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port for their faith. Peter tells us, that “ by Christ we do believe in God that raised him froin the dead, and gave him glory, that our faith and hope might be in God," 1 Pet. i. 21. Jesus Christ, considered as Mediator, is the next, but not the ultimate object of our faith and hope. We so believe in him, as by bim to believe in God, that is the Father, whose love is the supreme fountain and spring of our salvation, which the apostle manifests in that double instance of his raising up Christ, and giving of him glory, thereby declaring himself the principal author of the great work of his mediation. This he directs us to, so to believe in Christ, as that discerning in and by him the grace, good-will and love of the Father himself towards nis, we may be encouraged to fix our faith and hope on him, seeing he himself loveth us. So that Christ himself had no need to pray for the love of the Father to us, but only for the communication of the effects of it, John xvi. 26, 27. And this is the work of faith, when, as we are directed, we pray to the Father in the name of Christ, John xvi. 23, 2+. And we thus place our faith in God the Father, when we conceive of him as the sovereign Leader of us to glory, by all the instances before mentioned. And then doth faith find rest in him, delight, complacency and satisfaction, as we have elsewhere declared.
Thirdly, There is in these words intimated the principal means that God fixed on for the accomplishment of this design of his, for the bringing of many sons to glory; it was by appointing a Captain of their salvation. The Jews generally granted that the Messiah was to be the Captain of their salvation, but misunderstanding that salvation, they also mistook the whole nature of his office. The apostle doth here evidently compare him to Joshua, the captain and leader of the people into Canaan, (as he had bcfore preferred him above the angels, by whose ministry the law was given to the people in the wilderness) which was a type of their salvation, as he farther declares, chap. iv. All the sons of God are put under his conduct and guidance, as the people of old were under the rule of Joshua, to bring them into the glory designed for them, and promised to them in the covenant made with Abraham. And he is called their agxnyos, · Prince, Ruler and Captain or Author of their salvation,' on several accounts. 1. Of his authority and right to rule over them in order to their salvation. So he anpeared to Joshua, as 171779-8230, Josh. v. 14. “ The Captain of thc Lord's host," intimating then, that there was another Captain and other work to do, than what Joshua had then in hand—the General of all the people of God, as Joab was to Israel, 823-90. 2. Of his actual leading and conduct of them by his example, spirit and grace, through all the difficulties of their warfare ; so he was promised, as 70, Isa. lv. 4. Princeps, Dux, Antecessor, agxayos, a leader and commander of the peo. is to man. ix. 25.'s nerunner, or s he their
ple, one that goes before them for their direction and guidance, giving them an example in his own person of doing and suffering the will of God, and so entering into glory. So is be their Theodpoucos, Heb. vi. 20. “Antecessor, Fore-runner,' or as Daniel calls him, 723 Tivn, Dan. ix. 25. “ Messiah the Prince," or Guide. 3. As he is to them AvTi05 outnerces armois, as chap. v. 9. “the Author or cause of eternal salvation,” he procured and purchased it for them. So that the expression denotes both his acquisition of salvation itself, and his conduct or leading of the people of God to the enjoyment of it. And the Holy Ghost hereby also intimates, that the way whereby God will bring the sons unto glory, is full of difficulties, perplexities and oppositions, as that of the Israelites into Canaan was also ; so that they have need of a captain, leader and guide, to carry them through it. But yet all is rendered safe and secure unto them, through the power, grace, and faithfulness of their Leader. They only perish in the wilderness, and die in their sins, who either out of love unto the flesh-pots of Egypt, the pleasures of this world, or being terrified with the hardships of the warfare which he calls them to, refuse to go up under his command.
