« السابقةمتابعة »
nnr Ptolemy reckon it among the Komnn colonies in Sicily. From the time of Augustus we find no historical mention of it under the Roman empire, but its continued existence is attested by the geographers and Itineraries, and as long as Sicily remained subject to the Greek empire, Agrigentum is still mentioned as one of its most considerable cities. (Strab. vi. p. 272; Plin. H. If. iii. 8. § 14; Ptol. iii. 4. § U; Irin. Ant. p. 88; Tab. Peut.;Const. Porph. de Prov. a. 10.) It was one of the first places that fell into the hands of the Saracens on their invasion of Sicily in 827, and was wrested from them by the Normans under Roger Guiscard in 1086. The modem city of Girgenti still contains about 13,000 inhabitants, and is the see of a bishop, and capital of one of the seven districts or Intendenze into which Sicily is now divided.
The situation of Agrigentum is well described by Poljbius (ix. 27). It occupied a bill of considerable extent, rising between two small rivers, the Acragas and Hypsas, of which the southern front, though of small elevation, presented a steep escarpment, running nearly in a straight line from E. to W. From hence the ground sloped gradually upwards, though traversed by a cross valley or depression, towards a much more elevated ridge which formed the northern portion of the city, and was divided into two summits, the north-western, on which stands the modem city of Girgenti, and the north-eastern, which derived from a temple of Athena, that crowned its height, the name of the Athenaean hill (A 'AOyvcuos A»>oj, Died. xiii. 85). This summit, which attains to the height of 1200 feet above the sea, and is the most elevated of the whole city, is completely precipitous and inaccessible towards the N. and E., and could be approached only by one steep and narrow path from the city itself. Hence, it formed the natural citadel or acropolis of Agrigentum, while the gentle slopes and broad valley which separate it from the southern ridge,—now covered with gardens and fruit-trees,—afforded ample space for the extension and development of the city itself. Great as was the natural strength of its position, the whole city was surrounded with walls, of which considerable portions still remain, especially along the southern front: their whole circuit was about 6 miles. The peculiarities of its situation sufficiently explain the circumstances of the two great sieges of Agrigentum, in both of which it will be observed that the assailants confined all their attacks to the southern and south-western parts of the city, wholly neglecting the north and east. Diodorus, indeed, expressly tells us that there was only one quarter (that adjoining the river Hypsas) where the walls could be approached by military engines, and assaulted with any prospect of success. (Diod. xiii. 85.)
Agrigentum was not less celebrated in ancient times for the beauty of its architecture, and the splendour and variety of its buildings, both public and private, than for its strength as a fortress. Pindar calls it " the fairest of mortal cities" (koaAiffTa Bpmur woAfW, Pyth. xii. 2), though many of its most striking ornaments were probably not erected till after his time. The magnificence of the private dwellings of the Agrigentines is sufficiently attested by the saying of Empedocles already cited: their public edifices are the theme of admiration with many ancient writers. Of its temples, probably the most ancient were that of Zeus Atabyrios, whose worship they derived from Rhodes, and that of Athena, both of which stood on the highest
summit of the Athenaean hill above the city. (Polyb. f. c.) The temple of Zeus Polieus, the construction of which is ascribed to Pbalaris (Polyaen. v. 1. § 1), is supposed to have stood on the hill occupied by the modern city of Girgenti, which appears to have formed a second citadel or acropolis, in some measure detached from the more lofty summit to the east of it. Some fragments of ancient walls, still existing in those of the church of Sta Maria de1 Grtci, are considered to have belonged to this temple. But far more celebrated than these was the great temple of the Olympian Zeus, which was commenced by the Agrigentines at the period of their greatest power and prosperity, but was not quite finished at the time of the Carthaginian invasion in B. c. 406, and in consequence of that calamity was never completed. It is described in considerable detail by Diodorus, who tells ns that it was 340 feet lung, 160 broad, and 120 in height, without reckoning the basement. The columns were not detached, but engaged in the wall, from which only half of their circumference projected: so gigantic were their dimensions, that each of the flutings would admit a man's body. (Diod. xiii. 82; Polyb. ix. 27.) Of this vast edifice nothing remains but the basement, and a few fragments of the columns and entablature, but even these suffice to confirm the accuracy of the statements of Diodorus, and to prove that the temple must not only have greatly exceeded all others in Sicily, but was probably surpassed in magnitude by no Grecian building of the kind, except that of Diana at Ephesus. A considerable portion of it (including several columns, and three gigantic figures, which served as Atlantes to support an entablature), appears to have remained standing till the year 1401, when it fell down: and the vast masses of fallen fragments were subsequently employed in the construction of the mole, which protects the present port of Girgenti. (Fazell. vol. L p. 248; Smyth's Sicily, p. 203.)
