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the Moils Albanus in the singular, as designating the highest peak. The whole mass is clearly of volcanic origin, and may be conceived as having once formed a vast crater, of which the lofty ridge now called Monte Ariano constituted the southern side, while the heights of Mt Algidus, and those occupied by Rocca Priori and Tusculum continued the circle on the E. and NE. Towards the sea the original mountain wall of this crater has given way, and has been replaced by the lakes of Albano and Nemi, themselves probably at one time separate vents of volcanic eruption. Within this outer circle rises an inner height, of a somewhat conical form, the proper Mons Albanus, which presents a repetition of the same formation, having its own smaller crater surrounded on three sides by steep mountain ridges, while the fourth (that turned towards Rome) has no such barrier, and presents to view a green mountain plain, commonly known as the Campo di Annibale, from the belief—wholly unsupported by any ancient authority—that it was at one time occupied by the Carthaginian general. The highest of the surrounding summits, which rises to more than 3000 feet above the level of the sea, is the culminating point of the whole group, and was occupied in ancient times by the temple of Jupiter Latiaris. (Cic. pro Mil. 31; Lucan. i. 19S.) It is from hence that Virgil represents Juno as contemplating the contest between the Trojans and Latins (Aen. xii. 134), and the magnificent prospect which it commands over the whole of the surrounding country renders it peculiarly fit for such a station, as well as the natural site for the central sanctuary of the Latin nation. For the same reason we find it occupied as a military post on the alarm of the sudden advance of.Hannibal upon Rome. (Liv. xxvi. 9.)

There can be no doubt that the temple of Jupiter Latiaris* had become the religious centre and place of meeting of the Latins long before the dominion of Rome: and its connection with Alba renders it almost certain that it owed its selection for this purpose to the predominance of that city. Tarquinius Superbus, who is represented by the Roman annalists as first instituting this observance (Dion. Hal. iv. 49), probably did no more than assert for Home that presiding authority which had previously been enjoyed by Alba. The annual sacrifices on the Alban Mount at the Feriae Latinae continued to be celebrated long after the dissolution of the Latin league, and the cessation of their national assemblies: even in the days of Cicero and Augustus the decayed Muuicipia of Latium still sent deputies to receive their share of the victim immolated on their common behalf, and presented with primitive simplicity their offerings of lambs, milk, and cheese. (Liv. v. 17, xxi. 63, xxxii. 1; Cic. pro Plane. 9, de Divin, 111; Dion. HaL iv. 49; Suet. Claud. 4.)

Another custom which was doubtless derived from a more ancient period, but retained by the Romans, was that of celebrating triumphs on the Alban Mount, a practice which was, however, resorted to by Roman generals only when they failed in obtaining the honours of a reeular triumph at Rome. The first person who introduced this mode of evading the authority of the senate, was C. Papi

* Concerning the forms, Latiaris and Latialis, see Orell. OnomatL vol. ii. p. 336; Ernest, ad Suet. Calig. 22.

rius Maso, who was consul in B. c. 231: a more illustrious example was that of Marcellus, after the capture of Syracuse, B. c. 211. Only five instances in all are recorded of triumphs thus celebrated. (Val. Max. iii. 6. § 5; Liv. xxvi. 21, xxxiii. 23, xlii. 21 j Fast. Capit.)

The remains of the temple on the summit of the mountain were still extant till near the close of the last century, but were destroyed in 1783, when the church and convent which now occupy the site were rebuilt. Some of the massive blocks of peperino which formed the substruction may be still seen (though removed from their original site) in the walls of the convent and buildings annexed to it. The magnificence of the marbles and other architectural decorations noticed by earlier antiquarians, as discovered here, show that the temple must have been rebuilt or restored at a comparatively late periixl. (Piranesi, Antichita di Albano; Kibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. pp. 112, 113.) But though the temple itself has disappeared, the Roman road which led up to it is still preserved, and, from the absence of all traffic, remains in a state of singular perfection. The polygonal blocks of hard basaltic lava, of which the pavement is composed, are fitted together with the nicest accuracy, while the "crepidines" or curb-stones are still preserved on each side, and altogether it presents by far the most perfect specimen of an ancient Roman road in its original state. It is only 8 feet in breadth, and is carried with much skill up the steep acclivity of the mountain. This road may be traced down to the chesnnt woods below Rocca di Papa: it appears to have passed by Pajaisolo, where we find a remarkable monument cut in the face of the rock, which has been conjectured to be that of Cn. Cornelius Scipio, who died in B. c 176. (Nibby, I c. pp. 75, 114, 115; Gell, Top. of Rome, p. 32.)

