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things to him, and proceeds to the amplification of that kind of the humiliation of Christ which he had before intimated, and that in four things.
1. In the impulsive and efficient cause, which in the acts of God's will are coincident ; omws yopita Ots. Owws for ivæ, denoting the final cause of what was before asserted, relating to the whole clause following. That which is bere called yogas Os8, • the grace of God,' is elsewhere explained by corngios, 70.265 TON
soy swingros, Tit. ii. 11. “the saving grace of God." And sometimes it is termed his xenstorns and Qincey.Igwood, Tit. iii. 4. his goodness, kindness, benignity and love of mankind,' absoJutely his cyann, John iii. 16. Rom. v. 8. 1 Johniv. 8, 9. love,' intense love ; also his sväcxice, Eph. i. 5. his “good pleasure,' from the riches of his grace, ver. 7. and his fo@tris, ver. 9. Rom. viii. 28. or purpose of his will,' being the same with his mgogywers and apowgirlcos Rom. viii. 29, 30. his pre-designation and pre-destination of men to grace and glory. From all which it appears what this years or 6 grace of God' is, that was the moving and impulsive cause of the death of Christ, even the graci. ous free sovereign purpose of the will of God, suited to and arising from his natural grace, love, goodness and benignity, pity, mercy, compassion exerting themselves therein. It was not out of any anger or displeasure of God against Jesus, in whoin his soul was always well pleased, not out of any disregard to him, whom he designed hereby to “ be crowned with glory and honour," but out of his love, kindness and goodness towards others who could not otherwise be brought to glory, as in the next verses the apostle declares, that he thus appointed him to die.
2. In the manner of his death, otws yvonta Devotov, that he should taste of death; so die as to experience the sorrows, bitterness and penalties of death. To taste of death is, first, really to die, not in appearance or pretence, in opinion or shew, as some foolishly of old blasphemed about the death of Christ, which could have had no other fruit but a shadow of redemption, a deliverance in opinion. See the phrases used, Mark ix. 1. 8 hen yourwitas Jaratov, shall not taste of death,' that is, not die. And that which is called, to “ see death,” John viii. 51. is called “ to taste of death,” ver. 52. where the phrase is applied to the second death, or death eternal. And it being death which was threatened to those for whom he died, and which they should have undergone, he really tasted of that death also. So, secondly, It is intimated that there was bitterness in the death he underwent; himself compares it to a cup, whose bitterness he declares by his aversation from it, considered absolutely and without reference to that hand of the will of God wherein it was held out to him, Mat. xxvi. 39. which form. gros, or dia, ócup,' was his lot or portion, Psal. xvi. 5. that
which was prepared for him by his Father. And by the same metaphor he calls the will of God his meat, which he tasted of in the doing and suffering of it. To “ taste of death,” as is known, is a Hebraism. So the Rabbins speak, Berish. Rab. sect. 9. nnn Drowo w 128777 078 07977 987, the first Adam was worthy that he should not taste of death, or die.' And it compriseth somewhat more than merely to die, it expresseth also, “to find out and experience,' what is in death. And Dio, is sometimes rendered by youcxsiy, 'to know,' 2 Sam. xix. 35. And sometimes the substantive by cursis, ' understanding,' Job xii. 20. So that Christ, by tasting of death, had experience, knew what was in death as threatened to sinners. He found out and understood what bitterness was in that cup wherein it was given him. To which purpose the Rabbins have a proverb in Jalkut. Fol. 265. 1793 17 1777 3387 7.873, rowany 772po," he that eateth of the pot knoweth the taste of the meat that is in it.' Thus, when Agag thought he should escape a violent death by the sword, he expresseth his joy by
1877 78 70, 1 Sam. xv. 32. “ The bitterness of death is removed" or taken away; though die he must, yet he thought he should not taste the bitterness of death, or die by the sword. Thirdly, His conquest over death may be also intimated in this expression ; for though the phrase "to taste of death, be used concerning other persons also, yet as applied to Clirist, the event sheweth, that it was only a through taste of it that he had; he neither was, nor could be detained under the power of it, Acts ii. 24. and so is the word to taste' used, chap. vi. 4. of this epistle. And thus “ by the grace of God, did he taste of death."
