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men should honour the Son, even as they honour the Father. He that honoureth not the Son, honoureth not the Father which hath sent him. 24. Verily, verily, I say unto you, He that heareth my word, and believeth on him that sent me, hath everlasting life, and shall not come into condemnation, but is passed from death unto life. Such a person hath a right to everlasting life, and shall not be condemned by me the judge at the last day. Nay, he is so sure of escaping condemnation, and of obtaining eternal life, that he may be said to have passed already from death to life. But to convince them that he was able to quicken whom he would, he bade them consider the effects of his power, which they had already seen in the resurrection of two dead persons to life, viz. Jairus's

yet to see in the resurrection of Lazarus, and perhaps of others not mentioned in the history. 25. Verily, verily, I say unto you, the hour is coming, and now is; the time is now, as you yourselves well know, when the dead shall hear the voice of the Son of God, and they that hear shall live. For you cannot but have heard, that I have raised two persons from the dead already. 26. For as the Father hath life in himself, so hath he given to the Son to have life in himself: hath bestowed this honour upon him, to quicken or raise (see ver. 21.) what dead person soever he pleases, and that by his own power ; in which respect our Lord differed from the prophets, and all the other messengers of God who raised the dead, neither at their own pleasure, nor by their own power. 27. And hath given him authority * to execute judgment also, because he is the Son of man; hath conferred on him, not only the honour of giving life to the dead by his own power, but authority also to punish the living with death, and that because he has humbled himself so low as to become the Son of man, Philip. ii. 9-11. The power of giving life to the

the power of punishing men with death. The apostles indeed exercised it sometimes. But he seems now to have had the destruction of Jerusalem more particularly in his eye, an exercise of judgment which he constantly ascribed to himself. 28. Marvel not at this, for the hour is coming in the which all that are in the graves shall hear his voice; 29. And shall come forth, they that have done good unto the resurrection of life, and they that have done evil unto the resurrection of damnation. Be not surprised at my saying that the Son has power to raise a few particular per

. sons *Ver. 27. To execute judgment also.] The Syraic version, Chrysostom, Theopilact, and Euthymius, put a full stop after the words xgativ forely, sons from the dead, and authority to inflict punishment on a few particular offenders. There is a far greater power committed to him, even that of raising all men at the last day, and of judging and rewarding them according to their works. Now in this judgment. I will not act absolutely or arbitrarily, but according to the laws of equity, un-lterably established by my Father, so that, I shall not act therein so properly by my own, as by my Father's authority. 30. I can of mine ownself do nothing; as I hear I judge: in allusion to human courts, where the judges found their sentences upon the testimony of witnesses, and the laws of the country. Yet the expression by no means implies, that our Lord at the great day shall receive information from any one whatsoa ever, concerning the persons he is to judge. Having been him. self privy to their actions, he needs no evidence, but knows all things that ever were thought, said, or done by mankind, from the beginning to the end of time, fully and certainly. And my judgment is just; not only because it is thus a judgment according to truth and equity, but likewise, because I seek not mine own will, but the will of my Father who hath sent me; I have no in.' terest to pursue, no inclination to fulfil, different from that of my Father.

cause be is the Son of man, marvel not at this. And Chrysostom in particular affirms, that Paul of Samosatena contrived the pointing now in use. Yet it seems to be the true pointing, the other soaking a very harsh ungrami matical construction.

These were very grand assertions of his own dignity. But he did not require his hearers to believe them, merely on the authority of his own testimony; a circumstance by which Jesus Christ, the only Son and greatest messenger of the true God, is distinguished from Mahomet, and all other impostors whatever, He told them that he had the testimony of John, given him in the hearing of their own deputies. But at the same time he observed, that the truth of his mission did not depend merely on human testimony, though it was given by one who was a burn. ing and shining light, and in whom they greatly rejoiced, because the prophetic Spirit which had so long ceased seemed to be again revived in him. John v. 31. If I alone bear witness of myself, my witness is not true. That the word alone is pertinently supplied here, seems plain from what follows, not to mention that it reconciles this passage with John viji. 14. 577. which see: 32. There is another that beareth witness of me, and I know that the witness which he qitresseth of me is true. 33. re sent unta John, and he bare witness unto the truth. 34. But I receive not testimony from man only: that is, the truth of my mission does not depend merely on human testimony, see ver. 36. But these things I say, that ye may be saved: I say them to induce you to believe, that ye may be saved. 35. He was a burning and a shining light, and ye were willing for a season to rejoice in his kight. Some from this latter clause infer, that the Baptist was now dead. Yet he does not seem to have been killed till a little before the third passover. The reason is, the miracle of the


