« السابقةمتابعة »
Ariobarzanes some places of importance in Cappadocia, The pretor Murena was induced by these infractions, and still more by the hope of enriching himself by a new war, to invade the dominions of Mithridates, who laid his complaints before the Roman senate; and Sylla, in consequence, sent orders to the pretor to give him no further molestation. The king then employed his arms in reducing the Bosphori; and hearing of the death of Sylla, he resolved immediately to attempt recovering his former conquests in Asia. He engaged his son-in-law Tigranes, king of Armenia, to invade Cappadocia, whilst he himself entered Paphlagonia with a powerful army, and soon brought it to submission. He had the same success in Bithynia, which king Nicomedes had lately bequeathed to the Romans. He next over-ran the Roman province of Asia, which, by the exorbitant taxes levied upon it, had been alienated from the republic, and received the king as a deliverer. A new war being unavoidable, Lucullus, now consul, B. C. 74, was appointed to the command in Asia. Mithridates, who had raised three powerful armies, and fitted out a strong fleet, obtained considerable advantages by land and sea before the arrival of Lucullus. He laid siege to the important city of Cyzicum, but through the superior generalship of Lucullus was obliged to raise it after great loss; and fortune now began to turn against him. The Roman general marched into Pontus, and reduced most of its fortresses; whilst the king, forsaken by his troops, took refuge in Armenia. In his flight, recollecting that he had left his sisters, wives, and concubines, at Pharmacia, he sent an eunuch to put them all to death, lest they should fall into the enemy's hands. From the account of this tragedy, it appears that the women in general submitted without reluctance to their fate; but one of his two sisters, before she took the poisonous draught prepared for them, uttered many imprecations and reproaches against her brother ; whilst the other expressed her obligations to him for his care that they should die free. Lucullus (see his article) reduced Pontus to the form of a Roman province, and then sent a requisition to Tigranes to deliver up Mithridates. On the honourable refusal of that prince, he invaded his dominions, and gave him a total defeat. Mithridates, however, persuaded him to raise a new army, and by his own military abilities recovered several places, and gave the Romans some checks in the field.
At length he entirely defeated Triarius, the lieutenant of Lucullus; which disaster, and the protraction of the war, produced so much discontent at Rome, that Lucullus was superseded in his command by the consul Glabrio. Mithridates, meantime, so actively pursued his success, that he recovered the best part of Pontus, Bithynia, Cappadocia, and ArmeniaMinor. The Romans at length resolved to bring to a conclusion this long and hazardous war; and Pompey, invested with greater powers thau had ever before been conferred on a Roman commander, was sent into Asia, B.C. 67. As he advanced into Pontus, the king withdrew to the frontiers of Armenia, and encamped on a hill opposite to Pompey. That general enclosed him with lines of circumvallation, and reduced him to great distress; but at length, having put to death his sick and wounded that they might not fall into the enemy's hands, he burst through by night. Pompey followed him, and overtaking him as he was posted in a narrow valley, took possession of all the surrounding defiles, and then made a nocturnal attack on his army. The consequence was the destruction or dispersion of all the king's troops, except a body of cavalry with which he forced a passage. Mithridates fled into Armenia, where he found Tigranes no longer inclined to support him. He therefore withdrew to Colchis, and thence into Scythia, between the Euxine and Caspian seas. Pompey pursued, till at length he lost all tidings of his antagonist; and concluding him to be dead, he marched back and proceeded to Syria. After a long concealment in the territories of a Scythian prince near the Palus-Moeotis, Mithridates emerged at the head of a considerable army, and entering Pontus, made himself master of several important places. His fortune, however, had ebbed so low, that his subjects had no longer any confidence in his cause, and were disposed to rebellion. In this emergency he attempted to engage the Scythian chiefs in his favour, by ambassadors, accompanied by his daughters, who were to be offered them in marriage. His envoys, however, were killed, and his daughters delivered to the Romans. Thus disappointed, and unable to prevail on any of the Asiatic powers to join his arms, he adopted the bold design of marching into Europe, and stirring up the Gauls, whom he understood to be nationally hostile to Rome. When his intention became known to his troops, great discontents arose among them, which suggested to his favourite son, Pharnaces, the idea of placing the crown on his own head. The army in a tumultuous manner proclaimed the young prince king; and when Mithridates attempted, at the head of his guards, to appease the mutiny, he was driven back to the city where he then