Besides these, we find mention in ancient writers of a temple of Hercules, near the Agora, containing a statue of that deity of singular beauty and excellence (Cic Verr. iv. 43), and one of Aesculapius without the walls, on the south side of the city (Cic. L c.; Polyb. i. 18), the remains of which are still visible, not far from the bank of the river Acragas. It contained a celebrated statue of Apollo, in bronze, the work of Myron, which Verres in vain endeavoured to carry off. Of the other temples, tha ruins of which are extant on the site of Agrigentum, and are celebrated by all travellers in Sicily, the ancient appellations cannot be determined with any certainty. The most conspicuous are two which stand on the southern ridge facing the sea: one of these at the S. E. angle of the city, is commonly known as the temple of Juno Lacinia, a name which rests only on a misconception of a passage of Pliny (//. N. xxxv. 9. § 36): it is in a half ruined state, but its basement is complete, and many of its columns still standing. Its position on the projecting angle of the ridge, with a precipitous bank below it on two sides, gives it a singularly picturesque and striking character. A few hundred paces to the W, of this stands another temple, in far better preservation, being indeed the most perfect which remains in Sicily; it is commonly called the temple of Concord, from an inscription said to have been discovered there, but which (if authentic) is of Roman date, while both this temple and that just described must certainly be referred to the most flourishing period of Agrigentine history, or the fifth century B. C. They are both of the Doric order, and of much the same dimensions: both are peripteral, or surrounded with a portico, assisting of 6 columns in front, and 13 on each side. The existing vestiges of other temples are mud less considerable: one to the W. of that of Concord, of which only one column is standing, is commonly regarded as that of Hercules, mentioned by Cicero. Its plan and design have been completely ascertained by recent excavations, which have proved that it was much the largest of those remaining at Agrigentum, after that of the Olympian Zeus: it had 15 columns in the side aud 6 in front. Another, a little to the north of it,
A A. Modern City of Girgenti.
D. Ancient Port.
E. Modern Port.
FF. Ancient Burial Ground.
G G. Kiver Hypsas (F. Drago).
H H. River Acragas (F. <U S. Biagxo).
1. Temple of Zeus Poliena.
2. of Athena (?).
3. of Ceres and Proserpine
of which considerable portions have been preserved, and brought to light by excavation on the spot, bears the name, though certainly without authority, of Castor and Pollux: while another, on the opposite side of a deep hollow or ravine, of which two columns remain, is styled that of Vulcan. A small temple or aedicula, near the convent of S. Nicola, is commonly known by the designation of the Oratory of Phalaris: it is of insignificant size, and certainly of Roman date. The church of StBlati, or S.Bxagio, near the eastern extremity of the Athenaean hill, is formed out of the cella of an ancient temple, which is supposed, but without any authority, to have been dedicated to Ceres and Proserpine. (For full detail* concenung these temples, and the other ruins still
4. Temple of Juno Lacmia.
5. of Concord.
6. of Hercules.
7. of Zeus Olymptns.
8. of Castor and Pollux.
9. of Vulcan.
10. of Aesculapius.
11. called the Oratory of Phalaris.
12. Tomb of Theron.
13. Supposed site of Piscina described by Diodoru*.
visible at Girgenti, see Swinburne's Travels, vol. ii. p. 2*0—291; Smyth's Sicily, p. 207—212; D'OrrihVs Sicmla, p. 89—103; Siefert, Atragat, p. 24 —3d: and especially Serra di Fsico, ArUiehita dtlla Sieitia, voL iii., who gives the results of recent labours on the spot, many of which were unknown to former writers.)
