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to relieve him from his embarrassments. After this time he resolved to draw his affairs into a narrower compass, and to quit his mercantile concerns for the improvement of his estates under his own eye. He had several villas in the vicinity of Fiorence, of which that of Poggia-Cajano was his favourite residence; and he made it the centre of a great agricultural establishment. He chiefly, entertained his friends at his delightful seat of Fiesole, where his table was graced with a society of learned and ingenious men not often parallelled. Lorenzo had a numerous family, in the settling of which he was as successful as an ambitious parent would generally desire. His eldest son Piero, designed for his successor in the Florentine state, was sent at the age of fourteen to visit the pope and cultivate the family interest at Rome, for which purpose he was married to the daughter of one of the powerful house of Orsini; and soon afterwards, Lorenzo's daughter Maddelena, was married to the pope's son, Francesco Cibo. The object of his close connection with this pontiff, and the profound respect he always testified for the holy see, was the attainment of the favourite point of his ambition, the elevation of his second son Giovanni to the cardinalate, with the future prospect of his filling the papal chair. By means of incessant application, he prevailed upon the pope to confer upon Giovanni, at the age of thirteen, the high dignity of one of the princes of the Roman church; a flagrant violation of decorum, dishonourable to both ! and which implies, that Lorenzo's regard to the established religion was of a merely political nature. It was a deserved consequence of this prostitution of ecclesiastical honours, that this cardinal, when arrived at the popedom, should, by his levity and profusion, have given the immediate occasion to that defection from the church of Rome which has so much reduced her power and authority. (See Leo X). Of his other children, Giuliano became allied in marriage to the royal house of France, and obtained the title of duke of Nemours; and his daughters who lived to maturity married into noble families. In 1488 Lorenzo's domestic comfort was much impaired by the loss of his wife. He was at that time absent at the warm baths, which he was often obliged to use on account of a gouty complaint that severely afflicted him, and made an early breach in his constitution, His disorders increased so fast upon

him, that in the beginning of 1492 he fell into a state which announced immediate danger to his life. Either through motives of decorum, or the conviction of their utility, he submitted to the usual ceremonies of his church in that situation, and went through the concluding scene with equanimity and resignation. He died in April 1492, having not long completed his forty-fourth year; and few persons of his condition have filled so contracted a space of life with so much glory and prosperity. His reputation stood extremely high, not only among his fellow-citizens, but throughout Italy, of the political balance of which he was considered as the most powerful support. The fortunes of his house suffered a decline soon aster his death; but he had so well strength ened the foundations of its greatness, that i recovered to a superior degree of splendour Roscoe's Life of Lorenzo de' Medici.-A. MEDINA, John De, a learned Spanish ecclesiastic, who excited a considerable degree of curiosity, in the sixteenth century, was a native of Alcala, where he was born about the year 1490. He filled the chair of divinity in the university of that city during twenty years, with extraordinary reputation, and died in 1556, about the age of fifty-six. The highest eulogiums on his erudition, judgment, and eloquence, are to be met with in various Spanish writers of eminence, who quote his works with great respect. An ample collection of them may be seen in the first of our authorities. The most considerable of his productions are, “De Restitutione et Contractibus Tractatus, sive Codex, nempe de Rerum Dominio, atque earum restitutione, et de aliquibus Contractibus, de Usura, de Cambiis, de Censibus,” 1540, folio; “In titulum de Poenitentia, ejusque Partibus Commentarius,” 155o, folio, &c. Autonii Bibl. Script. Hisp. Moreri.