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29999 av 1783 77177', · Rabbi Joden said, In the world to come, the holy blessed God shall cause Messiah the King to sit on his right hand, as it is written, " The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand.”! And to the same purpose are the words of R. Moses Haddarsan in Bereshith Rabba, on Gen. xviii.
ר'ברכיה בשם ר'לוי פתח ותתן לי מגן ישעך וימינך הסעדני .1 לעתיד לבא הקבה מושיב למלך המשיח לימיני שך נאם יהודה לאדני שב לימיני ואברהם ישב על שמאלו ופני אברהם מברכמות ואומר בן בני ישב על הימין ואני ישב על השמאל הקבח מפיסו ואומר לו בן בנך על ימיני ואני ער ימינך הוי
2nn niya. Rabbi Berechia, in the name of Rabbi Levi, opened that which is spoken, “ Thou shalt give me the shield of thy salvation, and thy right hand shall sustain me," Psal. xviii. 36. In the world to come, the holy blessed God shall cause Messias the King to sit on his right hand, as it is written, “ The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit thou on my right hand.” And Abraham shall sit at his left hand ; and the face of Abraham shall be pale, and he shall say, The Son of my son sits on the right hand, and I on the left. But God shall appease him, and say unto him, The Son of thy son sits at my right hand, and I am at thy right hand, as it is written, Thy loving kindness shall increase me.' And so on Psal. xvii. Rabbi Joden, in the name of R. Chijah, gays noivon 73903 avia napn nak tinyh
Messiah the King at his right hand, as it is said, “ The Lord said unto my Lord."?
Thus setting aside the mixture of their follies and impieties wherein we are not concerned, we have a sufficient suffrage from the Jews themselves, for our assigning of this prophetical Psalm to the Messiah, which is enough to stop the mouths of their modern gainsayers, who are not able to assign any other person unto whom it should belong. Having then removed their objections, we may return unto the interpretation of the words.
The matter intended in the first part of these words, or sitting at the right hand of God, hath been somewhat spoken unto already, and I shall add but little in the further explanation of it in this place.
Some things controverted on these words, we may well omit the consideration of; as whether were the more honourable place of old, the right hand or the left. Besides, they have been sufficiently spoken unto already on ver. 3. For whereas there is no mention made any where of sitting at the left hand of God, as was observed, there is no comparison to be feigned between the one and the other. Besides, the pretence that the left hand was the most honourable place of old, which has been insisted on by some, who had a desire to vent new observations of old matters to little purpose, is most vain. And Bellarmine shews what good leisure he had in managing of controversies, when he spent more time and labour in answering an objection against the pope's supremacy, from Peter's being placed in old seals on the left hand of Paul, than of many texts of Scripture, plainly overthrowing his pretensions.
Neither shall we consider their claim unto this testimony, who understanding the human nature of Christ to be only intended and spoken to, affirm that its sitting at the right hand of God consists in a real communication of all divine properties and at. tributes unto that nature ; a pretence very remote from the apostle's design, and from the import of the words.
For the introductory preface of this testimony, « Unto which of the angels said he at any time," we have already considered it. In the testimony itself we must consider,
1. The person speaking—the Lord.
5. The end hereof as to work and operation-make thine enemies thy footstool.
6. The limitation of it as unto duration - until.
1. The person speaking is the Lord_6. The Lord said." In the Greek, both the person speaking, and the person spoken to, are expressed by the same name, Kugios, Lord ;' only the person spoken unto is not absolutely called so, but with relation to the Psalmist, Kupiw ple, "to my Lord. David calls him his Lord, Matt. xxii. 43. But in the Hebrew, they have different denominations. The person speaking is Jehovah, 771774 SX); that is,
God the Father:' for though the name be often used where the Son is distinctly spoken of, and sometimes in the same place each of them are mentioned by that name, as Gen. xix. 24. Zech. ii. 8, 9. because of their equal participation of the same divine nature signified thereby, yet where Jehovah speaketh unto the Son, or of him as here, it is the person of the Father that is distinctly denoted thereby ; according as was shewed at the entrance of this Epistle.
