Appian. B. C. i. 41, 51; Diod. xxxvii. Exc Phot. p. 539; Sisenna ap. Sonium, p. 70.) At this time it was evidently a place of importance and a strong fortress, but it was so severely punished for its defection by Sulla after the final defeat of the Samnites, that Strabo speaks of it as in his time utterly deserted. (Strab. v. p. 238, 250.) We learn, however, that a colony was sent there by Caesar, and again by Augustus; but apparently with little success, on which account it was recolonized under Nero. It never, however, enjoyed the rank of a colony, but appears from inscriptions to have been a municipal town of some importance in the time of Trajan and the Antonines. To this period belong the remains of an aqueduct and a fine Roman bridge, still visible; while the lower parts of the modern walls present considerable portions of polygonal construction, which may be assigned either to the ancient Samnite city, or to the first Roman colony. The modem city is still the see of a bishop, and contains about 7000 inhabitants. (Lib. Colon, pp. 233, 260; Zumpt, de Coloniis, pp. 307, 360,

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392; Inscrr. ap. Romnnelli, vol. ii. pp. 470,471; Craven's Abruesi, vol. ii. p. 83; Hoare's Classical Tour, vol. i. p. 227.)

The coins of Aesernia, which are found only in copper, and have the legend Aiskunino, belong to tlie period of the first Koinan colony; the style of their execution attests tlie influence of the neighbouring Campania. (Millingcn, Namismatique de Malie., p. 218.) [E.H.B.]

AE'SICA, was a Roman frontier castle in the lino of Hadrian's rampart, and probably corresponds to the site of Grcatcltester. It is, however, placed by some antiquaries at the Danish village of Netherby, on the river Esk. It is mentioned by George of Ravenna, and in the Notitia Imperii, and was the quarters of Conors I. Astorura. [W. B. D.]

AESIS {Alois, Strab.; Aialvos, App.), a river on the ciist coast of Italy, which rises in tlie Apennines near Matilica, and flows into tlie Adriatic, between Ancona and Sena Gallica; it is still called the Ksino. It constituted in early times the boundary between the territory of the Senonian Gauls and Picenmn; and was, therefore, regarded as the northern limit of Italy on the side uf the Adriatic. But after the destruction of the Seuones, when the confines of Italy were extended to the Rubicon, the Acsis became the boundary between the two provinces of Umbria and Picenum. (Strab. v. pp. 217, 227, 241; Plin. iii. 14. 19; Mela, ii. 4; Ptol. iii. 1. § 22, where the name is corruptly written "actios; Liv. v. 35.) According to Silius Italicus (viii. 446) it derived its appellation from a Pelasgian chief of that name, who had ruled over this part of Italy. There can be no doubt that the Aesinus of Appian (B. C. i. 87), on the banks of which a great battle was fought bet ween Metellus and Carinas, the lieutenant of Carbo, in B. c. 82, is the same with tlie Aesis of other writers.

In the Itinerary we fiud a station (ad Aesim) at the mouth of the river, which was distant 12 M. P. from Sena Gallica, and 8 from Ancona. (Itin. Ant p. 316.) [E.H.B.]

AESIS or AE'SIUM (Af<m, Ptol.; Atoiov,Strab.; Eth. Aesinas, -atis), a town of Umbria situated on tlie N. bank of the river of the same name, about 10 miles from its mouth. It Is still called Iesi, and is an episcopal town of some consideration. Pliny mentions it only as an ordinary municipal town: but we learn from several inscriptions that it was a Roman colony, though the period when it attained this rank is unknown. (Inscrr. ap. Gruter. p. 446. 1, 2; Orelli, no. 3899, 3900; Zuinpt, de Colon, p. 359.) According to Pliny (//. N. xi. 42, 97) it was noted for the excellence of its cheeses.

The form Aesium, which is found only in Strabo, is probably erroneous, Atotbeing, according to Kramer, a corrupt reading tor Aa'urinv, (Strab. v. p. 227; Ptol. iii. 1.6 53; Plin. hi. 14. 19.) [E.H.B.]