lay, Panticapoeum, near the Cimmerian Bosphorus. From the walls, he attempted to recal his son to the sentiments of filial obedience and affection; and finding his address disregarded, he solemnly implored the gods that his son might one day feel from his own experience the sting of a beloved child's ingratitude. Resolving not to outlive this final calamity, he withdrew to the female apartments, and after drinking poison himself, presented it to his wives and concubines, and to two favourite daughters. To them it was soon mortal; but his constitution was so inured (it is said) to the use of antidotes, that its operation was too slow to be depended upon. He then stabbed himself, but with a failing hand, so that he was still alive when the rebels broke into the town. While lying in this situation, a Gallic mercenary entering the room in quest of booty, was earnestly requested by him to put him out of his misery, which office he performed. His death took place B.C. 64, about the 71st year of his age. Such was the unhappy end of a prince, who, with many great qualities, lived in a perpetual state of war and trouble, occasioned by his restless ambition and total want of principle. He was one of the most formidable foes that the Roman republic ever experienced; and the news of his death was received with the greatest joy and exultation. His body was delivered to Pompey, who, like a generous enemy, bestowed on it a most magnificent funeral. Mithridates was learned, and a favourer of letters: he was particularly attached to the study of medicine; and a very compounded electuary, formerly regarded as a capital alexipharmac, still bears his name. Aftpian. Welleius Paterc. Plutarchi Sylla, Luculius, & Pompeiur. Univers. Hist.—A. MOAWIYAH, sixth caliph of the Arabians, was the son of Abu Sofian, a chief of the Koreish, and an eminent commander under Mahomet. At his request, Moawiyah was appointed secretary to the prophet, which post he held for several years. After the conquest of Syria, he was made governor of that province by Omar, and was continued in that important office by Othman. He obtained several successes against the Greek emperors ; and in
the thirty-fifth year of the heiyra, A. D. 654, he conquered the isle of Rhodes, and demolished the famous colossus of the Sun. His great wealth and reputation, and his influence as chief of the powerful house of Ommiyah, caused him, at the death of Othman in 655, to become a competitor for the caliphate. When Ali was chosen, Moawiyah declared against him, and prevailed upon Amru to join him. He was proclaimed caliph at Mecca and Medina, and maintained a civil war against Ali till the assassination of that caliph in 660. Moawiyah himself was severely wounded b
one of the three conspirators who ... to restore peace among the Mussulmans by the assassination of the two rivals and of Amru, but he escaped with life. Hassan, Ali's son, was proclaimed after the death of his father, and marched against Moawiyah; but being of a mild and unambitious character, he could not bear the thought of involving the empire in bloodshed on his account, and made an offer of resignation to his competitor. This was accepted, (see Hassan); and Moawiyah obtained the caliphate in 661, being the #. prince of the dynasty of the Ommiyans. An insurrection of the fanatical Kharegites was one of the first events of his reign; it was quelled by the people of Irak, with the total extermination of that sect. A reconciliation with his illegitimate brother Ziyad, a man of great talents, who had taken the part of Ali, and was made governor of Persia, added strength to the throne of Moawiyah, who did not scruple, in order to gain him, to violate the laws of the Koran, by acknowledging him as of the blood of the Koreish, though his legal father was a Greek slave. The severity of Ziyad was of great service in suppressing some other commotions which threatened to disturb the tranquillity of the empire. In the year 668, Moawiyah sent his son Yezid with an army to besiege Constantinople; so formidable had the Mussulman power become only fortyeight years after the flight of the founder from Mecca The undertaking, however, was beyond their military skill; and after spending seven years in a series of repeated summer attacks, attended with a variety of petty events, but signalised by no great action, they relinquished the enterprise. The famous Greek fire is said to have been a principal cause of their failure, and their loss in men and ships was very considerable. The caliph's arms were more successful in another quarter; for Saad, his governor of Khorasan, crossed the Jihoon or Oxus, defeated an army of Usbeks, and took possession of Samarcand. Moawiyah fixed his residence at Damascus, and the great object of his cares in the latter years of his
reign was to secure the crown to his son,