Kelt to the temple of the Olympian Zens, the public work of which Diodorus speaks with the greatest admiration (ii. 25, xiii. 72), was a piscina, or reservoir of water, constructed in the time of Tberon, which was not less than seven stadia in circumference, and was plentifully stocked with fish, and frequented by numerous swans. It had fallen into decay, and become filled with mud in the time of the historian, but its site is supposed to be still indicated by a deep hollow or depression in the S. western portion of the city, between the temple of Vulcan and that of Castor and Pollux, now converted into a garden. Connected with this was an extensive system of subterranean sewers and conduits for water, constructed on a scale far superior to those of any other Greek city: these were called Phaeaces, from the name of their architect Phaeax.
It was not only in their public buildings that the Agrigentines, during the flourishing period of their city, loved to display their wealth and luxury. An ostentations magnificence appears to have characterised their habits of life, in other respects also: and showed itself especially in their love of horses and chariots. Their territory was celebrated for the excellence of its breed of horses (Virg. Am. iii. 704), an advantage which enabled them repeatedly to bear away the prize in the chariot-race at the Olympic games: and it is recorded that after one sf these occasions the victor Exaenetus was accompanied on his triumphant entry into his native city by no less than three hundred chariots, all drawn by white horses. (Died. xiii. 82.) Not less conspicuous and splendid were the hospitalities of the more wealthy citizens. Those of Theron are celebrated by Pindar (OL iii 70), but even these probably fell short of those of later days. Gellias, a citizen noted even at Agrigentum for his wealth and splendour of living, is said to have lodged and feasted at once five hundred knights from Gela, and Antisthenes, on occasion of his daughter's marriage, furnished a banquet to all the citizens of Agrigentum in the several quarters they inhabited. (Died. xiii. 83, 84.) These luxurious habits were not unaccompanied with a refined taste for the cultivation of the fine arts: their temples and public buildings were adorned with the choicest works of sculpture and painting, many of which were carried off by Himileo to Carthage, and some of them after the fall of that city restored to Agrigentum by Scipio Afeicanus. (Diod. xiii. 90; Cic. Verr. iv. 43; Plin. B. N. xxxT. 9. s. 36.) A like spirit of ostentation was displayed in the magnitude and splendour of their sepulchral monuments; and they are said to bare even erected costly tombs to favourite horses and to pet birds. (Diod. xiii. 82; Plin. B. If. 42. (4; Solin. 45. § 11.) The plain in front of the city, occupying the space from the southern wall to the confluence of the two rivers, was full of these sepulchres and monuments, among which that of Tberon was conspicuous for its magnitude (Diod. xiii. 86): the name is now commonly given to the only structure of the kind which remains, though it is of inconsiderable dimensions, and belongs, in all probability, to the Roman period.
For this extraordinary wealth Agrigentum was indebted, in a great measure, to the fertility of its territory, which abounded not only in corn, as it continued to do in the time of Cicero, and still does at the present day, but was especially fruitful in vines and olives, with the produce of which it supplied Carthage, and the whole of the adjoining parts of Africa, where their cultivation was as yet unknown. (Diod. xi. 25, xiii. 81.) The vast multitude of slaves which fell to the lot of the Agrigentines, after the great victory of Himera, contributed greatly to their prosperity, by enabling them to bring into careful cultivation the whole of their extensive and fertile domain. The vallies on the banks of its river furnished excellent pasture for sheep (Pind. Pyth. xii. 4), and in later times, when the neighbouring country hud ceased to be so richly cultivated, it was noted for the excellence of its cheeses. (Plin. II. If. xi. 42. 97.)
It is difficult to detennine with precision the extent and boundaries of the territory of Agrigentum, which must indeed have varied greatly at different times : but it would seem to have extended as far as the river Himera on the E., and to have been bounded by the Ualycus on the W.; though at one time it must have comprised a considerable extent of country beyond that river; and on the other hand Heraclea Minoa, on the eastern bank of the Baiycus, was for a long time independent of Agrigentum. Towards the Ulterior it probably extended as far as the mountain range in whklb those two rivers have their sources, the Nebrodes Mons, or Alontt Madonia, which separated it from the territory of Himera. (Siefert, Akragat. p. 9—11.) Among the smaller towns and places subject to its dominion are mentioned Motyum and Kruessl's, in the Ulterior of the country, Cajiicus, the ancient fortress of Cocalus (erroneously supposed by many writers to have occupied the site of the modem town of Girgenti), Ecnomus on the borders of the territory of Gela, and subsequently Phintias, founded by the despot of that name, on the site of the modern Alicata.