-M. - MEDINA, Michael De, a learned Spanish franciscan friar in the sixteenth century, was born at Balalcazar, a village in the diocese of Cordova, but in what year is not known. The time of his death is also uncertain, though it probably took place between 1570 and 1580. Iłe was educated under the famous Alphonsus de Castro, and became profoundly skilled in divinity, the fathers and councils, the oriental languages and history. His writings are still held in much esteem among the Catholics; and very deservedly, according to Dupin, who highly commends his erudition, and ranks him, in point of merit, with the able writers of the eighteenth century, when discussing subjects in positive divinity. The principal of his works are, “ Christiana Paraenesis, sui de recta in Deum Fide, Lib. VII.” 1564, folio, which is analysed by the critic above mentioned; “De sacrorum Hominum continentia, Lib.V.,” 1568, folio, which treats of the institution of bishops, priests, and other ministers, and enters into a jong and laboured defence of the celibacy of the clergy; “Apologia Joannis Feri, in qua septem et sexaginta Loca Commentariorum in Joannem, quae antea Dominicus Soto Segoviensis Lutherana traduxerat, ex sacraScriptura, Sanctorumque Doctrina restituuntur,” 1578, folio, which was consigned at Rome to the Index expurgatorius : “Enarratio trium Locorum ex Cap II. Deuteronomii Cothedrae sanctarum Scripturarum Acad. Complut. assignatorum,” 1560, quarto; “ Expositiones in quartum Symboli Apostolorum Articulum,” 1565, quarto, &c. Antonii Fibl. Script. Hispan. Dupin. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—M. MEDINA, PETER DE, a celebrated Spanish mathematician in the sixteenth century, concerning whose personal history we have no other information than that he was a native of Seville, and an intimate acquaintance of the learned John Vaso us during his residence in that city, who, in the fourth chapter of his “Chronicon Hispanie,” has spoken in the highest terms of his skill in the mathematical sciences, and particularly in the art of navigation. On this subject he published a valuable work at Seville, in the Spanish language, entitled, “Arte de Navigar,” 1548, folio, which met with a very favourable reception, in foreign countries as well as Spain, and has been translated into the German, French, and Italian languages. Our author also published a work, descriptive of the objects which are chiefly deserving of attention in Spain, entitled, “Libro de las Grandezas y cosas memorables de Espanna, &c.” the whole of which Florian Docampo acknowledges that he has transcribed into his “History of Spain,” drawn up at the request of the emperor Charles V.; and he was the author of an excellent “Map of Spain,” which the famous Abraham Ortelius has followed in his “Theatrum Orbis Terræ.” For the titles and subjects of other pieces attributed to Medina, we refer to Antonii Bibl. Script. Hispan. Moreri...—M. MEEKREN, Job van, a skilful surgeon of the seventeenth century, was surgeon to the public hospital and admiralty of Amsterdam, and practised in his profession with much re

putation and success. He was the inventor cr improver of several instruments, and benefited the art of surgery by a collection of medicochirurgical cases, written in Dutch, and published after his death in 1668, octavo, at Amsterdam. It was translated into Latin by Abraham Blasius in 1682. The work is divided into seventy-two chapters, with an apÉ. of seventeen chapters, and contains the istories of a great number of diseases in the different branches of chirurgical practice, related with candour and simplicity, and affording examples of the most rational treatment of that time. Halleri Bibl. Chirurg. Eloy Dict. Hist. Med.—A. MEHEGAN, WILLIAM ALExANDER DE, an elegant miscellaneous French writer, was born in 1721 at la Salle in the Cevennes, of a family originally from Ireland, which followed the fortunes of James II. The delicacy of his constitution preventing him from adopting the profession of arms, in which his family had been distinguished, he cultivated letters, and particularly attached himself to the study of eloquence. Either from disposition or habit, he had formed a flowery and artificial style of expression even in conversation, which appeared like affectation,but was really become natural to him. When Frederic V. king of Denmark founded, in 1751, a professorship of the French language, M. de Méhégan composed a discourse which was pronounced at the opening of the lectures in Copenhagen. In 1752 he published a work entitled “L’Origine des Guebres; ou, La Religion naturelle mise en Action,” which was regarded as breathing the spirit of modern philosophy. His “Considerations sur les Revolutions des Arts,” and a volume of “Piéces fugitives” in verse, appeared in 1755; the latter proved that his talent lay more to prose than to poetry. In the following year he published “Memoires de la Marquise de Terville,” and “Letters d’Aspasiè ;” and, in 1759, “L’Origine, les Progres, et la Décadence de l'Idolatrie.” His most valuable performance did not issue from the press till some time after his death, which happened in January 1766. This was, “ Tableau de l’Histoire moderne,” three volumes 12mo. Among the sketches of modern history, this deserves a conspicuous place on account of the warmth and eloquence of the style, and the generally impartial and philosophical spirit by which it is animated. The author distributes his subject into seven epochas, beginning from the year 476, and concluding with the peace of

