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cheerfully, as makes it evident that they aim at nothing, and act from no principle, but merely that they dare not go against their convictions. But the mind that was in Christ will lead us unto it, out of love unto him, with freedom and enlargedness of heart, which is required of us.
III. The blessed issue of the abasement of Jesus Christ in his exaltation unto honour and glory, is an assured pledge of the final glory and blessedness of all that believe in him, whatever dangers and difficulties they may be exercised withal in the way. His humiliation and exaltation, as we have seen, proceeded out of God's condescension and love to mankind. His electing love, the eternal gracious purpose of his will to recover lost sinners, and to bring them unto the enjoyment of himself, was the ground of this dispensation. And therefore what he hath done in Christ, is a certain pledge of what he will do in and for them also. He is not crowned with honour and glory merely for himself, but that he may be a captain of salvation, and bring others unto a participation of his glory. • IV. Jesus Christ as the mediator of the new covenant, hath absolute and supreme authority given unto him over all the works of God in heaven and earth. This we have so fully manifested and insisted on, upon the foregoing chapter, that we shall not here farther pursue it, but only mind by the way, that blessed is the state and condition, great is the spiritual and eternal security of the church, seeing all things are under the very feet of its Head and Saviour.
V. The Lord Jesus Christ is the only Lord of the gospel state of the church, called under the Old Testament the world to come, and therefore he only hath power to dispose of all things in it, relating unto that worship of God which it is to perform and celebrate. It is not put in subjection unto any other, angels or men. This privilege was reserved for Christ, this honour is bestowed on the church. He is the only Head, King and Lawgiver of it, and nothing is it to be taught to observe or do, but what he hath commanded. But this will fall more directly under our consideration in the beginning of the next chapter.
VI. The Lord Jesus Christ in his death did undergo the peral sentence of the law, in the room and stead of them for whom he died. Death was that which by the sentence of the law was due unto sin and sinners. For them did Christ die, and therein tasted of the bitterness of that death which they were to have undergone, or else the fruit of it could not have redounded unto them; for what was it towards their discharge, if that which they had deserved was not suffered, but somewhat else wherein the least part of their concernment did lie. But this being done, certain deliverance and salvation will be
the lot and portion of them, of all them for whom he died, and that upon the rules of justice and righteousness on the part of Cbrist, though on theirs, of mere mercy and grace.
Ver. 10.—The apostle, in the verses foregoing, made mention of that, which of all other things the Jews generally were most offended at, and which was of the greatest importance to be believed, namely, the sufferings of the Messiah, wherein a great part of the discharge of his sacerdotal office, whereunto he here makes a transition, did consist. This his own disciples were slow in the belief of, Matt. xvi. 22. chap. xvii. 22, 23. Luke xxiv. 25, 26. and the Jews generally stumbled at. They thought it strange that the Messiah, the Son of God, the Savi. our of his people, and Captain of their salvation, concerning whom so great and glorious things were promised and foretold, should be brought into a low despised condition, and therein to sufrer and die. Hence they cried to him on the cross, “ If thou be the Christ, come down and save thyself;" intimating that by his suffering he was assuredly proved not to be so, for why any one should suffer that could deliver himself, they saw no reason.
Besides, they had inveterate prejudices about the salvation promised by the Messiah, and the way whereby it was to be wrought, arising from their love and over-valuation of temporal or carnal things, with their contempt of things spiritual and eternal. They expected a deliverance outward, glorious and kingly, in this world, and that to be wrought with arms, power, and a mighty hand. And what should they expect from a Messial that suffered and died? Wherefore the apostle, having asserted the sufferings of Christ, saw it necessary to proceed unto a full confirmation of it, with a declaration of the reasons, causes and ends of it: partly to avert that false persuasion which prevailed amongst them, about the nature of the salvation to he wrought by Christ; partly to shew, that nothing would thence ensue derogatory to what he had before delivered about his pre-eminence above angels ; but principally to instruct them in the sacerdotal office of the Nlessiah, the redemption which he wrought, and the means whereby he accomplished it, which was the great business that he had designed to treat with them about. For the salvation itself, he declares that it was not to be of the same kind with that which they had of old, when they were brought out of Egypt, and settled in the land of Canaan, under the conduct of Joshua ; but spiritual and heavenly, in a deliverance from sin, Satan, death and hell, with a manuduction into life and blessedness eternal. He informs them that the way whereby this was to be wrought, was 'by the sufferings and death of the Messiah, and that in no other way it could be accomplished ; on which account they were indispensably necessary. And the first reason hereot' he expresseth in this tenth verse.