Of the two rivers which flowed beneath the walls of Agrigentum, the most considerable was the Acraoas, from whence according to the common consent of most ancient authors the city derived its name. Hence it was worshipped as one of the tutelary deities of the city, and statues erected to it by the Agrigentines, both in Sicily and at Delphi, in which it was represented under the figure of a young man, probably with horns on his forehead, as we find it on the coins of Agrigentum. (Pind. OL ii. 16, Pyth. xii. 5, and Schul. ad luce.: Etnpedocles op. IHoff. Laert viii. 2. § 63; Steph. Byz. v. 'AKpdyat; Aclian. V. H. ii. 33; Castell. Xumm. Sic. Vet. p. 8.) At its month was situated the Port or Emporium of Agrigentum, mentioned by Strabo and Ptolemy; but notwithstanding the extensive commerce of which this was at one timo the centre, it had little natural advantages, and must have been mainly formed by artificial constructions. Considerable remains of these, half buried in sand, were still visible in the time of Fnzello, but have since in great measure disappeared. The modern port of Girgenti is situated above three miles further west. (Strab. vi. pp. 266, 272; PtoL, iii. 4. § 6; Fazell. vi 1. p. 246; Smyth's Sicily, pp. 202,203.)
Among the natural productions of the neighbourhood of Agrigentum, we find no mention in ancient authors of the mines uf sulphur, which are at the present day one of the chief sources of prosperity to GirgeiUi; but its mines of salt (still worked at a place called Aborangi, about 8 miles north of the city), are alluded to both by Pliny and Solinus. (Plin. H. N. xxxL 7. s. 41; Solin. 5. §§ 18, 19.) Several writers also notice a fountain in the immediate neighbourhood of the city, which produced Petroleum or mineral oil, considered to be of great efficacy as a medicament for cattle and sheep. The source still exists in a garden not far from Girgenti, and is frequently resorted to by the peasants for the same purpose. (Dioscorid. i. 100; Plin. H, N. xxxv. 15. s. 51; Solin. 5. § 22; Fazell. de Reb. Sicul. vi. p. 261 ; Ferrara, Campi Flegrei della Sicilia, p. 43.) A more remarkable object is the mud volcano (now called by the Arabic name of Maccalubba) about 4 miles N. of Girgenti, the phenomena of which are described by Solinus, but unnoticed by any previous writer. (Solin. 5. § 24; Fazell. p. 262; Ferrara, /. c. p. 44; Smyth's Sicily, p. 213.)
Among the numerous distinguished citizens to whom Agrigentum gave birth, the most conspicuous is the philosopher Kmpedocles: among his contemporariet we may mention the rhetorician Polus, and the physician Acron. Of earlier date than these was the comic poet Deinolochus, the pupil, but at the same time the rival, of Epicharmus. Philinus, the historian of the First Punic War, is the latest writer of eminence, who was a native of Agrigentum.
. The extant architectural remaius of Agrigentum have been already noticed in speaking of its ancient edifices. Besides these, numerous fragments of buildings, some of Greek and others of Roman date, are scattered over the site of the ancient city: and great numbers of sepulchres have been excavated, some in the plain below the city, others within its walls. The painted vases found in these tombs greatly exceed in number and variety those discovered in any other Sicilian city, and rival those of Campania and Apulia.
But with this exception comparatively few works of art have been discovered. A sarcophagus of marble, now preserved in the cathedral of Girgenti, on which is represented the story of Phaedra and Hippolvtus, has been greatly extolled by many travellers, but its merits are certainly over-rated.
There exist under the hill occupied by the modern city extensive catacombs or excavations in the rock, which have been referred by many writers to the ancient Sicanians, or ascribed to Daedalus. It is probable that, like the very similar excavations at Syracuse, they were, in fact, constructed merely in the process of quarrying stone for building purposes.
The coins of Agrigentum, which are very numerous and of beautiful workmanship, present as their common type an eagle on the one side and a crab on the other. The one here figured, on which the eagle is represented as tearing a hare, belongs un
doubtedly to the most flourishing period of Agrigentine history, that immediately preceding the siege and capture of the city by the Carthaginians, B. c. 406. Other coins of the same period have a quadriga on the reverse, in commemoration of their victories at the Olympic games. [E. H. B.J
AGRTKIUM fATpfrwr), a town of Aetolia, situated towards the NE. of Aetolia, near the Achelous. Its position is quite uncertain. From its name we might conjecture that it was a town of the Agraei; but the narrative in Polybiua (v. 7) would imply that it was not so far north. In B.C. 314 we find Agrinium in alliance with the Acarnanians, when Cassander marched to the assistance of the latter against the Aetolians. As soon as Cassander returned to Macedonia, Agrinium was besieged by the Aetolians,and capitulated; but the Aetolians treacherously put to death the greater part of the inhabitants. (Diod. xix. 67, 68; Leake, Northern Greece, voL i. p. 156.)