tie of eOnly Son Mahon the rest. But id not deny to

doares performed in the desert of Bethsaida immediately after word was brought of John's death, is said to have happened a little before that feast, John vi. 4. If so, our Lord's meaning isy, that John was a burning and a shining light, an illustrious prophet, , not wile he lay in prison, but while his ministry lasted; for during his imprisonment his light may be said to have been extinguished. Accordingly it is added, And ye were willing to rejoice in his light for a season; ye hearkened to him with great pleasure, till his credit was impaired in your estimation by his imprisonment. Farther, he told them that he had the testimony of one infinitely greater than John, even the testimony of the Father, who was continually bearing witness to him, by the many miracles which he empowered him to perform, and who had given him a peculiar and direct testimony at his baptism, by declaring from heaven in a grand, audible, articulate voice, that he was his beloved Son; which voice many then live ing had heard, and no doubt remembered. S. But I have greater witness than that of John; for the works which the Fathar hath given me to finish, the same works that I do bear witness of me that the Father hath sent me. 37. And the Father himself evkich hath sent me, hath borne witness of me. For this latter wit, ness he appealed to themselves, Ουτε φωνην αυτε ακηκοατε πανποτε στι fides cyta isparuti, which in our translation runs thus, We have seither heard his voice at any time, nor seen his shape, *. But the proper translation seems to be interrogatively, Hove ye never at any time heard, his voice, or seen his shope? The word dos, tran." slated in this passage shape, significs any thing in a person that appears to the eye, by which he is distinguished from others; and therefore the form of his countenance, as well as the shape of his body. Many of the ancient Jews had head the voice of God at Sinai, when the law was given, Deut. iv. 12, 33. And though it is said there that they saw no similitude, (LXX. opower the meaning is not, that they saw no corporeal appearance, for they saw fire and smoke, ver. 15. but that they saw 10 resem, blance, do figure or likeness of any thing in the heavens above, or in the earth beneath, or in the waters under the earth, which the heathens worshipped as God. This fire which the Israelites saw on Sinai, was the symbol of the divine presence, as was the pillår of fire, and cloud of smoke which attended them in their journeyings through the wilderness. Hence, because Moses was often admitted to a clear and near view of this fire, he is said to have “ beheld the similitude of the Lord," and to have so spoken with God mouth to n.ouch, even apparently," (sv cidae) Numb. xü. 8. 'By parity of reason, is often as God manifested his preserce in the symbol of ligh cr fire, as at Christ's baptism, that light might be called his slipe or similitude (cidos auts). And all who beheld that glorious appearance, as the multitude did at Vol. II.