Numerous prodigies are recorded by Roman writers as occurring on the Alban Mount: among these the falling of showers of stones is frequently mentioned, a circumstance which has been supposed by some writers to indicate that the volcanic energy of these mountains continued in historical times; but this suggestion is sufficiently disproved by historical, as well as geological, considerations. (Danbeny on Volcanoes, p. 169, seq. [E. H. B.J

A'LBICI, a barbaric people, as Caesar calls them (B. C. i. 34), who inhabited the mountains above Massilia {Marseille'). They were employed on board their vessels by the Massilienses to oppose Caesar's fleet, which was under the command of D. Brutus, and they fonght bravely in the sea-fight off Massilia, B. c. 49 (Caes. B. C. i. 57). The name of this people in Strabo is 'AA&fir and 'AA6"(oi/roi (p. 203); for it does not seem probable that he means two peoples, and if he does mean two tribes, they are both mountain tribes, and in the same mountain tract. D'Anville infers that a place called Albiosc, which is about two leagues from Riez, in the department of Basses Alpes, retains the traces of the name of this people. [G. L.]

AL'BII, ALBA'NI MONTES (t* "AA&a Son, Strab. vii. p. 314; To 'AACavar 6pos, Ptol.ii.l4.§ 1), was an eastern spur of Mount Carvancas, and the termination of the Carnic or Julian Alps on the confines of IHyricum. The Albii Montes dip down to the banks of the Saave, and connect Mount Carvancas with Mount Cctius, inclosing Aemona, and forming the southern boundary of l'annonia. [W. B. D.I

ALBLXGAUNUM. [albium Ingaunum.]

Al.BTXlA. a considerable river of Etruria, still alted the A Ibrgna, rising in the mountains at the back of Saturnia, and Sowing into the sea between the Partus Telamonis and the remarkable promontory called Mons Argentarius. The name is found only in the Tabula; but the Almixia or Almina of the Maritime Itinerary (p. 500) is evidently the same river. [E. H. B.]

AL BINTE MEL IUM. [albium Intemeulm.]

ATBION. [britannia.]

AL BIS ('AASis or 'AASios: die Elbe), one of the prat rivers of Germany. It flows from SE. to XW., and empties itself in the Northern or German Ocean, having its sources near the Schneekoppe on the Bohemian ride of the Rietengebirge. Tacitus (Germ. 41) places its sources in the country of the Hermonduri, which is too far east, perhaps because he confounded the Elbe with the Eger; Ptolemy (ii. 11) puts them too far from the Asciburgian mountains. Dion Cassias (lv. I) more correctly represents it as rising in the Vandal mountains. Strabo (p. 290) describes its course as parallel, and as of equal length with that of the Rhine, both of which notions are erroneous. The Albis was the most easterly and northerly river reached by the Romans in Germany. They first reached its banks in n. c.9, under Claudius Drain.-!, but did not cross it. (Liv. Epit. 140; Dion Cass. L c.) Domitius Ahenobarbus, B. c. 3, was the first who crossed the river (Tacit. Ann. iv. 44), and two years later he came to the banks of the lower Alois, meeting the fleet which had sailed up the river from the sea. (Tacit. L c.; Veil. Pat. ii. 106; Dion Cast. lv. 28.) After that time the Romans, not thinking it safe to keep their legions at so great a distance, aDd amid such warlike nations, never again proceeded as far as the Albis, so that Tacitus, in speaking of it, savs ; fttsmen mclulum et notum olim; nunc tantvm o£kr. [L. S.]