2. The person spoken unto is the Son, 1978, the Lord, David's Lord :' in what respect, we must now inquire. The Lord Christ the Son is, in respect of his divine nature, of the same essence, power and glory, with the Father, John x. 30. Absolutely therefore, and naturally in that respect, he is capable of no subordination to the Father, or exaltation by him, but what depends on and flows from his eternal generation, John v. 26. By dispensation, he humbled himself, and emptied himself of this glory, Phil. ii. 7, 8, not by a real parting with it, but by the ass sumption of human nature into personal union with himself, being made flesh, John i. 14. wherein his eternal glory was cloud. ed for a season, John xvii. 5. and his person humbled to the discharge of those acts of his mediation which were to be performed in the human nature, Phil. ii. 9, 10. This person of Christ is here spoken unto, not in respect of his divine nature only, which is not capable of exaltation or glory by the way of free gift or donation, nor in respect of his human nature only, which is not the King and Head of the church; but with respect unto his whole person, wherein the divine nature exerting its power and glory, with the will and understanding of the human nature, is the principle of those theandrical acts, whereby Christ ruleth over all in the kingdom given him of his Father, Rev. i. 17, 18. As he was God, he was David's Lord, but not his son; as he was man, he was David's son, and so absolutely could not be his Lord. In his person, as he was God and man, he was his Lord and his son : which is the intention of our Saviour's question, Matt. xxii. 45.
3. For the nature and manner of this speaking, when and how God said it, four things seem to be intended in it. 1. The eternal decree of God concerning the exaltation of the Son incarnate. So David calls this word the decree, the statute, or eternal appointment of God, Psal. ii. 7. This is noyos svòiabetos, the internal and eternal Word,' or speaking of the mind, will and counsel of God, referred unto by Peter, 1 Epist. i. 20. God said this in the eternal purpose of his will, to and concerning his Son. 2. The covenant and compact that was between the Father and Son about and concerning the work of mediation, is expressed also in this saying. That there was such a covenant, and the nature of it, I have elsewhere declared ; see Prov. viii. 30, 31. Isa. liii. 10-12. Zech, vi. 12, 13. John xvii. 4-6. In this covenant, God said unto him, “ Sit thou at my right hand ;' which he also pleaded in and upon the discharge of his work, Isa. 1. 8, 9. John xvii. 4, 5. 3. There is also in it the declaration of this decree and covenant, in the prophecies and promises concerning their accomplishment and execution, given out from the foundation of the world, Luke i. 40. 1 Pet. i. 11, 12. Gen. iii. 15. “ He said it by the mouth of his holy prophets, which have been since the world began.” And in this sense David only recounts the prophecies and promises that went before, Luke xxiv. 25–27. And all these are comprised in this speaking here mentioned, “Thus the Lord said unto him.” And all these were past, when recorded by David. But he yet looks forward by a spirit of prophecy into the actual accomplishment of them all, when upon the resurrection of Christ, and the fulfilling of his work of humiliation, God actually invested him with the
promised glory; which is the fourth thing intended in the expression, Acts ii. 35. 36. ch. v. 33. 1 Pet. i, 20, 21. All these four things centre in a new revelation now made to David by the spirit of prophecy. This he here declares as the stable purpose, covenant and promise of God the Father, revealed unto him:« The Lord said.”
And this also gives us an account of the manner of this expression, as to its imperative enunciation, « Sit thou.” It hath in it the force of a promise, that he should do so, as it respected the decree, covenant and declaration thereof, from the foundation of the world; God engaging his faithfulness and power for the effecting of it in its appointed season, speaks concerning it as a thing instantly to be done. And as those words respect the glorious accomplishment of the thing itself, so they denote the acquiescence of God in the work of Christ, and his authority in his glorious exaltation.