Yezid. In this attempt he met with much opposition, as the young man's character by no means merited the confidence his father placed in him, and the moslems were unwilling to render hereditary a sovereignty which had hitherto been elective. At length he procured the public recognition of Yezid as his own colleague and presumptive heir to the caliphate. Soon after, in the year 679, the twentieth of his reign, and about the seventy-fifth of his age, he expired at Damascus. Moawiyah is accounted one of the most eminent of the Saracen caliphs, and is extolled for his capacity, his courage, generosity, and clemency. He was the first of the caliphs who wore rich garments and affected royal splendour. He also drank wine without scruple, and in other respects deviated from the strictness of the Mahometan law. Though not learned, he favoured the sciences, and was particularly fond of Poetry, to the proficients in which he shewed singular kindness on several occasions. Mod. Univers. Hist. Marigny’s Hist. of the Arabians.—A. MOCENIGO, ANDREw, a noble Venetian, flourished in the early part of the sixteenth century, and was employed in the public affairs of his country, which he managed with success. He wrote in Latin a “. History of the War sustained by the Republic of Venice in consequence of the League of Cambray, from 15oo to 1501, in four Books;” and although his style has little elegance, the work was received with applause on account of the accuracy and veracity of the narration. He also composed a poem in Latin verse on the war with Bajazet II. which is lost. Moreri Tirabotchi.-A. MODIUS, FRANcis, a learned critic, was born at Oudenburg, in the diocese of Bruges, in Flanders, in 1546. The wars of the Low Countries obliged him to retire to Cologne, and to pass a great part of his life in Germany. Being at Bonne in 1587, when that town was surprised, he lost all his effects and was dangerously wounded. He was finally presented with a canonry at Aire, where he died in 1597. Modius wrote annotations upon several ancient writers, on the tactical authors Fronlinus, Aelian, Modestus, and Vegetius; Livy, Quintus Curtius, Justin, Tacitus, and others. They are mostly contained in his “Lectiones
Nov-antiquac,” which were first printed at Frankfort in 1584, and were re-printed in one hundred and twenty-three letters by Gruter, in the fifth volume of his “Thesaurus criticus.” He also wrote poems and other works in Latin. His critical talents have been praised by Lipsius and Scioppius. Baillet. Moreri.-A. MOEDIUS, GEORGE, an eminent German Lutheran divine and professor in the seventeenth century, was born at Lauch in Thuringia, in the year 1616. He became professor of philosophy, and afterwards of divinity, in the university of Leipsic, where he died in 1697, about the age of 81. He was the author of a variety of works, in the Latin and German languages; one of the most celebrated of which is entitled, “On the Origin, Propagation, and Duration of the Pagan Oracles,” in a preliminary dissertation. This treatise was written in opposition to Van Dale's famous performance, and is distinguished by much profound and recondite erudition. It was freely made use of by father Baltus, one of the writers against Fontenelle's book on the same subject. Saxii Onomast. Lit. par. V. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—M. MOESTLIN, Michael, a German Lutheran divine, and celebrated mathematician in the seventeenth century, was born at Goppingen in the duchy of Wirtemberg, but in what year we are not informed. He was sent on an exhibition from the duke of Wirtemberg to the university of Tubingen, where he distinguished himself by his diligence and proficiency, and was admitted to the degrees of B.A. and M. A. Afterwards he applied himself closely to the study of divinity, and being received into the ministry, was chosen pastor of the town of Tetschen. The duties of this office he discharged to the great satisfaction of his flock, and acquired universal respect by his unaffected piety and exemplary manners. He also obtained considerable reputation for profound skill in the mathematical sciences, to which his genius was peculiarly adapted. This circumstance, after he had resided four years at Tetschen, induced duke Lewis of Wirtemberg to offer him the chair of mathematical professor at Heidelberg; which he accepted. Three years afterwards, he was removed to occupy the same post in the university of Tubingen; which he appears to have held during the remainder of his life, with high credit to himself, and essential benefit to the interests of science. He died in the year 1650. He was the first who explained the cause of the pale light observable on the disk of our attendant planet, a little before and a little after the time of new-moon. He made an excursion into Italy, where he delivered an harangue in defence of the Copernican doctrine; and is said to have had no little weight in determining Galileo to renounce the hyotheses of Aristotle and Ptolemy, and to em[. the system of that philosopher. He was the author of “Ephemerides;” “Epitomen Astronomiae;” “ Chasmatum aliquot terribilium et portentosorum Descriptio;” “Examen Calendarii Gregoriani;” and other works of merit. Freheri Theatrum Vir. Erud. clar. