« السابقةمتابعة »
favoured with a sight of the angels, but had not the pleasure of seeing Jesus."
This is generally understood of the journey which Peter and John made to the sepulchre, immediately after Mary Magdalene's first report, but with what truth may be questioned. The reason is, at that journey Peter and John had heard nothing of the vision of angels, which the disciples here mentioned are said ex. pressly to have been informed of. Luke indeed tells us of a second journey which Peter' made to the sepulchre; and this some have supposed to be the journey which the disciples going to Emmaus had in their eye, because it is related immediately after the report of the women concerning the angels, as if it had happened in consequence of that report. Nevertheless, the series of the history discovers the fallacy of this supposition. For when the women came into the city, after having seen the angels, both Peter and John were at the sepulchre, and did not return before the women set out the second time. If so, neither Peter nor John had any opportunity of hearing from the womens own mouth what they had to say concerning the vision, till the latter were able to add the still more welcome news of their having seen the Lord. Wherefore, since the disciples of whom Cleophas and his companion speak, had heard nothing of Christ's appearing to the women, Peter could not be one of them. It may be said indeed, that immediately on his return from the sepulchro he went back again with John, or some other of the disciples, in consequence of the womens report delivered to him at second hand by his brethren. Yet this is not very probable, because the disciples in question must have ran so fast, as to return from the sepulchre and make their report, before either Mary Magdalene or the company of women came from their several interviews with Jesus. Of this, I think, no doubt can be made, since Cleophas, who left the city before the women arrived, tells us he had heard that report.
Luke xxiv. 25. “ Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken! 26. Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory? From this reproof it would appear, that Cleophas and his companion were of the number of those who gave little credit to the tidings which the women had brought of their Master's resurrection. His crucifixion and death, as they themselves acknowledge ed, having almost convinced them that he was not the Messiah, they had little faith in his resurrection, Wherefore, to shew. them their error, Jesus reproved them sharply for not understanding and believing the prophecies, which, said he, declare it to be the decree of heaven, that before Messiah enters into his glory, that is, before he receives his kingilom, he must suffer such things as you say your Master has suffered. --Moreover, that
a deep with a depresidered the
his reproof might appear well founded, that their drooping spirits might be supported, and that they might be prepared for the discovery he was about to make of himself, he explained the whole types and prophecies of the Old Testament which relate to Mes. siah's sufferings; such as the Mosaical sacrifices, the lifting up of the brazen serpent, the 22d Psalm, the 53d of Isaiah, &c. 27. And beginning at Moses, and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures, the things concerning himself. Thus did Jesus demonstrate to his desponding disciples, from the Scriptures, that their despair was without cause, and the suspicion without foundation, which they had taken up of his being a deceiver, because the priests had put him to death. His discourse made a deep impression on them, (ver. 32.) and engrossed their attention to such a degree, that they neither thought of the length of the journey, nor considered the countenance of him who spake to them; so that, ere they were aware, they arrived at the village whither they went. And now the disciples turned aside from the road to go to their lodging, Jesus in the mean time travelling on. But they, loth to part with a person whose conversation charmed them so much, begged him to go no farther, but to abide with them, because the day was far spent. Luke xxiv. 28. And they drew nigh unto the village whither they went; and he made as though he would have gone further. 29. But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us, for it is towards evening , and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them. By their hearty invitations, the disciples prevailed with their fellow-traveller to turn in with them; and their humanity met with an abundant recompence, for Jesus made himself known to them at table, in the action of giving God thanks for their food. 30. And it came to pass as he sat at meat with them, he took bread and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them. Because it is said, that “ as he sat at meat he took bread, and blessed it," &c. some have thought that our Lord gave his two disciples the sacrament on this occasion, adding it to the ordinary meal they
• Ver. 29. It is towards evening, and the day is far spent.] In the following section we are told, that the disciples having returned from Emmaus, were telling their brethren what had happened to them, when Jesus stood in the inidst and saluted them. Moreover, it is taken notice of that this appearance happened the first day of the week, at even. These circumstances, together with the departure of the disciples who went to Emmaus before the news of Christ's resurrection had reached the city, shew plainly, that by the evening, in the above passage, we are to understand the first evening of the Jewish day, which began at three o'clock. (Matt. xiv. 15.
60.) It is towards evening, that is, it is towards three o'clocks and the day is far spent; xexhaxsy npligt, the day has declined. For, on any other supposition, the two could not have returned to Jerusalem, after dining at Emmaus, so as to have been present when Jesus shewed himself to his disa ciples the first day of the week, which ended at sun-setting. See note; p. 814
were eating, as at the first institution of the rite, and that they knew him thereby to be Jesus. But in the Greek there is no foundation for the conjecture, the words signifying properly, And it came to pass that when he sat down to table with them, he took bread, and blessed it, &c. Among the Jews the giving of thanks at table for their food, and the distributing of it to the guests, was the head of the family's office; but in mixed companies, he whose rank and character rendered him most worthy of the ho- . nours of the table obtained them. The actions therefore of blessing, breaking, and dividing the meat, - happened of course at every meal, and at this were fitly yielded to their Master by the disciples, although they did not know him ; because the singular skill in the sacred writings which he had discovered on the road wade them conceive a very high opinion of his piety and learn- . ing. Jesus being thus desired by his disciples to address God in". their behalf, he discovered himself either by pronouncing a form of prayer which they had often heard him use, and which, when repeated by this stranger, awakened their attention ; so that, considering his features more narrowly, they knew him to be the Lord. This is Calvin's account. Or they might be led to the discovery, if in his prayer Jesus uttered such things as made him known. 31. And their eyes were opened, and they knew him: * and he vanished out of their sight. Though our Lord's departure is mentioned immediately after we are told how he discovered himself, it does not follow that he went away immediately upon the discovery. This the manner of the sacred historians. We may therefore suppose that he staid some time conversing with the two disciples, and proving to them the reality of his resurrection. The reflection which the disciples made on this affair is natural and beautiful. Luke xxiv. 32. They said one to another, Did not our hearts burn within us while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the Scriptures? We were extremely stupid not to know him, when we found his discourses have that effect upon us which was peculiar to his teach ing. As soon as Jesus departed, the two disciples made all the haste they could to Jerusalem, that they might have the pleasure of acquainting their brethren with the agreeable news. But they were in some measure prevented. For immediately on their arVOL. II. 4G
* Ver. 31. And be vanis.bed out of their sight.] A PHYTOS EYEVITO OT' AUTW. The scholiast upon Euripides explains αφαντος εγενετο by αφανης εγένετο, a phrase used by Josephus to signify one's escaping or getting out of sight, lib. xx. c. 8. 06. .GOROUS EX TAS NOX96, udaras syeveto. Besides, the learned Dr Sam. Chandler has produced passages from Anacreon and Pindar, in which the word & Purtos is us:d to signify the sudden disappearing of an object, by what means soever that happens. He proposes, therefore, to correct the translation thus, He suddenly went away from them: that is to say, he slipt out of their company, without bidding them farewell, or sig. nifying that he was not to return.