AGRIO'PHAGI (Peripl. Mar. Er. p. 2), were the same people as the Creophagi or flesh-eaters of Aethiopia Troglodytica. In summer they drove their herds down to the pastures of the Astaboras; in the rainy season they returned to the Aethiopian mountains cast of that river. As their name and dietimplv they were hunters and herdsmen. [akThiopia.] [W.R D.]
AGRIPPINENSIS COLONIA. [coloxia.]
AGY'RIUM ('Aytiptov. Eth. 'Ayvptrwos Agrrinensis), A city of the interior of Sicily now called S. Filippo dArgirb. It was situated on the summit of a steep and lofty hill, between Enna and Centuripa, and was distant 18 Roman miles from the former, and 12 from the latter. (Tab. Peut. The Itin. Ant. p. 93, erroneously gives only 3 for the former distance.) It was regarded as one of the most ancient cities of Sicily, and according to the mythical traditions of the inhabitants was visited by Heracles on his wanderings, who was received by tho inhabitants with divine honours, and instituted various sacred rites, which continued to be observed in the days of Diodorus. (Diod. iv. 24.) Historically speaking, it appears to have been a Sicelian city, and did not receive a Greek colony. It is first mentioned in B. C. 404, when it was under the government of a prince of the name of Agyris, who was on terms of friendship and alliance with Dionysius of Syracuse, and assisted him on various occasions. Agyris extended his dominion over many of the neighbouring towns and fortresses of the interior, so as to become the most powerful prince in Sicily after Dionysius himself, and the city of Agyrium is said to have been at this time so wealthy and populous as to contain not less than 20,000 citizens. (Diod. xiv. 9, 78, 95.) During the invasion of the Carthaginians under Mago in B. c. 392, Agyris continued steadfast to the alliance of Dionysius, and contributed essential service against the Carthaginian general. (Id. xiv. 95, 96.) From this time we hear no more of Agyris or his city during the reign of Dionysius, but in B. C 339 we find Agyrium under the yoke of a despot named ApoUoniades, who was complied by Timoleon to abdicate his power. The inhabitants were now declared Syracusan citizens: 10,000 new colonists received allotments in its extensive and fertile territory, and the city itself was adorned with a magnificent theatre and other public buildings. (Diod. xvi. 82, 83.)
At a later period it became subject to Ptuntias, king of Agrigentum, but was one of the first cities to throw off his yoke, and a few years afterwards we find the Agyrinaeans on friendly terms with Hieron king of Syracuse, for which they were rewarded by the gift of half the territory that had belonged to Ameselom. (Diod. xxii. Exe. Hoesch. pp. 495,499.) Under the Roman government they continued to be a nourishing and wealthy community, and Cicero speaks of Agyrium as one of the most considerable cities of Sicily. Its wealth was chiefly derived from the fertility of its territory in corn: which previous to the arrival of Verres found employment for 250 Dinners (aratores), a number diminished by the exactions of his praetorship to no more than 80. (Cic. Ferr. in. 18, 27—31, 51, 52.) From this period we have little further notice of it, in ancient times. It is classed by Pliny among the " populi stipendiarii" of Sicily, and the name is found both in Ptolemy and the Itineraries. In the middle ages it became celebrated for a church of St. Philip with a miraculous altar, from whence the modem name of the town is derived. It became in consequence a great resort of pilgrims from all parte of the island, and is still a considerable place, with the title of a city and above 6000 inhabitants. (Plin. iii. 8.14; Ptol. iii. 4. § 13; FazeH it Ktb. SictiL vol. i. p. 435; Urtolani, Biz. ittta Sic!lia,f. 111.) The historian Diodorus Siculua was a native of Agyrium, and has preserved to us several particulars concerning bis native town. Numerous memorials were preserved there of the pretended visit of Heracles: the impression of the feet of his oxen was still shown in the rock, and a lake or pool four stadia in circumference was believed to have been excavated by him. A Temenos or sacred grove iu the neighbourhood of the city was consecrated to Geryones, and soother to Iobxus, which was an object of peculiar veneration: and annual games and sacrifices were celebrated in honour both of that hero and of Heracles himself. (Diod. i. 4, iv. 24.) At a later period Timofcon was the chief benefactor of the city, where he constructed several temples, a Bouleuterion and Agora, as well as a theatre which Diodorus tells us ns the finest in all Sicily, after that of Syracuse, (Id. xvi. 83.) Scarcely any remains of these buildings are now visible, the only vestiges of antiquity being a few undefined fragments of masonry. The ruined castle on the summit of the hill, attributed by same writers to the Greeks, is a work of the Saracens in the tenth century. (Arnico, ad FozeU. p. 440; La. Topogr. Sic. vol. i. p. 22.) [E. H. B.]
