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in this detestable commerce. Therefore these colonies, if ever they should be established, must be, we repeat, of a respectable character; they must be of a peaceable cast,-farmers, labourers, artisans, &c. But we will give Mr. Hutton's too brief account of the present state of Sierra Leone, from which we shall see how successfully that colony is advancing in the accomplishment of its grand object; and then we will allow him also to express in his own words, his more detailed opinions on the measures to be adopted, if the projected establishment at Paintrey proceed.
"During my stay at Sierra Leone, I witnessed His Excellency's (Sir Chas. McCarthy) great attention to the discharge of his various public duties; and on one occasion I had the honour of riding into the country, as far as Regent's Town, in company with His Excellency, to lay the foundation-stone of one of the public buildings there. Among other improvements in this colony, may be mentioned the markets, the prison, the court-house, the police, the hospital, and the establishment of a gazette. But these improvements are trifling in comparison with the education of so many of the natives. In riding up the mountains, I met nearly 200 children, and was highly gratified to see them so neatly dressed, and so correct in demeanour. The inhabitants daily solicit admission for their children into the schools. Many hundreds are annually instructed to read and write, and the girls are taught to sew. The eldest boys are instructed in mechanics during certain hours in the day, which do not interfere with their scholastic (school) duties. The streets are broad and well-arranged, but the houses, generally, are built of wood, and raised about half a foot or more from the ground, so as to let the water, during the rainy season, pass under them. These houses, indeed, differ in one particular from any other that I have seen, in being moveable from one part of the town to the other; and I was surprised when I first saw about 300 men, all in a body, moving along with a house upon their heads and shoulders. These men were principally Krew men (inhabitants of Settra Krew), who go to Sierra Leone and other places for work, although their own country is at least 400 or 500 miles distant."
This is all of any importance that Mr. Hutton gives of Sierra Leone and its establishments; but it is highly gratifying, and proves how much may be accomplished by judicious management.
"If the king of Ashantee can ultimately be prevailed upon to allow factories to be established at Paintrey, the gentlemen at Cape Coast would find this a delightful country retreat, as they could ride out one day, and return the next; which, from experience, I am convinced would contribute greatly to their health, during their residence in Africa. Indeed, if a good road were once cut, the merchants and officers at Cape Coast might ride to Paintrey in their carriages. This, as well as being a great improvement, would act as an example to the natives, and the Ashantces in particular, who visit the coast, to keep the paths open, and make similar improvements throughout the country.
"As His Majesty's Government have now taken the forts from the African Committee, I am induced to recommend their attention to this part of Africa, particularly as a free and open communication might so easily be made all
the way to Paintrey; between which and Cape Coast an extensive field is open for cultivation and civilization. I say cultivation and civilization, because I am decidedly of opinion, that to civilize the natives of Africa, we must first show them how to cultivate the country, by employing a number of persons expressly for this purpose, when the incredulous and ignorant negro will be convinced of the advantages which will result from industry, and civization will then follow as a matter of course. I conceive it would be an object of great importance to establish a missionary or a school-master at Paintrey, as the situation is desirable, it being only nine hours ride from Cape Coast; the town pleasantly situated, and the people peaceable, cleanly and well-behaved.
"In short, here is all that can reasonably be desired in a country like Africa, and no country is better provided for by nature. On the sea coast there is an abundant supply of fish of almost every description; great quantities of which are dried and conveyed into the interior; and there is no want of poultry, sheep, hogs, and goats, although in some parts there is a scarcity of bullocks, and in this part of Africa, in particular, there is not a horse to be procured. But the country spontaneously produces the most delicious fruits, consisting of pine-apples, oranges, guavas, paupaus, benanas, sugar-apples, sour-soups, &c.; besides game of almost all descriptions, such as deer, bushhogs, hares, partridges, wild-ducks, pigeons, &c.; and there is no want of beautiful lakes and rivers to refresh the soil. Neither is there any want of rain for nearly six months in the year. It has also been proved that the soil is capable of producing the choicest vegetables. In a word, there can be no doubt that, by cultivation and industry, our settlements in this part of Africa may not only be the means of civilizing the natives, but also become as valuable to our nation as any of our colonial possessions.