Fourthly, There is expressed in the words, the especial way whereby God fitted or designed the Lord Christ unto this office, of being a Captain of salvation unto the sons to be brought to glory. To understand this aright, we must observe that the apostle speaks not here of the redemption of the elect absolutely, but of the bringing them to glory, when they are made sons in an especial manner. And therefore he treats not absolutely of the designation, consecration, or fitting of the Lord Christ unto his office of Mediator in general, but as unto that part, and the execution of it, which especially concerns the leading of the sons unto glory, as Joshua led the Israelites into Canaan. This will give us light into what act of God towards the Lord Christ is intended in this expression, tshs.wcal autor doce Fanuatws, And sundry are here pleaded by expositors, not without some probability. As, 1. Some think, that his bringing him to glory is intended : it became him, Tsasiwcas, to bring him to glory, bv and through sufferings, so to perfect him. But besides that the word is no where so used, nor hath any such signification, the apostle doth not declare what God intended to bring him unto, but by what in and about him, he intended to bring many sons to glory. 2. Some would have it to denote the finishing of God's work about him: whence in his sufferings on the cross, he said, TIMEASOTHO, “ It is finished,” John xix. 30. This answers indeed the sense of the word Tasw, used in that place by our Saviour, but not of tis.w, the word here used by the apostle, wbich never signifies to end or finish, or to perfect by bringing unto an end. 3. Some think God made the Lord Christ perfect by
sufferings, in that he gave him thereby a full sense and experience of the condition of his people ; whence he is said to learn obedience by the things that he suffered, ch. v. 8. And this is true, God did so; but it is not formally and directly expressed by this word, which is never used unto that purpose. This is rather a consequent of the act here intended, than the act itself. Tsewoun then, in this place, signifies to consecrate, dedicate, to sanctify unto an office,' or some especial part or act of an office. This is the proper meaning of the word: tian, are 'mysteries,' and Tilstat, sacred acts and offices ;' TITIA!Tusvos are those who are initiated and consecrated unto sacred offices or employ. ments ; see Exod. xxix. 33. 35. in the LXX. Hence the an. cients called baptism TEE6OSTAS, or consecration unto the sacred service of Christ; and icelw, the word next insisted on by our apostle, is so used by Christ himself, John xvii. 19. ime AUTOT syw ápial W suavtov, 'for their sakes I sanctify (that is, dedicate, consecrate, separate) myself to be a sacrifice.' And his blood is said to be that, sy wyecern, Heb. x. 29. • wherewith be was so consecrated.' Nor is this word used in any other sense in this whole Epistle, wherein it is often used, when applied to Christ; see ch. v. 9. ch. vii. 28. And this was the use of the word among the heathen, signifying the initiation and consecration of a man into the mysteries of their religion, to be a leader unto others. And among some of them it was performed through the instigation of the devil by great sufferings. Our av sis pidgar δυνησαιτο τις τελεσθηναι ει μη δια τινων βαθμων παρελθον των κολακων, δειξη SKUTOY orley xaki anaon, saith Gregory Nazianzen. Orat. cont. Jul. 1. “No man could be consecrated unto the mysteries of Mithra (the sun) unless he proved himself holy, and as it were inviolable, by passing through many degrees of punishments and trials. Thus it became God to dedicate and consecrate the Lord Christ unto this part of his oflice by his own sufferings. He consecrated Aaron to be priest of old, but by the hands of Moses ; and he was set apart to his office by the sacrifice of other things. But the Lord Christ must be consecrated by his own sufferings, and the sacrifice of himself. And thence it is, that those very sufferings, which as antecedaneous unto his being a captain of salvation, to this end that he might lead the sons unto glory, are means of his dedication or consecration, are in themselves a great part of that means whereby he procures salvation for thein. By all the sufferings then of the Lord Christ in his life and death, by which sufferings he wrought out the salvation of the elect, did God consecrate and dedicate him to be a prince, a leader, and captain of salvation unto his people, as Peter declares the whole matter, Acts v. 30, 31. and ch. ii. 36. And from these things last mentioned, of the Lord Christ being the captain of our salvation, and being dedicated unto that office by his own sufferings, it appeareth,
First, That the whole work of saving the sons of God from first to last, their guidance and conduct through sins and sufferings unto glory, is committed unto the Lord Jesus ; whence he is constantly to be eyed by believers in all the concernments of their faith, obedience and consolation. - Behold,” saith the Lord, “ I have given him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the people," Isa. lv. 4. a witness to testify the truth, in revealing the mind and will of God; a leader going before them as a prince and captain, as the word signifies ; and a commander, that gives out laws and rules for their obedience. God hath set him as a Lord over his whole house, ch. iii. 5. and committed all the management of all its concernments unto him. There is no person that belongs unto God's design of bringing many sons to glory, but he is under his rule and inspection. Neither is there any thing that concerns any of them in their passage towards glory, whereby they may be farthered or hindered in their way, but the care is committed unto him, as the care of the whole army lies on the general, or prince of the host. This the prophet sets out in his type Eliakim, Isa. xxii. 21–24. “ He is fastened as a nail in a sure place; and all the glory of the house, and every vessel of it, from the greatest unto the least, is hanged on him," the weight of all, the care of all is upon him, committed unto him. When the people came out of Egypt with Moses, they were numbered unto him, and he being the administrator of the law, they died all in the wilderness; but they were delivered again by tale and num. ber unto Joshua the type of Christ, and none of them, not one failed of entering into Canaan. And he dischargeth this trust as a faithful captain.
