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Agricultural Concerns.--Equally favourable. The system of farming, which was adopted at the outset, has now been proved to be well suited to the soil. In four years, a barren and hungry soil has been brought into a state fit for the growth of wheat, experiments of which are now making. All have subsisted entirely from the produce of their fields and gardens. The addition of ground will increase their advantages, and the prices of produce already begin to advance.
COLONY II. Physical and Moral State.-The general increase of health and strength very perceptible. The attendance of the clergy of different persuasions in the vicinity, publicly and privately, and the education of the children, are accompanied with the best success. Great regularity, civility, and cleanliness every where observable.
Their Domestic Circumstances are no less satisfactory. The first harvest was a very abundant one. With the exception of a few sick and aged, they have not at all required the aid of the society's funds. They had the immediate benefit of the improved regulations introduced gradually in the first colony, which was of course an important advantage.
The Agriculture and Manufactures are in an equally favourable condition with those of the first. These two colonies lie close together; the soil is of the same quality, and the cultivation in the same state of advancement. It is proposed to unite them, and place them under one administration.
COLONY III. The physical improvement of this colony is strikingly remarkable. The orphans are numerous. Many of these on their arrival were stunted in growth, feeble in constitution, and afflicted with disease. Their amendment was early visible. They thrive rapidly, get strong and vigorous, and show a peculiar aptitude for labour in the field and the spinning-room.
The Morals of this colony are not in so auspicious a state. Its institution is comparatively recent. Three families have been banished to Ommeschans; a measure, which has had a good effect upon those who were not the best among the remainder. Religious instruction and the school are strictly attended to, and cleanliness and regularity enforced.
Their Domestic Circumstances are however very satisfactory. They subsist entirely upon the fruit of their labours. Almost every family has one or more pigs.
Agriculture is nearly in the same state as in the second colony; except on about thirty farms, which are comparatively backward, from the nature of the soil, stiff and stubborn, but which promises eventually to be more productive than the rest. The season has also been unfavourable.
COLONY IV. This colony was established in the beginning of 1821, consisting at first of 75 small farms, and has lately been augmented by 40 more. The buildings and arrangements are all on the most improved plan. The health of the colonists is universally good; those who came well have continued so; while the sick and feeble have become sound and strong.
Religious and School Instruction is pursued with the same assiduity as in the other colonies, and with equally good effects. The domestic affairs of this colony are in a somewhat superior state even to the rest; so much assistance was not required in the outfit; not more than 20 florins each family have been advanced. The land is in an excellent state of cultivation-it has turned out remarkably good.
COLONY V. This colony is at Ommeschans, and is appropriated for the reception of vagrants, and such as are expelled from Fredericksoord. The stricter discipline introduced here has proved very effectual with the idle and refractory: several of these reformed vagrants and offenders have been preferred to the vacant cottages at Fredericksoord, as a reward for good conduct.
COLONY VI. consists of 63 small farms, and is at present occupied by 189 colonists; and will soon receive an increase of buildings and tenants. There is every symptom of the same satisfactory results as exist in the other colonies.
COLONY VII. has been laid out in the district of Doldersum, to consist of from 60 to 100 cottages.
By means of new roads and canals these colonies can now all communicate with each other, and the Zuyder Zee; and stretch along the great road from Paasloot to Doldersum, a length of twelve miles. This will afford some notion of the extent of country bringing into cultivation, which, five years ago, was a barren waste, and is now tenanted by a busy and industrious multitude of 2500 persons, entirely and exclusively deriving subsistence from their own labour.
The manufactures of the colonies are every where in a thriving state. With very slight exceptions, the whole clothing of the colonists is prepared in Fredericksocrd, and is equal to what could be procured from the manufactories of the towns. Weavers, dyers, tailors, &c. have acquired their skill and dexterity in the colonies; bricks, lime, peat, &c. are made and prepared in an admirable manner; and, in fact, it is necessary to import scarcely a single article.
Mr. Muller, a pupil of M. Van Tellenberg, has been more than a twelvemonth in the service of the society, and has been of the
greatest utility in every important particular. He is of an excellent character, active and energetic, and possessed of a knowledge of agricultural and colonial economy, equally honourable to himself and his zealous instructor. Muller was supported at Hofwyl, for three years, by an unknown philanthropist, who sent him thither for the express purpose of his being afterwards practically useful to the colonies of Fredericksoord: his benevolent views have been fully and gratefully realized.
So striking are the advantages of these establishments, that the orphan and municipal institutions of Holland are beginning to seize on them with avidity. By a letter of the Secretary's, dated Feb. 1823, we learn that arrangements on a more extended scale are making for the reception of vagrants at Ommeschans, and 1200 more are to be immediately sent there. We learn also,that engagements have just been completed on a still larger scale, for taking 4000 orphans at the rate of 60 florins a head, with 500 vagrants, and 1500 families gratuitously.
Can nothing of this kind be instituted in our own country? or in Ireland? We have poor enough, Heaven knows, and waste lands enough; and, happily, kind feeling and ready purses enough to prosecute a plan of similar extensive and paramount importance, What then is wanting? A leader, with personal activity and devotion to the object. Mr. Owen has it all-would that he were a little less visionary and universalizing! Encouragement has been publicly given to foreign colonization, involving, as it does, a crowd of objections-expense, hazard, peril, banishment, change of climate, &c.; while domestic colonization, obvious and accessible as it is, has scarcely been thought about. We shall recur to this important matter in a succeeding Number, and perhaps with a particular reference to Ireland; and in the mean while, we invite our readers to peruse a pamphlet, written by Mr. Herbert Saunders, entitled "An Address to the Imperial Parliament*," in which the subject and advantages of Home Colonies are discussed, though not exhausted.