"I would suggest, on the transfer of the African forts to His Majesty, that at least from fifty to one hundred persons of different descriptions, such as farmers, mechanics, and labourers, be sent out to our head-quarters at Cape Coast, to be distributed and disposed of at Coumassie, and in various parts of the country, as the governor-in-chief shall think most advisable. And as it is understood that our affairs in that country are in future to be under the command and direction of Sir Charles McCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, if we may judge from the advantages which have resulted to that colony from the wisdom and humanity which have characterized His Excellency's measures during his late government there, we may hope for the most beneficial effects from the new arrangement which has taken place;-not that, in making this observation, I would wish to be understood as reflecting in the slightest degree upon the measures of the present chief-governor, who, I have already stated, has made many excellent improvements.
"Should I be told that there are many mechanics and labourers sufficient at Cape Coast, I deny that there are enough, and those who are there are only Company's slaves, who have been very imperfectly taught. There are, however, neither farmers nor turners, who are highly necessary. For example, among the presents for the king of Ashantee was a turning lathe ; but what was the use of it without a mechanic who perfectly understood how to work it? If indeed such a person had accompanied the embassy, the Ashantees might then have been taught to turn ivory, and the king would have been able with greater facility to have carried into effect his grand design of
building a palace, the door-posts and pillars of which were to be of ivory, and the windows and doors to be cased in gold." 147–152.
Mr. Hutton believes that a considerable check may be given to the wanton sacrifice of life, by a direct representation to the chief of the Ashantees, in the name of the king of England, expressive of his displeasure, and backed by presents, with the assurance of his continued friendship, if he refrain from such barbarities. Nay he thinks, that much good was actually done by the first embassy, when our horror at the executions was very strongly expressed. At least, no cruelties were exhibited in the presence of the second embassy, either for their entertainment, or for the display of the chief's unresisted despotism. The Moors Mr. H. affirms to be as hostile to these barbarities as ourselves, and are ready to second our representations. But how is this singular alliance to be brought about?
"The most effectual arguments, which I conceive could be urged to the king of Ashantee, to abolish human sacrifices (and which I have no doubt would be successful, at least in reducing the number of victims, if it did not remove the practice altogether,) are the following: First, that the sacrifice of so many people gives great offence to the king of England, who is surprised that the king of Ashantee, of whom he has heard a high character in other respects, should consent to the immolation of so many of his subjects, this being contrary to humanity, and to his own interest and happiness as a great king. It should also be represented that the life of the meanest subject of the king of England is as sacred as his own, and that he cannot himself injure any individual with impunity. At the same time, it would have great influence with his sable majesty, if a portrait of our sovereign were sent out with this message,-that the king of England, on being informed of the king of Ashantee and his captains having taken the oath of allegiance and fidelity to the crown of Great Britain, and that no human sacrifices were allowed during the visit of the late embassy, was so well pleased that he had directed, among other presents, a portrait of himself to be sent to the king, as a mark of his approbation of the great improvement in the manners and customs of the Ashantee Court since the visit of the former mission.-A message to this effect would no doubt have great influence with the king of Ashantee, who has the greatest reverence for the name of the king of England. A portrait, therefore, coming directly from His Majesty in this way, accompanied by other presents, would most probably be successful. Secondly, as an additional inducement to the king of Ashantee to comply with our wishes, an offer should be made to double the amount of the pay he annually receives from the forts, which is only 2881. And what is this sum annually to our Government, in consideration of the humane object of saving the lives of so many human beings, as well as the advantages which must, in every point of view, result to the nation from our connexion with so powerful a monarch? Thirdly, it might be urged to the king, that in sacrificing so many of his people he weakens his own power, and destroys those who might otherwise be of the greatest service to him in battle, or in clearing and cultivating the ground, and making a road to Cape Coast, which His Majesty has promised to do; and it might also be added,
that a compliance with the king of England's wishes, would always secure His Majesty's friendship and good-will for the king of Ashantee: but if human sacrifices were continued, His Britannic Majesty could not any longer continue his friendship, or allow his officers to visit Ashantee again."
