ما يقوله الناس - كتابة مراجعة
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47th Congress applied arch arch-ring assume axes beam bending body breaking-strength cast-iron centre of gravity columns components compression compressive strength cross-section deduced deflection determine diagonal diameter direction distance elastic limit equation equilibrium experiments external forces extrados factor of safety feet fibre force acting formula fracture girder given greatest bending-moment greatest stress header Hence imparted inertia intensity iron rivets joint length line of resistance load magnitude modulus of elasticity modulus of rupture moment of inertia motion neutral axis normal obtain parallel forces perpendicular piece plane plate point of application polygon pressure radius represent resultant right angles shearing shearing-force slope span specimens square inch steel strain supporting force tail-beams tensile strength tension tests tion truss unit velocity vertical voussoirs Watertown Arsenal weight working-strength wrought-iron yellow pine zero
الصفحة 17 - If three forces acting at a point are in equilibrium they can be represented in magnitude and direction by the three sides of a triangle taken in order.
الصفحة 360 - The contraction of area at fracture, previously overlooked, forms an essential element in estimating the quality of specimens. 5. The respective merits of various specimens can be correctly ascertained by comparing the breaking strain jointly with the contraction of area.
الصفحة 21 - If any number of forces acting at a point can be represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a POLYGON taken in order, they are in equilibrium.
الصفحة 363 - ... and the breaking strain, when gradually applied, increased, but at the same time it is rendered more liable to snap. 44. Iron, like steel, is softened, and the breaking strain reduced, by being heated and allowed to cool slowly. 45. Iron subject to the cold-rolling process has its breaking strain greatly increased by being made extremely hard, and not by being "consolidated,
الصفحة 362 - Steel plates hardened in oil, and joined together with rivets, are fully equal in strength to an unjointed soft plate, or the loss of strength by riveting is more than counterbalanced by the increase in. strength by hardening in oil. 40. Steel rivets, fully larger in diameter than those used in riveting iron plates of the same thickness, being found to be greatly too small for riveting steel plates, the probability is suggested that the proper proportion for iron rivets is not, as generally assumed,...
الصفحة 360 - The prevailing opinion of a rough bar being stronger than a turned one is erroneous. 9. Rolled bars are slightly hardened by being forged down. 10. The breaking strain and contraction of area of iron plates are greater in the direction in which they are rolled than in a transverse direction.
الصفحة 481 - Several kinds of wire rope are manufactured. The most pliable variety contains nineteen wires in the strand, and is generally used for hoisting and running rope. The ropes with twelve wires and seven wires in the strand are stiffer, and are better adapted for standing rope, guys, and rigging.
الصفحة 361 - In the fibrous fractures the threads are drawn out, and are viewed externally ; whilst in the crystalline fractures the threads are snapped across in clusters, and are viewed internally or sectionally. In the latter cases, the fracture of the specimen is always at right angles to the length ; in the former, it is more or less irregular.
الصفحة 222 - ... solid thus generated is equal to the product of the revolving area and the path described by the center of gravity of the plane area during the revolution.