AEStTAE (Aurtrw or Abrrrof, Ptol. v. 19. § 2; camp. Bochart. Phaleg. ii. 8), were probably the inhabitants of the region upon the borders uf Chaldaea, which tlie Hebrews designated as the laud of Us- (JobX 1, xv. 17; Jerem. xxv. 20), and which the 70 translators render by the word Attains (comp. Winer, Bibl. Realwurterb. vol. ii. p. 755). Strabo (p. 767) calls the liegioAesitarum luacina(Ma-tii'Vj). They were a nomade race, but from their possessing houses and villages, had apjiarently settled pastures on the Chaldaeon border. [W. B. D.]

AESON or AKSO'NIS (Aftw, AtVwWs: EUi. AiVwKios), a town of Magnesia in Thessaly, the name of which is derived from Aeson, Uie father of

Jason. (Apoll. Khod. i. 411, and Schol.; Steplk B. 8. v.)

AE'STUI (this is the correct reading), a people of Germany, consisting of several tribes (Aestuorum gentcs), whose manners are minutely described by Tacitus {Germ. 45). They dwelt in the NE. of Germany, on the SE. or E. of the Baltic, bordering on tlie Venedi of Sarmatia. In their general appearance and manners they resembled the Suevi: their language was nearer to that of Britain. They worshipped the mother of the gods, in whose honour they wore images of boars, which served them as amulets in war. They had little iron, and used clubs instead of it. They worked more patiently at tilling the land than the rest of tlie Germans. They gathered amber on their coasts, selling it for the Roman market, with astonishment at its price. They called it Glessum, perhaps Gifts, i. e. glass. They are also mentioned by Cassiodorus ( Var. v. Ep. 2.) They were tlie occupants of the present coast of Prussia and Courland, as is evident by what Tacitus says about their gathering amber. Their name is probably collective, and signifies the East men. It appears to have reached Tacitus in the form Easte, and is still preserved in the modern Esthen, the German name of the Esthonians. The statement of Tacitus, that the language of the Aestni was nearer to that of Britain, is explained by Dr. Latham by the supposition that the language of the Acstui was then called Prussian, and that the similarity of this word to British caused it to be mistaken for the latter. On the various questions respecting the Aestui, see Ukert, vol. iii. pt. i. pp. 420—422, and Latham, The Germania of Tacitus, p. 166, seq. [P. ti.]

AE'SULA (Eth. Aesulanus), a city of Latiuin, mentioned by Pliny among those which in his time had entirely ceased to exist (iii. 5. § 9). It appears from his statement to have been one of the colonics or dependencies of Alba, but its name does not occur in the early history of Rome. In the Second Punic War, however, the Arx Aesulania is mentioned by Livy as one of the strongholds which it was deemed necessary to occupy with a garrison on the approach of Hannibal. (Liv. xxvi. 9.) The well-known allusion of Horace (Carm. iii. 29. 6) to tlie "declive arvum Aesulae," shows that its name at least wan still familiarly known in his day, whether the city still existed or not, and points to its situation in full view of Rome, probably on the hills near Tibur. Gell has with much probability placed it on the slope of the mountain called Monte Ajftiano, about 2 miles SE. of Tivoli, which is a conspicuous object in the view from Rome, and the summit of which commands an extensive prospect, so as to render it well adapted for a look-out station. The Arx mentioned by Livy was probably on the summit of the mountain, and the town lower down, where Gell observed vestiges of ancient roads, and " many foundations of the ancient walls in irregular blocks.'* Nibby supposes it to have occupied a hill, called in the middle ages Cotte Faustiniano, which is a.lower offshoot of the same mountain, further towards the S.; but this position does not seem to correspond so well with the expressions either of Livy or Horace. (Gell, Topography of Rome, p. 9; Nibby, Dintorni at Roma, vol. i. p. 32.) Velleius Paterculus (L 14) speaks of a colony being sent in the year 246 B. q. to Aesulum; but it seems impossible that a place so close to Rome itself should have been colonized at so late a period, and that no subsequent mention

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