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—M. MOINE, ABRAHAM Le, a French protestant divine, concerning whose life we find no other particulars than that he was born towards the close of the seventeenth century; that he became a refugee in England on account of his religion; that he officiated as minister to a French church at London, with great zeal and acceptability; and that he died there in the year 1760. He was the author of “A Treatise on Miracles,” 1747, octavo. This work “ was written in answer to Mr. Chubb, and contains many proofs of good abilities; and also of great learning, not only with respect to the more immediate subject of it, but to other subjects, which he hath introduced whenever he judged them necessary to illustrate his argument.” Such is the testimony of the learned Hugh Farmer, who published some very able strictures on the author's performance, particularly on his notions concerning the power of evil spirits, the nature and antiquity of ancient magic, and the character of the Egyptian magicians, in his “Examination of the late Rev. Mr. Le Moine's Treatise,” &c. Subjoined to our author's work is a postscript, intended to vindicate the authority of the ancient fathers, in answer to what has been advanced by Dr. Middleton, in his “Free Enquiry.” Mr. Le Moine's other English publications were, “A Sermon in Defence of the Sacred. History, in answer to Lord Bolingbroke,” I of 2, octavo ; “A Sermon on the Fall,” 1751, octavo ; and “A Visitation Sermon,” 1752, quarto. He also translated into the French language bishop Gibson’s “Pastoral Letters;” “The Trial of the Witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus,” attributed to bishop Sherlock; and the last mentioned prelate's “ Discourses on the Use and Intent of Prophecy.” These versions are accompanied with curious and interesting dissertations by the
translator, relative to the writings and lives of the unbelievers who are combated in those works. Nouv. Dict. Hist. Farmer ut supracitat. Monthly Review. . Gent. Magaz—M. MOINE, FRANcis LE, an eminent French painter, was born at Paris in 1688. His parents gave free scope to the early taste he shewed for the arts of design, and placed him first with Tournieres, and afterwards with Galoche. His ambition led him to the highest branch of the art, and he was first employed in some scripture pieces for the refectory of the cordeliers of Amiens. While residing in that city, he painted a sign for a peruke-maker, consisting of fifteen figures, which excited great admiration, and was afterwards placed in the man's shop to protect it from the injuries. of the weather. He obtained several prizes from the Academy of Painting, and in 1718. was admitted a member of that body. The distresses of the time having caused a suspension of the missions of young artists to Italy, it was not till 1724 that he was enabled to visit that country, and then only for six. months. He employed them, however, so well, that he returned greatly improved in his art. The academy soon after nominated him a professor; and he was chosen to paint in fresco the cupola of the Virgin's chapel in the church of St. Sulpice. This work, which occupied him three years, raised him to the summit of reputation. He married in 1730 the daughter of a painter, by whom he had no, children. He was then appointed to paint the grand saloon at the entrance of the apartments. of Versailles, and chose for his subject the apotheosis of Hercules. This is the most considerable of his performances, and is accounted the best proof of the progress of painting in France under Louis XIV. It cost him four years continued labour without any assistance; and when finished, it gave so much satisfac-tion to the king, that he conferred upon le Moine, the place of his first painter, vacant since the death of Louis de Boullongue, and gave him a pension of three thousand five hundred livres, in addition to one of six hundred which he before enjoyed. The great bodily fatigue he had undergone during seven years, in painting these two ceilings in a reverted posture, together with the mental exertion in designing them, almost entirely exhausted him; and the loss of his wife added to . the depression of his spirits. His natural temper was jealous and irritable, and these causes combined threw him into a feverish state, ac
companied with a disturbed imagination. He fancied that he was perpetually pursued by bailiffs, and suspected every one who came near him. His friends endeavoured to dispel his gloom by reading to him the Roman history, and when they came to any example of heroic suicide, he made them read the passage again, exclaiming “What a noble death!”. One day, hearing a knock at his door from a friend who had engaged to take him for some days with him into the country, he thought the officers were come to apprehend him; and shutting himself in his chamber, he gave himself nine wounds with his sword, and fell dead on the spot, in June 1737, at the age of 49. This master was unequalled by any French artist in his time for the freshness of his pencil and delicacy of his strokes. His outlines are flowing, the airs of his heads graceful and expressive, his touch light, and his tints extremely lively. He is sometimes incorrect, but his deviations produce great beauties. His works are chiefly in the churches and palaces in and near Paris. Some of the smaller are in private cabinets. About thirty of his pieces have been engraved. D'Argenville, Vief des Peintres.—A.