4. The thing spoken about, is Christ's sitting at the right hand of God: wherein that consists hath been declared on verse 3. In brief, it is the exaltation of Christ into the glorious administration of the kingdom granted unto him, with honour, security and power; or, as in one word our apostle calls it, his reigning, 1 Cor. xv. 25. concerning which we have treated already at large.
And herein we shall acquiesce, and not trouble ourselves with the needless curiosity and speculation of some about these words. Such is that of Maldonat on Matt. xvi. before remarked on ver. 3. Saith he, Cum Filius dicitur sedere ad dextram Patris, denota. tur comparatio virtutis Filii et Patris, et potentia Filii major dicitur ratione functionis officii et administrationis ecclesiæ. Paterque videtur fecisse Filium quodammodo se superiorem, et donasse illi nomen etiam supra ipsum Dei nomen quod omnes Christiani tacite significant, cum audito nomine Jesu detegunt caput, audito autem nomine Dei, non item. Than which nothing could be more presumptuously nor foolishly spoken. For there is not in the words the least intimation of any comparison between the power of the Father and the Son, but only the Father's exaltation of the Son unto power and glory expressed. But, as was said, these things have been already considered.
5. There is in the words the end aimed at in this sitting down at the right hand of God, and that is, the making of his enemies the footstool of his feet. This is that which is promised to him in the state and condition whereunto he is exalted. For the opening of these words we must inquire,
1. Who are these enemies of Christ. 2. How they are to be made his footstool. 3. By whom. For the first, we have shewed that it is the glorious exaltation
of Christ in his kingdom that is here spoken of; and therefore the enemies intended must be the enemies of his kingdom, or enemies unto him in his kingdom; that is, as he sits on his throne carrying on the work designed, and the ends of it. Now the kingdom of Christ may be considered two ways. First, in respect of the internal spiritual power and efficacy of it, in the hearts of his subjects. Secondly, with respect unto the outward glorious administration of it in the world. And in both these respects, it hath enemies in abundance : all and every one whereof must be made his footstool. We shall consider them apart.
The kingdom, rule or reigning of Christ, in the first sense, is the authority and power which he puts forth for the conversion, sanctification, and salvation of his elect. As he is their King, he quickens them by his Spirit, sanctifies them by his grace, pre. serves them by his faithfulness, raiseth them from the dead at the last day by his power, and gloriously rewardeth them unto eternity in his righteousness. In this work the Lord Christ hath many enemies; as the law, sin, Satan, the world, death, the grave and hell. All these are enemies to the work and kingdom of Christ, and consequently to his person, as having undertaken that work.
1. The law is an enemy unto Christ in his kingdon, not absolutely, but by accident, and by reason of the consequents that ate tend it, where his subjects are obnoxious unto it. It slays them, Rom. vii. 9-11, which is the work of an enemy; is against them, and contrary unto them, Col. ii. 14. and contributes strength to their other adversaries, 1 Cor. xv, 56. which discovers the nature of an enemy.
2. Sin is universally, and in its whole nature, an enemy unto Christ, Rom. vii. 7. Sinners and enemies are the same, Rom. v. 8. 10. Col. i. 21. It is that which makes special, direct, and immediate opposition to the quickening, sanctifying, and saving of his people, Rom. vii. 21. 23. James i. 14, 15. 1 Pet. ii. 11.
3. Satan is the sworn enemy of Christ, the adversary that openly, constantly, avowedly opposeth him in his throne, Matt. xvi. 18. Eph. vi. 12. i Pet. V. 8. And he exerts his enmity by temptations, i Cor. vii. 5. 1 Thess. ïïi. 5. accusations, Rev. xii, 10. persecutions, Rev. ii. 10. all which are the works of an enemy.
4. The world is also a professed enemy of the kingdom of Christ, John xv. 18. in the things of it, the men of it, the rule of it: it sets itself against the work of the Lord Christ on his throne. The things of it as under the curse, and subject to vanity, are suited to alienate the hearts of men from Christ, and so act an enmity against him, James iv. 4. 1 John ii. 15-17. 1 Tim. vi. 9-11. Matt. xii. 22. The men of the world act