.VLBIUM INGAUNUM or ALBINGAUNUM £AAtcyjavvor, Strab., Ptol.: Albenga), a city on the coast of Liguria, about 50 miles SW. of Genua, and the capital of the tribe of the Ingauni. There can be no doubt that the full form of the name, Albium Ingaunum (given by Pliny, iii. 5. s. 7, and Varro, de R. R. iii. 9. § 17), is the correct, or at least the original one: but it seems to have been early abbreviated into Albingaunum, which is found in Strabo, Ptolemy, and the Itineraries, and is retained, with little alteration, in the modem name of Albenga. Strabo places it at 370 stadia from Vada Sabbata (Vado), which is much beyond the truth: the Itin. Ant. gives the same distance at 20 M. P., which is rather less than the real amount. (Strab. p. 202; Ptol. iii. 1. § 3; Itin. Ant. p. 295; Itin. Marit. p. 502; Tab. Peut.) It appears to have been a municipal town of some importance under the Roman empire, and was occupied by the troops of Otho during the civil war between them and the Vitellians. (Tac. But. ii. 15.) At a later period it is mentioned as the birthplace of the emperor Proculus. (Vopisc Procul. 12.) The modern city of Albenga contains only about 4000 inhabitants, but is an episcopal see, and the capital of a district. Some inscriptions and other Roman remains have been found here: and a bridge, called the Ponte Lungo, is considered to be of Roman construction. The city is situated at the mouth of the river Ceuia. which has been erroneously supposed to be the Mem; La of Pliny: that river, which still retains its ancient name, flows into the sea at An

dora, about 10 m. further S. Nearly opposite to Albenga is a little island, called Gallinaria InSula, from its abounding in fowls in a half-wild state: it still retains the name of Gallinara. (Varr. L c; Columell. viii. 2. § 2.) [E. H. B.]

A'LBIUM INTEME'LIUM or ALBINTEME'LIUM ("AAsW 'lm/i4\ioi>, Strab.; 'AA&Wf/iT)Aiok, Ptol.: Vintimiglia), a city on the coast of Liguria, situated at the foot of the Maritime Alps, at the mouth of the river Rutuba. It was the capital of the tribe of the Intemelii, and was distant 16 Roman miles from the Portus Monocci {Monaco, Itin. Marit. p. 502). Strabo mentions it as a city of considerable size (p. 202), and we leam from Tacitus that it was of municipal rank. It was plundered by the troops of the emperor Otho, while resisting those of Vitellius, on which occasion the mother of Agricola lost her life. (Tac. But. ii. 13, Agr. 7.) According to Strabo (i. c), the name of Albium applied to this city, as well as the capital of the Ingauni, was derived from their Alpine situ ■ ation, and is connected with the Celtic word Alb or Alp. There is no doubt that in this case also the full form is the older, but the contracted name Albintemelium is already found in Tacitus, as well as in the Itineraries; in one of which, however, it is corrupted into Vintimilium, from whence comes the modem name of Vintimiglia. It is still a considerable town, with about 5000 inhabitants, and an episcopal see: but contains no antiquities, except a few Roman inscriptions.

It is situated at the mouth of the river Roja, the Rutuba of Pliny and Luean, a torrent of a formidable character, appropriately termed by the latter author "cavus," from the deep bed between precipitous banks which it has hollowed out for itself near its mouth. (Plin. I.e.; Lncan. ii. 422.) [E.H.B.]

ALBUCELLA ('AASoMAa: Villa Fatila), a city of the Vaccaci in Hispania Tarraconensis (Itin. Ant.; Ptol.), probably the Arbocala ('ApgowtdAv) which is mentioned by Polybius (iii. 14), Livy (xxi. 5), and Stephanos Byzontinus («. v.), as the chief city of the Vaccaei, the taking of which, after an obstinate resistance, was one of Hannibal's first exploits in Spain, B. c. 218. [P. S.]

A'LBULA. 1. The ancient name of the Tiber.


2. A small river of Picenum, mentioned only by Pliny (iii. 13. s. 18), who appears to place it N. of the Truentus, but there is great difficulty in assigning its position with any certainty, and the text of Pliny is very corrupt: the old editions give AlBulates for the name of the river. [picenum.]