Ver. 10.--ExqETI yae AUTW, Oión TA TANTrab di' š ta torta, Tole
λος μιας εις δοξαν αγαγοντα, τον αρχηγών της σωτηρίας αυτων δια παθη
ματων τελείωσαι. One or two copies read dice toob muaTOS AUTOV TE25180-301, against the sense and design of the place. Autor is needlessly repeated, unless put for sartov, and then it disturbs the whole meaning of the verse, and is inconsistent with the passive verb following in this reading. Ila OMPLETOs, in the singular number, relates only unto death, expressed in the verse foregoing by Tænna Irrate; but here all the sufferings of Christ, as well those antecedent unto death, as death itselt, are intended. T¢1185946, in the passive, is followed by some copies of the Vulgar translation, reading consummari; both inconsistent with the sense of the place, as we shall see.
Translations differ but little about these words. Eesti uue avtw, most, Dicebat eniin eum, ' for it became him.' Beza, Decebalenin ui iste, for it was meet that he,' to make the following words flow regularly. As on Tu Turta, propter quem omnie; Syr. 327 977), cui omnia, • for whoin are all things.' Beza, Proptcr quem sunt hæc omnia, expressing the article as restrictive to the things spoken of, for whom are all these ihings. One Syriac copy auds, 1773), • in his hand,' which somewhat corruts the sense. Ker di' TH Tartu, ei per quem omnia. Beza, hac omnia, as before, without cause; for the article is frequently prefixed unto tarte, where all things absolutely are intended; as Eph. i. 11. “ By whom are all things." Ilonass us85 915 dozven :1720/0?. Vulg. Qui multos filios ad gloriam adduxerat; · Who had brought many sons unto glory' Arias. Multos filios ad glorium adducentim. Beza, Adducendo, bringing many sons unto glory.' Syr. Aldurerat in gloriam suam ; had bron; hit many sons into his glory.' Toy upxingor. Vulg. Autorin, the Author.' Beza, Principem. Syr. *27, the Ilead or Prince of their salvation.' Auce TxOqucTWY TIZelwoeli, per passionem consummare, ' to consummate or complete by suffering.' Beza, per perpessiones, by sufferings.' Syr. perficere, perfecium reddere, • to perfect, to make perfect.
The proper signification of the words in this verse is much to be beerled, as that which will give us much light into the sense of the whole. Tigers is decet, convenii, dignum est, “it becometh, it is meet, convenient, or just.' ngamoy cois, in Plato, is rendered by Cicero, Deo decorum, - that which becometh God;' and, saith he, tenoy, appellant hoc Graci, nos dicamus sune decoq'um; that which becometh any one in his state and condition,
in a moral sense, as - holiness becometh the house, that is the people of God. Kata to testoy, ut decet, ut par est; • that which is equal and right to be done.' lpenrtu tilen, is • honour justly deserved ;' and agir894 (mperse, just loss or punishment.' The word then signifies that decency and becomingness, which justice, reason and equity, require; so that the contrary would be unmeet, because unequal and unjust. Thus every one's duty, that which is morally incumbent on him in his place and station, is that which becomes him; and thence in the New Testament, that which is not xüTIL TO TETOy, 'thus decent,' is condemned as evil, 1 Cor. xi. 13. 1 Tim. ii. 10. And itself is commended as a rule of virtue, Matt. iii. 15. Eph. v. 3.
Ai' óv. Aid, with an accusative case, constantly denotes the final cause, propter quem, • for whom.' Rev. iv. 11. ov extIORS TO Tarta, · Thou hast created all things,' (all things universally, with the article prefixed, as in this place), xoc doce to Jianuar 08 1651 Xuv EXTatytay, and for thy will (thy pleasure, thy glory) they are and were created,' Rom. xi. 36. ss óy tu TONTA, to whom, to him, or for him, or his glory, are all things.' Prov. xvi. 4. 177277) 77107) Syaha, “ The Lord hath made all things for himscito;" his glory is the final cause of them all.