3. The end of his tasting of death; it was for others, itse JUNT0s. Of the extent of this end of his death, expressed in that word avtos, we shall speak afterwards; for the present we consider how he died, ucie, 'for them' for whom he died. üzsg is either pro, or super or supra, “for,' or 'above,' or 'over;'thelalter signification belongs not to this place. As it signifies meo,for,' it is used sometimes as ds, propter, and with respect to persons, is as much as alicujus causa, • for his sake,' or in alicujus gratia am or bonum, - for his good and advantage,' sometimes as dits,
in the stead of another, and this is the constant and inviolable sense of jaie in Greek, pro in Latin, where the suitoring of one for another is expressed by it. And that also is the constant sense of the Hebrew niin, when used in that case. Some instances on each word will illustrate our intention. Thus David expresseth his desire to have died in the stead of Absalom, that he might have been preserved alive, 2 Sam. xviii. 33. 777' ip giann 9X nia,' who will grant me to die, I for thee my son Absalom,' that is in thy stead, or so that thou mightest be alive, So Isa. xliii. 4. And by that word is still expressed the suc
tuai See 1 Pehyas, and on his life expre
ceeding of one to another in government, or reigning in the stead of him that deceased, 1 Kings iii. 7. xix. 16. 2 Sam. x. 1. And in general, children succeeding in the place and room of their fathers, Num. ïi. 12. So that to die ntin, for another, is
to die in his stead, the death he should have died, that lie might live, or in general to be substituted in the room and place of another. So when Jehu commanded his officers to slay the priests and worshippers of Baal, he tells them, that if any one should let any one of them escape, w93 non a., “ his life should go for his life," or he should die in his stead, 2 Kings x. 24. So is úgie used, Rom, v. 7. 'expressing the act of an uvertuxos, one that lays down his life instead of another's, as Damon for Pithyas, and Nisus for Eurialus, Me, me, adsum qui feci. See 1 Pet. i. 20, 21. And it is explained by arti, perpetually denoting ' a substitution, where opposition can have no place. See Mat. xx. 28. Mark x. 45. 1 Tim. ii. 6. artinut por inic FATW, pra, also, as imee in this case is to be rendered, hath ne other signification. So often in the Poet,
Hanc tibi Eryx meliorem animam pro morte Daretis
Enead. 5. He slew the ox, and sacrificed it to Eryx instead of Dares, who was taken from him. And Mezentius on the death of Lausus his son, who undertook the fight with Eneas, on the wounding of his father, being slain himself,
Tantane me tenuit vivendi nate voluptas,
Morte tua vivam. Pro me-in my stead And of Palinurus, by whose death the rest of his companions escaped,
Unum pro multis dabitur caput. So the Comedian,
Verberibus cæsum te Dave in pristinum dedam usque ad necem ;
Ea Lege atque omine, ut, si inde te exemerim, ego pro te molam : grind in thy stead.' And Juvenal to the same purpose of the Deciï,
Plebeiæ Deciorum animæ, plebeia fuerunt
Sufficiunt Diis infernis.
those who sacrificed themselves like Mæneceus for the safety of their country, as Papinius expresses his design,
Armorum superi, tuque o. qui funere tanto
Quæ pepigi, et toto quæ sanguine prodigus emi.
In the common constant use of these words then, to die for another,' signifies, to die in his room and stead.' And this the Jews understood in the use of their sacrifices, where the life of the beast was accepted in the stead of the life of the sinner, Thus Christ tasted of death, insę FLITOS : he was by the grace and wisdom of God substituted as a mediator, surety, artof uxos, • in their stead,’ to undergo the death which they should have undergone, that they might go free, as we shall see in the fol. lowing verses.