8. A small river or stream of sulphureous water near Tibur, flowing into the Anio. It rises in a pool or small lake about a mile on the left of tho modem road from Rome to Tivoli, but which was situated on the actual lino of the ancient Via Tibnrtina, at a distance of 16 M. P. from Rome. (Tab. Peut.; Vitruv. viii. 3. § 2.) The name of Albula is applied to this stream by Vitruvius, Martial (i. 13. 2), and Statius (Si/r. i. 3.75), but more commonly we find the source itself designated by the name of Albnlae Aquae (to "aasuuao Sierra, Strab. p. 208). The waters both of the lake and stream are strongly impregnated with sulphur, and were in great request among the Romans for their medicinal properties, so that they were frequently carried to Rome for the use of baths: while extensive Thermae were erected near the lake itself, the ruins of which arc still visible. Their construction is commonly ascribed, but without authority, to Agrippa. The waters were not hot, like most sulphureous sources, hut cold, or at least cool, their actual temperature being about 80° of Fahrenheit; but so strong is the sulphureous vapour that exhales from their surface as to give them the appearance alluded to by Martial, of " smoking." (Canaqve sulphureu Albula fumat aquie, I c.) The name was doubtless derived from the whiteness of the water: the lake is now commonly known as the Solfatara. (Plin. xxxi. 2. s. 6; Strab. /. e.j Pans. iv. 35. § 10; Suet. Aug. 82, Ner. 81; Vitruv. /. c.) No allusion is found in ancient authors to the property possessed by these waters of incrusting all the vegetation on their banks with carbonate of lime, a process which goes on with such rapidity that great part of the lake itself is crusted over, and portions of the deposit thus formed, breaking off from time to time, give rise to little floating islands, analogous to those described by ancient writers in the Cutilian Lake. For the same reason the present channel of the stream has required to be artificially excavated, through the mass of travertine which it had itself deposited. (Nibby, Dintorni di Roma, vol. i. pp. 4—6; Gell, Top. of Rome, pp. 40, 41.)

It has been generally supposed that the Albunea of Horace and Virgil was identical with the Albuia, but there appear no sufficient grounds for this assumption: and it seems almost certain that the 11 domus Albuneae resonantis " of the former( Carm. i. 7. 12) was the temple of the Sibyl at Tibur itself, in the immediate neighbourhood of the cascade [tibuu], while there are strong reasons for transferring the grove and oracle of Faunus, and the fountain of Albunea connected with them (Virg. A en. vii. 82), to the neighbourhood of Ardea. [ardea.] [E. H. B.]

ALBUM PROMONTORIUM(Plin.v. 19. s. 17), was the western extremity of the mountain range Anti-Libauus, a few miles south of ancient Tyre (Palai-Tyrus). Between the Mediterranean Sea and the base of the headland Album ran a narrow road, in places not more than six feet in breadth, cut out of the solid rock, and ascribed, at least by tradition, to Alexander the Great. This was the communication between a small fort or castle called Aiexandroschene (Scandoiium) and the Mediterranean. (It. Hieros. p. 584.) The Album Promontoriuin is the modern Cape Blanc, and was one hour's journey to the north of Ecclippa (Dshib or Zib). [W. B. D.]

ALBUKNUS MONS, a mountain of Lucania, mentioned in a well-known passage of Virgil ( Georg. iii. 146), from which we learn that it was in the neighbourhood of the river Silarus. The name of Monte Allmrno is said by Italian topographers to be still retained by the lofty mountain group which rises to the S. of that river, between its two tributaries, the Tanagro and Colore. It is more commonly called the Monte di Pottiglione, from the small town of that name on its northern declivity, and according to Cluverius is still covered with foresta of holm-oaks, and infested with gad-flies. (Cluver. Itol. p. 1254; Komanclli, vol. i. p. 418; Zannoni, Carta del Regno di Napoli.)

We find mention, in a fragment of Lucilius, of a Ponrus Albuiinus, which appears to have been situated at the mouth of the river Silarus, and probably derived its name from the mountain. (Lucil. Fr. p. 11, ed. Gerlach; Probus, ad Virg. G. iii. 146; Vib. Seq. p. 18, with Oberlin.) [E. H. B]

ALCCMENAECAA/couwoJ: Etk. 'aako/««i«).

1. A town of the Deuriopes on the Erigon, in Paeonia in Macedonia. (Strab. p. 327.)

2. [alalcomenae, No. 2.]

ALCYO'NIA ('AAjruovi'a), a lake in Argolis, near the Lemaean grove, through which Dionysus was said to have descended to the lower world,in order to bring back Semele from Hades. Pausanias says that its depth was unfathomable, and that Nero had let down several stadia of rope, loaded with lead, without finding a bottom. As Pausanias does not mention a lake Lema, but only a district of this name, it is probable that the lake called Alcyonia by Pausanias is the same as the Lerna of other writers. (Pans. ii. 37. § 5, seq.; Leake, Morea, vol. ii p. 473.)