Kærdi' Š TU FANTA, 6 and by whom are all things.' Ave, with a genitive, denotes the efficient cause. Some, from this expression, would have the Son to be the person bere spoken of, because concerning him it is frequently said, that all things are di avis, John i. 3. 1 Cor. vüi. 6. Heb. i. 3.; but it is used also with reference unto the Father, Rom. xi. 36. Gal. i. 1. Schlictingius here gives it for a rule, that when droe relates unto the Father, it denotes the principal efficient cause ; when unto the Son, the instrumental. But it is a rule of his own coining, a groundless efflux of his rewtor favoos, that the Son is not God, on which kind of presumptions men may found what rules they please. The principal efficiency, or supreme production of all things by God, is intended in this expression.
Aycorta, • bringing,' a word of common use and known sig. nification, but in this place attended with a double difficulty, from a double enallage in the use of it. First, in the case; for whereas it seems to relate unto auto, “it became him in bringing, it should then regularly be αγαγοντι, not αγαγοντα. Hence some, by supposing a ouy muris in the words, refer it unto «eznyov,
the Author ;' as if the apostle had said, Toy ugyaryou ons owingtees αυτων πολλους υιους αγαγοντα, to make perfect the Captain of their salvation, who brought many sons unto glory.' But this transposition of the words, neither the context, nor the addition of HUTWY, “ their,' unto owongias, their salvation,' relating unto he sons before mentioned, will by any means allow. Wheref re an enallage of the case is necessarily to be allowed; ayayorta ior se</20/0976, unless we suppose a repetition of engiri, which frequently admits of the accusative case; but the principal author is un. questionably intended. Again, ayomorte is a participle of the second Aoristus, which usually denotes the time past; and thence is it translated by many, adduxit, adduxerat, and filiis adductis; * after he had brought many sons to glory.' And this some refer to the saints who died under the Old Testament, unto whom the Lord Christ was no less a Captain of salvation than to us. And so the apostle shews, that atter they were saved on his account, it was meet that he should answer for them according to his undertaking. But neither doth this restraining of the word answer the apostle's intention, l'or it is evident, that he principally minded them, unto whom the Lord Jesus became eminently a Captain of salvation, after he was perfected by sufierings, though not exclusively unto them that went before. Agata gorta then is put for ayoite, unless we shall suppose that the act of God here intended was on purpose thus expressed to comprehend all the sons, both those that lived before, and those that lived after the sufferings of Christ; • bringing, leading, bearing.' It concerns the whole execution of the design of God, for the salvation and glorification of believers. llox dous úlous, many sons,' Jews and Gentiles, all that were by faith to become his sons, ' unto glory.'
Tor ugxnpoy, the Author.' Wherever this word is used in the New Testament, it is applied unto Christ, Acts iii. 15. he is called sexnyos 795 (wns, the Prince of life.' And chap. v. 31. God is said to make him agznyov xot cw70%, ' a Prince and a Saviour;' that is, aexiyou ong Gwrrierces, as here, the Prince of our salvation,' Heb. xii. 2. the apostle calls him, TOY TNS TISTIWS age xuryou xui tflebwiny, as we render it, the author and finisher of faith. As here God is said, 75291NGKI TOY 28%you, 'to finish or perfect this Author of our salvation.' No where else is this word used in the New Testament. It answers justly the Hebrew 7), which the LXX. render exon and soupesvos, the signification of both which words are included in agzinayos, Princips, Dux, iræses, • Author; a Prince, Captain, Ruler, Author.' And it is used in writers, with respect to works good and bad. ASX"Os xeo diède excenos toy gywy TobouTWY, Isocrat. "The author and teac: er of such works. And we mnyos T8 xalovgratos, arlie fex maleficii, “the principal contriver of mischiet. It is also used for the author of a stock, race, or kindred of men. In this place it is limited by awtugies: it denotes the chief or principal operator, or worker of that salvation, with especial reterence unto the kingly or princely power, whereunto he was alvanced after his sufferings. As he is also absolutely a prince, a ruler, and the author or spring of the whole race and kind of believers, according unto the other senses of the words.