If barbarity can be checked by such influence, in the name of humanity, let that of the king of Great Britain be so employed! Let all practicable means be put into execution: The object is divine. Repress the traffic in human blood by force; this is the first step. Establish colonies at favourable points; that is the second. Let the colonists be of an industrious and peaceable character; let missionaries judiciously selected be sent out,-then, with the blessing of God upon their persevering efforts and kind sympathies, superstition, grossness, and barbarity, will retreat before their labours, as the shades of night before the advancing sun.
We cannot suffer a flippant remark of Mr. Hutton's, the only one in the book to be sure,-to pass without reprobation. In speaking of the improvements made at Cape Coast by the governor, he censures him for allowing an old fetish tree (i.e. a consecrated object) to stand in the way of some changes which he thinks desirable. "I can see no sufficient reasons why the improvement of the town should be prevented by a fetish tree, when the natives have so many other places to worship their wooden gods." Let Mr. Hutton consider the feelings that would be roused in catholic countries by the cutting down of a cross by the road side; or in his own by the wanton removal, or the overthrow, of a tomb-stone. Let their superstitions for the present be respected: better information will wear out these feelings of reverence for 'vain things that cannot profit,' while insult will only impress them the deeper.
ART. X.-"Théorie des Peines et des Récompenses, par M. J. Bentham; rédigée en François, d'après les Manuscrits, par M. E. Dumont."
66 UAND un Anglois et un François pensent de même, il faut bien qu'ils aient raison;" "When an Englishman and a Frenchman think the same, they must be in the right," says a witty philosopher. If there be any truth in this observation, it is a presumptive argument in favour of the work now before us,-the work of an Englishman given to the world by a Frenchman, who not only think the same on one subject, and for one moment, but for a long series of years, and on all the points of a complicated and extensive system. M. Dumont, the editor of Mr. Benthain's works, evidently is a man of a philosophical and profound understanding : he writes in such a lively and elegant, and yet in such an accurate
style, that he might be secure of success and celebrity in any line of literature. But, impressed as it appears with a conviction that he could do more important service to mankind by making known to the world Mr. Bentham's writings, than by any composition of his own, he generously devoted himself to this object. He undertook a most laborious task, attended with peculiar difficulties-difficulties which to almost any other person would have seemed, and would not only have seemed but would have been, insuperable. When Mr. Bentham's manuscripts were confided to the care of M. Dumont, he found them (as he informs us in his preface) in a state utterly unfit for publication. In some parts the sense was so compressed as to be scarcely intelligible, except to an adept; in other places there were only a few notes or hints to supply the connexion, whole chapters were wanting, and the author was little disposed to afford assistance in supplying these deficiencies. His mind leading him to new things, he was averse from the retrograde labour of revision. Besides, whatever he had done never appeared to him worthy of himself or of the public; so that in all probability many of his works would never have been known to the world, if they had not been brought to light and life by his able and zealous friend. It was most fortunate for the author and for the public, that he found an editor in whom he could entirely confide, and who completely justified his confidence. Fully possessed of his system, and master of the art of writing, M. Dumont dilated what was compressed, explained what was obscure, supplied all that was deficient, and gave to this translation, or rather to this illustration, of Mr. Bentham's works, all the ease and freedom of an original composition; preserving in every part such a perfect unity of design, that we can hardly believe it to be the production of two minds.
In the year 1802 first appeared the "Traités de Législation civile et pénale, par M. J. Bentham, Jurisconsulte Anglois, publiés en François par E. Dumont, d'après les Manuscrits confiés par l'Auteur." At that time Mr. Bentham's name was little known on the continent: but his editor had the satisfaction to find that his own high opinion of the work was supported by the judgement of the foreign public; and in his main object, in his hope of diffusing widely the useful knowledge it contained, he was fully gratified. In a much shorter time than could have been expected, three thousand copies of the book were circulated; and it cannot be doubted that the work has considerably influenced public opinion on the continent, since it has been frequently cited in many official compositions on criminal and civil codes of legislation.
Encouraged by this success, he publishes this "Treatise on Punishments and Rewards." This, with the previous work, though they are given only as parts of his extensive design, form the most