range which separates Upper Egypt from the Red Sea. It was in the parallel of Thebes, and S. of the modem Koseir (Phifoteras), in lat. 29$. The district occupied by the Icthyophagi commenced a little to the north of the headland of Aias. [W. B. D.]
ALABANDA (i; 'AAdsoroo, To. 'A\igavoa: EtL 'AAaSafdci/f, Alubandeus, Alabandensis, Alabandenus: Adj. Alabandicus), a city of Caria, was situated 160 stadia S. of Tralles, and was separated from the plain of Mylasa by a mountain tract. ■Strabo describes it as lying at the foot of two hills (as some read the passage), which are so close together as to present the appearance of an ass with its panniers on. The modem site is doubtful; but Arab Mud, on a large branch of the Marauder, now called the Tthina, which joins that river on the &. bank, is supposed by Leake to represent Alabanda; and the nature of the ground corresponds well enough with Strabo's description. The Tshimi may probably be the Marsyas of Herodotus (v. 118). There are the remains of a theatre and many other buildings on this site; but very few inscriptions. Alabanda was noted for the luxurious habits of the citizens. Under the Roman empire it was the seat of a Conventus Juridicus or court house, and one of the most flourishing towns of the province of Asia. A stone called " lapis Alabandicus," found in the neighbourhood, was fusible (Pliu. xxxvi. 8. s. 13), and used for making glass, and for glazing vessels.
Stephanus mentions two cities of the name of Alabanda in Caria, but it does not appear that any other writer mentions two. Herodotus, however (vii. 195), speaks of Alabanda in Caria (ruv iv Ttj Kaplp), which is the Alabanda of Strabo. The words of description added by Herodotus seem to imply that there was another city of the name; and in fact he speaks, in another passage (viii. 136), of Alabanda, a large city of Phrygia. This Alabanda of Phrygia cannot be the town on the Tthina, for Phrygia never extended so far as there. [G. L.J
ALABASTRA or ALABASTRON ('AAaSaoTyxi, 'AXiSao-Tour *6\ii, Ptol. iv. 5. § 59; Plin. v. 9 s. 11, xxxvii. 8. s. 32), a city of Egypt, whose site is differently stated by Pliny and Ptolemy. Pliny places it in Upper Egypt; Ptolemy in the Heptanomis. It would accordingly be either south or north of the Mons Alabastrites. It was doubtless connected with the alabaster quarries of that mountain. If Alabastra stood in the Heptanomis, it was an inland town, connected with the Nile by one of the many roads which pervade the region between that river aud the Arabian hills. [W. B. D]
ALABASTRITES MONS ('AAcxsoo-Tpifw Spot, Ptol. iv. 5. § 27), formed a portion of the limestone rocks which run westward from the Arabian hills into Upper and Middle Egypt. This upland ridge or spur was to the east of the city of Hermopolis Magna, in lat. 27$, and gave its name to the town of Alabastra. It contained large quarries of the beautifully veined and white alabaster which the Egyptians so largely employed for their sarcophagi and other works of art. The grottoes in this ridge are by some writers supposed to occupy the site of the city Alabastra (see preceding article), but this was probably further from the mountain. They were first visited by Sir Gardner Wilkinson in 1824. The grottoes of Koum^tl-Ahnuxr are believed to be the same with the ancient excavations. They contain the names of some of the earliest Egyptian kings, but arc inferior in size and splendour to the similar