Published by Sams, St. James's-street, 1821.
On the 26th of January, at his house at Berkeley, Dr. Edward Jenner, the discoverer of Vaccination, in his 74th year. If any man ever existed who possessed an original, and, we might almost add, an intuitive claim to the pretensions of a natural Historian and Physiologist, Dr. Jenner was that claimant. Nature had given him great genius, vast sagacity, much inclination, and great ardour in the prosecution of the subjects of Natural History, Physiology, and Pathology. His researches were consistent and connected. At an early age he was destined to the study of one department of the medical profession, Surgery. In the commencement of his studies, he was associated and connected with some late eminent characters, Dr. Parry of Bath, Dr. Hickes of Gloucester, and Dr. Ludlow of Corsham, near Bath: but, besides these, he was honoured with the peculiar friendship and patronage of the late Mr. John Hunter, of whose name it is nearly superfluous to mention that it stands highest in the rolls of surgical and philosophic reputation. Mr. Hunter, well aware of the extraordinary talents of Dr Jenner, then a pupil, offered to him patronage, connexion, and employment, in his professional and physiological pursuits. Dr. Jenner, however, preferred a residence at his native place, Berkeley; here he acquired not merely high local reputation, but, from the public observations and discoveries which he promulgated, great estimation in the superior ranks of philosophers and medical professors. After some less important communications to the Royal Society of London (of which he was early made a member) he imparted to them a complete Natural History of the Cuckoo, of which bird the laws and habits were previously unknown, and were involved in obscurity. The singular ingenuity of this paper, and the acute powers of observation which it developed in the observer, enhanced Dr. Jenner's reputation in the philosophic world. Dr. Jenner also communicated to his youthful friend and colleague, attached to him by congenial feeling and similarity of pursuit, the late highly-gifted Dr. Parry of Bath, his discovery of the internal diseased structure of the heart, which produces the disease called Angina Pectoris, and which was before unknown and conjectural. Dr. Parry, in a treatise on the subject, not only most honourably recorded Dr. Jenner's original detection of the cause of the disease, but confirmed its accuracy by subsequent and ingenious investigation. After a long and arduous inquiry into the disease termed Cow Pox, which is a common complaint in cows in Gloucestershire and some other counties, and which, to those who receive it from the cows in milking, appears, from long existing tradition, to confer complete security from the Small Pox, either natural or inoculated, Dr. Jenner determined to put the fact to the test of experiment, and accordingly inoculated
some young persons with the matter taken from the disease in the cows, in 1797. From the proof which these experiments afforded of the power of the Cow Pox Inoculation to protect the human being from the Small Pox contagion, Dr. Jenner was induced to bring this inestimable fact before the public in 1798. That this was promulgated with all the simplicity of a philanthropist, and with all the disinterestedness of the philosopher, every candid contemporary and observer will admit, and will unite in admiring his just pretensions to both characters. The first medical professors in the metropolis allowed, that, had Dr. Jenner kept his discovery in the disguise of empirical secrecy, he would have realized immense emoluments; but the pure and liberal feelings which the Doctor possessed spurned and rejected such considerations: and his general remunerations, even including the sums voted by Parliament, were well known to his confidential friends to be moderate in the extreme.
The meekness, gentleness, and simplicity of his demeanour, formed a most striking contrast to the self-esteem which might have arisen from the great and splendid consequences of his discovery. He was thankful and grateful for them in his heart; but to pride and vain-glory he seemed to be an utter stranger. On a recent interesting occasion, a short time before his death, the following were among the last words that he ever spoke to the writer of these lines. The nature of his services to his fellow-creatures had been the subject of conversation : " I do not marvel,” he observed, "that men are not grateful to me, but I am surprised that they do not feel gratitude to God, for making me a medium of good." No one could see him without perceiving that this was the habitual frame of his mind. Without it, it never could have been that in his most retired moments, and in his intercourse with the great and exalted of the earth, he invariably exhibited the same uprightness of conduct, singleness of purpose, and unceasing earnestness to promote the welfare of his species, to the total exclusion of all selfish and personal considerations. These qualities particularly arrested the attention of the many distinguished foreigners who came to visit him; and they were not less the cause of satisfaction and delight to his most intimate friends. His condescension, his kindness, his willingness to listen to every tale of distress, and the openhanded munificence with which he administered to the wants and necessities of those around him, can never be forgotten by any who have been guided and consoled by his affectionate counsel, or cherished and relieved by his unbounded charity. His sympathy for suffering worth, or genius lost in obscurity, was ever alive and no indication of talent or ingenuity, no effort of intellect, ever met his eye without gaining his notice, and calling forth, on numberless occasions, his substantial aid and assistance. He was not less generous in pouring forth the treasures of his mind. A long life, spent in the constant study of all the subjects of natural history, had stored it with great variety of knowledge. Here the originality of his views, and the felicity and playfulness of his illustrations and the acuteness of his remarks, imparted a character of genius to his commonest actions and conversations, which could not escape the most inattentive observer.
A national monument has been proposed in Parliament, to this distinguished