ALCYO'NIUM MARK [coedithiacbb SiNus.]

A'LEA ('AAt'a: Eth. 'A\ios, 'Aktdrns), a town I of Arcadia, between Orchomenus and Stymphalus, I contained, in the time of Pausanias, temples of the I Ephesian Artemis, of Athena Alea, and of Dionysus. It appears to have been situated in the territory either of Stymphalus or Orchomenus. Pausanias (viii. 27. § 3) calls Alea a town of the Maenalians; but we ought probably to read Asea in this passage, instead of Alea. The ruins of Alea have been discovered by the French Commission in the middle of the dark valley of Shotim, about a mile to the NE. of the village of Buydti. Alea was never a town of importance; but some modem writers have, though inadvertently, placed at this town the celebrated temple of Athena Alea, which was situated at Tegea. [teoea.] (Paus. viii. 23. § 1; Steph. B. s. v.; Boolaye, Reckerchet, cfc., p. 147; Leake, Peloponntiiaca, p. 383.)

ALEMANN1. Tgkkmania]

ALETilA or ALA'LIA ('AAaAhj, Herod.; 'AAAaAia, Steph. B.; 'AAfpi'a, Ptol.: 'AAAaAmioy, Steph. B.), one of the chief cities of Corsica, situated on the E. coast of the island, near the mouth of the river Rhotanus (Tavignano'). It was originally a Greek colony, founded about B. c. 564, by the Phocaeans of Ionia. Twenty years later, when the parent city was captured by Harpagus, a large portion of its inhabitants repaired to their colony of Alalia, where they dwelt for five years, but their piratical conduct involved them in hostilities with the Tyrrhenians and Carthaginians; and in a great sea-fight with the combined fleets of these two nations they suffered such heavy loss, as induced them to abandon the island, and repair to the S. of Italy, where they ultimately established themselves at Velia in Lucania. (Herod, i. 165—167; Steph. B.; Diod. v. 13, where KdXapts is evidently a corrupt reading for 'AAopi'n.) No further mention is found of the Greek colony, but the city appears again, under the Roman form of the name, Alexia during the first Punic war, when it was raptured by the Roman fleet under L. Scipio, in B. c. 259, an event which led to the submission of the whole island, and was deemed worthy to be expressly mentioned in his epitaph. (Zonar. viii. 11; Flor. ii. 2; Orell. Inscr. no. 552.) It subsequently received a Roman colony under the dictator Sulla, and appears to have retained its colonial rank, and continued to be one of the chief cities of Corsica under the Roman Empire. (Plin. iii. 6. s. 12; Mela, ii. 7; Diod. v. 13; Seneca, Com. ad Eelv. 8; PtoL iii. 2. § 5; Itin. Ant. p. 85.)

Its ruins are still visible near the south bank of the river Tavignano: they are now above half a m3e from the coast, though it was in the Roman tews a seaport. [E. H. B.]

ALE'SI A a town of the Mandubu, who

were neighbours of the Aedui. The name is sometoes written Alexia (flora, iii- 10, note, ed. Duker, and elsewhere). Tradition made it a very old town, fa the story was that it was founded by Hercules <a his return from Iberia; and the Celtae were said to venerate it as the hearth Qarla) and mother city of all Celtica (Diod. iv. 19). Strabo (p. 191) destriies AJesia as situated on a lofty hill, and surrounded by mountains and by two streams. This description may be taken from that of Caesar (B. G. rii 69), who adds that in front of the town there **j a plain about three Roman miles long. The lite corresponds to that of Mont Auxou, close to which is a place now called Ste B^ine dAlise. The two streams are the Lozerain and the Loze, both tributaries of the Yoime. In n. c 52 the Galli made a last effort to throw off the Roman yoke, and after they had sustained several defeats, a large face under Vercingetorix shut themselves up in A.: After a vigorous resistance, the place was nrrendered to Caesar, and Vercingetorix was made a prisoner (J3. G. vii. 68—90). Caesar does not speak of the destruction of the place, but Floats sir3 that it was burnt, a circumstance which is not inconsistent with its being afterwards restored. Pliny (xxxiv. 17. s. 48) speaks of Aleaia as noted for j.. i: ing articles of harness for horses and beasts of burden. Traces of several Roman roads tend towards this town, which appears to have been finally robed about the ninth century of our aera. [G. L. J

ALE'SLAE (*AA«n'ai), a village in Laconia, on the road from Therapne to Mt. Taygetus, is placed bj Leake nearly in a line between the southern extremity of Sparta and the site of Bryseae. (Paus. iii. 20. § 2; Leake, Ptloponnesiaca, p. 164.)