4. This dying of Christ is said to be, inie TOSTOG. The word is either of the masculine or neuter gender: and in the latter, it seems to have been taken by them, who for Yagito Oix, read xwers O:8, as some Syriac copies do still, and Ambrose, ad Gradianum, with some other of the ancients, intimating that Christ died for every thing, God only excepted; alluding, it may be, unto Eph. i. 10. of which place we have spoken before. For we may not suppose it a corruption of the Nestorians, when some read so before their days; nor will the words so read give any countenance to their error, none affirming that Christ died any otherwise than in his human nature, though he who is God died therein. But this conjecture is groundless and inconsistent with the signification of the preposition insg, insisted on ; which will not allow that he be said to die for any, but those in whose stead he died, and which therefore in themselves were obnoxious to death, as he declares, ver. 14, 15. [læytos then is put for Furtwy, by an enallage of number, the singular for the plural, for all men ;' that is, all those many sons, which God by his death intended to bring unto glory, ver. 10. those sanctified by him, whom he calls his brethren, ver. 11, 12. and children given him by God, ver. 13. whom by death he delivers from the fear of death, ver. 15. even all the seed of Abraham, ver. 16.
And thus we hope our whole interpretation of these verses receives light from, as well as brings some light unto the text; and that we need no argument to confirm it, but its own suitableness throughout to the context and design of the apostle.
That, wherein divers worthy expositors are otherwise minded, and differ from us, is the application of the words of the Psalm immediately unto the person of Christ, which they say are reserred unto him only by way of allusion. Now, though our exposition sufficiently confirm and strengthen itself by its own
evidence, yet because divers learned men, whose judgment is much to be regarded, have given another sense of the words than that embraced by us, I shall, by some further considerations, confirm that part of our exposition, which is by them called into question : premising unto them, for the further clearing of the place, what we grant in reference unto the sense by them contended for.
1. I grant that the psalmist's design in general, is to set forth the goodness, kindness, love and care of God, unto mankind; so that in those words, “ What is man--and the Son of man!" though he principally respect the instance of the person of the Messiah, yet he doth it not exclusively to the nature of man in others, but hath a special regard unto mankind in general, in contradistinction unto other outwardly more glorious works of the hands of God. But it is the special instance of the person of the Messiah, wherein alone he undertakes to make good his assertion of mankind's pre-eminence,
2. I also grant, that he hath respect unto the dignity and honour collated on the first man at his creation, not directly and intentionally as his chief scope, but by way of allusion, as it did prefigure and obscurely represent that great glory and honour, which mankind was to be advanced unto in the person of the Messiah. That primarily and directly he, and he'alone, according to our exposition, is intended in the Psalm. For,
1. That the whole psalm is prophetical of the Messiah, the passages out of it reported in the New Testament, and applied unto him, do make evident and unquestionable; see Matt. xxi. 16. 1 Cor. xv. 27. with this place; so that he must needs be the man, and Son of man therein treated of, and who alone did make to cease the enemy and self-avenger, ver. 2. as the apostle declares, ver. 14, 15. of this chapter.
2. The general scope of the psalm will admit of no other interpretation. The psalmist, on his contemplation of the great glory of God, in framing the heavens, and all the host of them, especially those which then appeared unto him, falls into an admiration of his wisdom, goodness and love, in that which was far greater and more excellent, as that wherein his glory was more exalted, which he rejoiceth and triumpheth in, as that wherein his own, and the interest of all others, did lie. Now this could not be either the state of man, as fallen by sin, which is far enough from a matter of exultation and joy, nor yet the state of Adam in innocency, in no privilege whereof, without a restitution by Christ, have we share or interest.
3. There are not any words in the testimony, that can properly be applied unto any other man, or be verified in him; not in Adam at his first creation, not in mankind in general, but only in the instance of the person of Christ. For how was