Christ's baptism, might be said to have seen (sides) the similitude of God. And as for hearing the voice of God, it was no inpossible thing, the whole nation having heard God speak at Sinai. However, it was not this which our Lord had now in his eye, but the voice of God uttered at his baptism, wl.ch many of the Jews to whom he spake may have heard, and which the rest may have been informed of by witnesses, whose testimony they cçuld not disbelieve. John v. 38. Kes tov domov aut8 8% 9ete pusyoxta sy very, ret ye have not his word remaining in you; so the translation should run, the sense being this, Though God spake to you from heaven concerning me at my baptism, and in order to impress you the deeper with what he said, shewed you his face, yet you are not duly affected with what he said, neither do you entertain it in your minds as you ought to do. Οτι ον ασισελεν εκεινος, τετο VUHF $ Toçevits, For you do not believe on him whom he hath sent. In this passage, therefore, there is a plain allusion to the descent of the Spirit on our Lord at his baptism, and to the voice from heaven, which with a thundering noise sounding through the sky, declared him with great majesty, to be God's beloved Son, in whom he was well-pleased. But because the Jews were exceedingly averse to acknowledge Jesus for their Messiah, notwithstanding the evidences of his mission were so unexceptionable, he desired them, for farther proof, to search their own Scriptures, and particularly the writings of the prophets, which, said he, is certainly your duty, because these writings, as you justly suppose, contain the knowledge of eternal life, and therefore the knowledge of Messiah. And I can with confidence refer you to them, knowing that they confirm my pretensions in the most ample manner, the characters of the Messiah pointed out by them, being all fulfilled in my person. 39. * Search the Scrip. tures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and they are they which testify of me. 40. And (xcel, but) ye will not come to me that ye might have life. Moreover, he insinuated that the proofs of his mission were as full and clear as possible, being supported hy the actions of his life, which in all points agreed with his doctrine. For in no instance whatever did he seek the applause of men, or affect secular power; but was always innocent and humble, though he knew these qualities rendered him little in


Ver. 39. Search the Scriptures.] Le Clerc, L'Enfant, Vitringa, Raphr. lius, &c. contend, that epe urate is in the present tense. re search tbe Scrit. tures, because in them ye think ye have eternal life, the directions of heaven for obtaining it; now are they which testify of me. 40. Yet ye wiii not come to me that ge might have life. The common translation however is fully as agreeable to the scope of the passage ; for having told them that they would find abundant proofs of his piission in the Scriptures, be observed that their want of faith was not owing to any deficiency in the proofs of his mission, but to the wickedness and obstinacy of their own disposi. tions.

the eyes of persons void of the love of God, who expected to see their Messiah adorned with great secular glory. 41. I receive not honour from men.. 42. But I know you that ye have not the love of God in you. This humility of spirit, and conformity of life with his doctrine, as well as the other evidences of his mis. sion, our Lord justly termed a coming to the Jews in his Father's name, or agreeably to his will, signified anciently in the Scriptures of the prophets. Nevertheless, because such a Messiah was by no means the object of their expectation, they would not receive him. Whereas, if any other person came to them in his can name, that is, without a commission from God, they would joyfully embrace him, provided he assumed the majesty of a king, and promised temporal bounties to his followers. Of this infatuation the Jews gave many proofs during their wars with the Romans, and a little before the destruction of Jerusalem. For then many impostors arose, pretending to be Messiah, and promising them deliverance, by which they drew away great multitudes, as their own historian Josephus informs us. 43. I am come in my Father's name, and ye receive me not. If another shall come in his own name, him ye will receive. This their infidelity was owing in a great measure to their pride. They who had all along preached glorious things concerning the empire and grandeur of the Messiah, would not ascribe that august character to a mere teacher, who was destitute even of the ordinary advantages of birth, fortune, and erudition; because it would have been such a confession of ignorance and unskilfulness in the Scriptures, as must have exposed them to the contempt of those whom they had misled, (see John vii. 49, 52.) 44. How can ye believe which receivé honcur one of another, and seek not the honour thut cometh from God only? How can such persons as you believe in me, whose character and station are entirely different from what you have all along told the people the Scriptures teach concerning Messiah? This confession of your own ignorance is not to be expected from you, who in all your actions seek the praise of men, Matth. xxiii. 5. and not the praise of God, which is the only true praise, and is to be obtained by a steady regard to truth and virtue, in opposition to all earthly passions whatever. To conclude, he told them they were not to imagine that in rejecting him they sinned against no person but him, and that he alone would accuse them to the Father for their infidelity. Moses, through whose law they trusted to have salvation, was likewise dishonoured by it, in as much as he wrote of him under the names of the Seed of Abraham, Shilch, and a Prophet like to himself, whom God would raise up unto them from among their brethren, and whom he commanded them to hear. Wherefore, seeing they refused to believe on him, Moses would accuse them as guilty of disbelieving his writings. 48. Do not think that I


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