ALESlAEUM CAAwiouw), called ALEI'SIUM ('AAfiffiO*) by Homer, a town of Pisatis, situated Bpon the road leading across the mountains from EHs to Otympia. Its site is uncertain. (Strab. p. 341; Horn. It ii. 617; Steph. B. M.v. 'aavm*.)

ALESIUS MOXS. [mantineia.]

ALETIUM (jAXiiriov PtoL iii. 1. § 76; Elk Aktinus, Plin. iii. 11. s. 16), a town of Calabria, mentioned, both by Pliny and Ptolemy, among the inland cities which they assign to the Salentini. Its ■te (erroneously placed by Cluver at Lecce) is dearly marked by the ancient church of Sta Maria ieUc Lixza (formerly an episcopal see) near the village of JHtciotti, about 5 miles from GaJlipoli, on the road to Otranto. Here many ancient remains hare been discovered, among which are numerous tombs, with inscriptions in the Messapian dialect. (D'Anville, A not. Geogr. de IItalic, p. 233; Mommsen, Vnler-liaX. Itiatekte, p. 57.) The name is eoTuptly written Baletium in the Tab. Peut., which however correctly places it between Neretum (A'ardo) and Uxentum (Ugento), though the distances given are inaccurate. In Strabo, also, it is probable that we should read with Kramer *h\nria for 2aA^rttt, which he describes as a town in the interior of Calabria, a short distance from the sea. (Strab. | - 2*2; and Kramer, ad fcc) [E. H. B.]

ALEXANDREIA, -IA or -EA 'AA«(<tro>«ia: Eth. 'AA<^av5p*vt, more rarely 'AAclavlSpfrnj, JA\t£a*&pn0TTi$t tAA*lat>b'piay6s, 'AAf{o*'5pu'oy, 'AAafapSjpfaff, Alexandrinus; ftm. 'AAtfarSp/s: the modern EUSkandtrisk), the Hellenic capital of Egypt, was founded by Alexander the Great in B. C.

332. It stood in lat. 31° N.; long. 47° E. (Arrian, iii. 1, p. 156; Q. Curt. iv. 8. § 2.) On his voyage from Memphis to Canobus he was struck by the natural advantages of the little town of Rhacotis, on the north-eastern angle of the Lake Mareotis. The harbour of Rhacotis, with the adjacent island of Pharos, had been from very remote ages (Horn. Od. iv. 355) the resort of Greek and Phoenician sea-rovers, and in the former place the Pharaohs kept a permanent garrison, to prevent foreigners entering their dominions by any other approach than the city of Naucratis and the Canobic branch of the Kile. At Rhacotis Alexander determined to construct the future capital of his western conquests. His architect Deinocrates was instructed to survey the harbour, and to draw out a plan of a military and commercial metropolis of the first rank. (Vitruv. ii.prooem.; Solin.c.32; Aram. Marc.xxii.40; Val.Max.i.4.§l.) The ground-plan was traced by Alexander himself; the building was commenced immediately, but the city was not completed until the reign of the second monarch of the Lagid line, Ptolemy Philadelphus. It continued to receive embellishment and extension from nearly every monarch of that dynasty. The plan of Deinocrates was carried out by another architect, named Cleomenes, of Naucratis. (Justin. xiii.4.§ 1.) Ancient writers (Strab. p. 791, seq.; Plut. Alex. 26; Plin. v. 10. s. 11) compare the general form of Alexandreia to the cloak (chlamys) worn by the Macedonian cavalry. It was of an oblong figure, rounded at the SE. and SW. extremities. Its length from E. to W. was nearly 4 miles; its breadth from S. to N. nearly a mile, and its circumference, according to Pliny (/. c.) was about 15 miles. The interior was laid out in parallelograms: the streets crossed one another at right angles, and were all wide enough to admit of both wheel carriages and foot-passengers. Two grand thoroughfares nearly bisected the city. They ran in straight lines to its four principal gates, and each was a plethram, or about 200 feet wide. The longest, 40 stadia in length, ran from the Canobic gate to that of the Necropolis (E.—W.): the shorter, 7—8 stadia in length, extended from the Gate of the Sun to the Gate of the Moon (S.—N.). On its northern side Alexandreia was bounded by the sea, sometimes denominated the Egyptian Sea: on the south by the Lake of Marca or Mareotis; to the west were the Necropolis and its numerous gardens; to the east the Eleusinian road and the Great Hippxlrome. The tongue of land upon which Alexandreia stood was singularly adapted to a commercial city. The island of Pharos broke the force of the north wind, and of the occasional high floods of the Mediterranean. The headland of Lochias sheltered its harbours to the east; the Lake Mareotis was both a wet-dock and the general haven of the inland navigation of the Nile-valley, whether direct from Syene, or by the royal canal from Arsinoe on the Red Sea, while various other canals connected the lake with the Deltaic branches of the river. The springs of Rhacotis were few and brackish; but an aqueduct conveyed the Nile water into the southern section of the city, and tanks, many of which are still in use, distributed fresh water to both public and private edifices. (Hirtius, B. Alex. c. 5.) The soil, partly sandy and partly calcareous, rendered drainage nearly superfluous. The fogs which periodically linger on the shores of Cyrene and Egypt were dispersed by the north winds which, in the summer season, ventilate the Delta; while the salubrious