First, With care and watchfulness, Psal. cxxi. 4. “ Behold, he that keepeth Israel, shall neither slumber nor sleep.” There is no time nor season wherein the sons committed unto his care may be surprised through any neglect or regardlessness in him, His eyes are always open upon them. They are never out of his heart, nor thoughts: they are “ engraven on the palms of his hand, and their walls are continually before him;" or as he expresseth it, Isa. xxvii. 3. “ I the Lord do keep my vineyard : I will water it every moment, lest any hurt it; I will keep it night and day." Greater care and watchfulness cannot be expressed ; night and day, and every moment in them, he is intent about this work. O how great an encouragement is this to adhere unto him, to follow him in the wbole course of obedience that he calls unto. This puts life into soldiers, and gives them security, when they know that their commander is continually careful for them.
Secondly, He dischargeth this great trust with tenderness and love : Isa. xl. 11. “ He shall feed his tlock like a shepherd, he shall gather the lambs with his arm, and carry them in his bosom, and shall gently lead those that are with young.” These sons are of various sorts and degrees: the best and strongest of them are but sheep, poor, infirm, and helpless creatures; and amongst them, some are young and tender as lambs; some heavy and burdened with sins and afflictions, like those that are with young. In tender compassion, he condescends unto all their conditions ; feeds and preserves the whole flock as a shepherd; gathers in his arm, and bears in his bosom, those that otherwise by their infirmity would be cast behind, and left unto danger. Compassion he hath for them that err, and are out of the way ; seeks for them that wander, heals the diseased, teeds them when they are even a flock of slaughter. And where these two concur, care and compassion, there can be no want of any thing, Psal. xxiii. 1. Indeed, Zion is ready sometimes to complain that she is forgotten. The sons, in great distresses, afflictions, persecutions, temptations, that may befal them in their way to glory, are apt to think they are forgotten and disregarded, that they are left as it were to shift for themselves, and to wrestle with their difficulties by their own strength and wisdom, which they know to be as a thing of nought. But this fear is vain and ungrateful. Whilst they are found in the way, following the Captain of their salvation, it is utterly impossible that this watchfulness, care, love and tenderness, should in any thing be wanting unto them.
Thirdly, He leads them with power, authority and majesty, Mic. v. 4. “He shall stand and rule in the strength of the Lord, in the majesty of the name of the Lord his God, and they shall abide.” The name of God is in him, accompanied with his power and majesty, which he puts forth in the feeding and ruling of his people, whereon their safety doth depend. They shall abide, or dwell in safety, because in this his glory. and majesty, he shall be great, or be magnified, unto the ends of the earth. So also is he described in his rule, Zech. vi. 13. “Even he shall build the temple of the Lord, and he shall bear the glory, and shall sit and rule upon his throne, and shall be a priest upon his throne." Having built the temple, raised a house and family to God, he shall be the ruler or captain of it, to preserve it unto glory; and this in a glorious manner, bearing the glory of God, sitting upon a throne, in the whole discharge of bis office, both as a king and priest. Unto this end is he entrusted with all the power and authority which we have before described, God having given him to be head over all things to his church. There is nothing so high, so great, so mighty, that lies in the way of his sons' to glory, but it must stoop to his authority, and give place to his VOL. III.