rival, the eleven, with the women, accosted them, giving them the news of their Master's resurrection. 33. And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven (see on John xx. 24. p. 829.) gathered together, and them that were with them; 34. Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon. The apostles had given little credit to the reports of the women, supposing they were occasioned more by imagination than reality. But when a person of Simon's capacity and gravity declared that he had seen the Lord, they began to think that he was risen indeed. Their belief, therefore, was not a little confirmed by the arrival of the two disciples, who declared that the Lord had appeared to them also. 35. And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread; that is, by his prayer before meat. Mark however represents the reception which their report met with somewhat differently, xvi. 12. After that he appeared in another form, ky etiqa pogon, i. e. in another dress, the dress of a traveller, unto two of them, as they walked and went into the country. 13. And they went and told it unto the residue; neither believed they them. But there is no inconsistency between the evangelists; for though the greatest part of the apostles believed that Jesus was arisen, as Luke affirms, some, who had not given credit either to the women or to Simon, continued obstinately to disbelieve, in spite of all that the two disciples or the rest could say. This seems to be a better method of reconciling Mark and Luke, than to suppose that on Peter's information the apostles believed Jesus was risen, but did not believe that he had appeared to the two disciples, because, according to their own account of the matter, they did not know him at first, and because at parting he had vanished out of their sight. For I ask the reader, whether it is not natural to think that the disciples, who on this occasion were more than twenty in number, would not divide in their opinions upon such a subject as the resurrection of their Master from the dead; some believing it, others rejecting it. We know from Luke himself, that a few did not believe even after they had seen Jesus with their own eyes, chap. xxxiv. 41. see also Mart. xxviii. 17. It is therefore no straining of the text to suppose, that by the eleven's saying, The Lord is rises indeed, and hath appeared to Peter, Luke means only some of the eleven, perhaps the greatest part of them said so. Besides, we must understand the evangelist's words in a limited sepse, because Peter, of whom he speaks, was himself one of the eleven." See on Matt. xxvii. 44. $ 146.
$ CLVI. Jesus appears to his apostles on the evening of the day
whereon he arose; Thomas being absent. Luke xxiv. 36,-43. John xx. 19,--25.
« While the disciples from Emmaus were giving their brea thren an account of the Lord's appearing to them, and offering arguments to convince those who doubted the truth of it, Jesus himself came in, and put an end to their debate by shewing them his hands and his feet. Luke xxiv. 36. And as they thus spake,
Jesus himself stood in the midst of them. The expression, 851 s» peow avtwy, signifies that he stood among them, without intimating whether they saw him come forward, or did not observe him till he was near them. John however mentions a circumstance, which, compared with Luke's account, seems to prove that they saw him enter the room, and come forward. John xx. 19. Then the same day at evening, (see on Luke xxiv. 29. § 155.) being the first day of the week, when the doors were shut where the disciples were assembled, for fear of the Jews, came Jesus, and stood in the midst, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you. Luke xxiv. 37. But they were terrified and offrighted, and supposed that they had seen a spirit. The disciples had secured the doors of the house by locks and bolts, as well as they could, for fear of the Jews. But Jesus, before he entered, opened the locks and drew the bolts by his miraculous power, (see Prelim. Observ. II. No. i. p. 30.) without the knowledge of any in the house. Wherefore, as the whole company knew that the doors had been secured, it was no wonder that they supposed they saw a spectre, and were exceedo ingly affrighted, when something in a human form, whose features they could not easily discern by the evening light, entered the room. Thus the circumstance of the doors being shut is very happily mentioned by John, because it suggests the reason why the disciples took Jesus for a spirit, as Luke tells us, notwithstanding the greatest part of them believed he was risen, and were conversing about his resurrection at that very instant. To dispel their fears and doubts, Jesus came forward, spake to them, and shewed them his hands and feet, desiring them to handle him, and be convinced by the united report of their senses, that it was he. 38. And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled, and why do thoughts arise in your hearts ? 39. Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself : handle me, and see, for a spirit hath not flesh and bones as ye see me have. 40. And when he had thus spoken, he showed them his hands and his feet, (John, and his side.) The disciples beholding these infallible proofs of their Master's resurrection, received him with exultation and rapture. But their joy and wonder so wrought upon their minds, that some of them, sensible of the commotion they were in, suspended their