MOINE, John Le, a French cardinal who flourished towards the close of the thirteenth and in the carly part of the fourteenth century, and founded the college at Paris called after his name, was a native of Cressy in Ponthieu. He was educated at the university of Paris, where he studied divinity and the canon law, and was admitted to the degree of doctor. His first promotion in France was to the deanery of Bayeux in Normandy; after which he obtained the bishopric of Meaux. Having taken a journey to Rome, he was there appointed auditor of the Rota; and, in the year 1294, was raised to the purple by pope Celestine V. According to some writers, he was indebted for this dignity to pope Boniface VIII. who bestowed it upon him asa reward for his work mentioned at the end of this article. By the last-mentioned pontiff he was held in high esteem, and appointed his legate in France, at the time of his contest with king Philip the fair. In this business our cardinal conducted himself with the true spirit of a papal tool, and incurred the contempt and hatred of all good Frenchmen, by his endeavours to sacrifice the interests of his sovereign and of his country, that he might gratify the ambition of the court of Rome. At the time when he was employed on this unworthy mission, he founded his
college at Paris. He died at Avignon in 1313. He was the author of “A Commentary on the VIth Book of the Decretals,” which displays the knowledge and abilities of an able and profound canonist. It was first printed at Paris, in 1535, and at Venice in 1586, with the ad. ditions of Probus. Dupin. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—M. MOINE, PETER LE, a Jesuit, the first of his order who obtained a reputation for French poetry, was born of a good family at Chaumont in Bassigny in 1602. He entered into the society at seventeen, and continued to serve it by his labours and writings till his death at Paris in 1671. The principal of his poetical works is his “Saint Louis ou la Coutonne reconquise surles Infidelles,” in eighteen books, which for a time stood high among the epic poems in the French language; a class of compositions, indeed, which have acquired little estimation even in the country of their birth. It is said to display a vigorous imagination, and considerable powers of poetical cxpression, but unregulated by judgment and good taste. A similar character is given of his other poems upon sacred and secular topics, which, with the former, were printed. collectively, in one volume folio, in 1671. Boileau, when asked his opinion of le Moine, replied, that “he had too much extravagance for his praise, and too much poetry for his censure.” He was likewise a copious writer in prose, in which his style and manner resemble those of his verse. His work entitled “La Devotion aisée,” 1652, was much read and talked of at its appearance, and is said to have produced more pleasantry than edification. It is severely animadverted upon by the writer of the Provincial Letters (Paschal), with whose gloomy and austere notions of religion it was much at variance. Some of the passages quoted by him for censure would probably, however, appear in a very different light to a modern rationalist. Le Moine also wrote “Peintures morales;” “Traité de l’Histoire;” “La galerie des Femmes fortes;” some pieces in defence of his order; and other works now forgotten. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—A. MQINE, STEPHEN LE, a very learned French protestant divine in the seventeenth century, was born at Caen in Normandy, in the year 1624. After having been instructed in the requisite preparatory learning at his native place, he was sent to Sedan, where he went through a course of divinity under the celebrated Du Moulin. From thence he went to