[merged small][merged small][graphic][merged small]

1. Acrolochias.

2. Lochias.

3. Closed or Royal Port

4. Antirhodos.

5. Royal Dockyards.

6. Poseideion.

7. City Dockyards and Quays.

8. Gate of the Moon.

9. Kibotus, Basin of Eunostua.

10. Great Mole (Heptastadium)

11. Eunostus, Haven of Happy Return.

12. The Island Pharos.

13. The Tower Pharos (Diamond-Rock).

14. The Pirates' Bay.

15. Rcgio Judaeorum.

16. Theatre of the Museum.

We shall first describe the harbour-line, and next the interior of the city.

The harbour-Hue commenced from the east with the peninsular strip Lochias, which terminated seaward in a fort called Aero-Lochias, the modern Pharillon. The ruins of a pier on the eastern side of it mark an ancient landing-place, probably belonging to the Palace which, with its groves and gardens, occupied this Peninsula. Like all the principal buildings of Alexandreia, it commanded a view of the bay and the Pharos. The Lochias formed, with the islet of Antirhodus, the Closed or Royal Port, which was kept exclusively for the king's gallies, and around the head of which were the Royal Dockyards. West of the Closed Port was the Poseideion or Temple of Neptune, where embarking and returning mariners registered their vows. The northern point of this temple was called the Tunonium, whither the defeated triumvir M. Antonios retired after his flight from Actium in B. C. 31. (Plat.

17. Stadium.

18. Library and Museum.

19. Soma.

20. Dicasterium.

21. Panium.

22. Serapeion.

23. RhacStis.

24. Lake Mareotis.

25. Canal to Lake Mareotis.

26. Aqueduct from the Nile.

27. Necropolis.

28. Hippodrome.

29. Gate of the Sun.

30. Amphitheatre.

31. Emporium or Royal Exchange.

32. Arsinoeum.

Anton. 69.) Between Lochias and the Great Male (Heptastadium) was the Greater Harbour, and on the western Bide of the Mole was the Haven of Happy Return (eCvooros), connected by the basin («i'€wtoj, chest) with the canal that led, by one arm, to the Lake Mareotis, and by the other to the Canonic arm of the Nile. The haven of " Happy Return M fronted the quarter of the city called Rhacotis. It was less difficult of access than the Greater Harbour, as the reefs and shoals lie principally NE. of the Pharos. Its modern name is the Old Port. From the Poseideion to the Mole the 6hore was lined with dockyards and warehouses, upon whose broad granite quays ships discliarged their lading without the intervention of boats. On the western horn of the Eunostus w-ere public granaries.

Fronting the city, and sheltering both its harbours, lay the long narrow island of Pharos. It was a dazzling white calcareous rock, about a mile from Alexandreia, and, according to Strabo, 150 stadia

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