Westphalia in 1648. It is full of picture and portrait, upon which he sometimes throws too strong a glare of colouring ; he has, however, succeeded in making his work much more interesting than abridgments usually are, and at the same time has judiciously selected the points of instruction. It has been translated into English. Another posthumous work of this writer is “L’Histoire consideree vis a vis la Religion, les beaux-Arts, et l’Etat,” three vołumes 12mo. 1767. Necrologe Franc. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—A. MEIBOM, John HENRY (Lat. Meibomius), a learned physician, was born at Helmstadt in 1590. He travelled into Italy for improvement in the sciences, and after taking the degree of doctor at Basil, settled in his native city, where he occupied a medical chair in the university. In 1626 he removed to Lubeck, of which city and its bishop he was appointed physician. He died there in 1655. During his professorship at Helmstadt he printed several detached medical disputations. In 1643 he published at Leyden “Jusjurandum Hippocratis Gr. et Lat.,” quarto, with ample and learned commentaries, relative to the history of that father of medicine, his disciples, &c. His singular work “De usu flagrorum in Re medica et venerea,” Leid. 1639, 1643, was republished in 1669 with additional treatises on the subject by his son Henry, and Thomas Bartholine. After his death appeared his treatise “De cerevisiis, potibusque et inebriaminibus extra vinum aliis,” 1668, quarto, which is rather a philological than a medical or botanical work; and his “ Aurelii Cassiodorii Formula Comitis Archiatrorum cum Commentariis,” 1668, quarto. His principal performance, as a man of letters, was a life of Maecenas, entitled * Maecenas, sive de C. Cilnii Maecenatis vita, moribus et rebus gestis, Liber singularis,” 1653, quarto. In this piece he has compiled every thing related by original authors, concerning his subject, but with little method or acuteness of criticism. In the preface he mentions that he had drawn up a biographical catalogue of physicians and medical authors, which he meant to publish ; but it has never appeared. Moreri. Eloy Dict. Hist. Med. Halleri Bibl. Med.—A. o MEIBOM, HENRY, son of the preceding, also a physician and man of letters, was born at Lubeck in 1638. After studying at Helmstadt and in the Dutch universities, he travelled into Italy, France, and England, took the -degree of M. D. and returning to Germany,

was made a professor of medicine, in the university of Helmstadt. In 1678 he was appointed to the chairs of poetry and history, in conjunction with the former, which he held till his death in 1750. Henry Meibomius wrote a great number of dissertations on medical and anatomical topics, in which last science he may be reckoned an inventor, on account of his more accurate investigation of the sebaceous glands and ducts in the eyelid, discovered by Casserius, and his researches respecting the valves of the veins and the papillae of the tongue. He is, however, better known by his historical publications, the principal of which relate to Germany. I le wrote several pieces concerning the dukes of Brunswick and Lunenburg; and in 1687 he published “Ad Saxoniae, inferioris imprimis, historiam Introductio,” quarto, in which he treats of the works printed and manuscript which have been composed on the history of Saxony. His greatest work is “Rerum Germanicarum tomi tres,” folio, 1688, being a collection of writers on German history, first commenced by his grandfather Henry Meibomius ; with historical dissertations on a variety of topics. Moreri, 11alleri Bibl. Med. et Anatom.—A. MEIBOM, MARK, a learned writer, of the same family with the preceeding, was born at Tonningen in Sleswig. He turned his studies particularly to the music of the ancients; and in 1652 he published at Amsterdam an edition in two volumes quarto, of the seven Greek authors concerning music whose writings are extant, with a general preface, and a separate one to each of the treatises. To these he added the treatise “De Musica” of Martianus Capella. He dedicated the work to queen Christina of Sweden, who invited him to her court, then the resort of many learned men. His perpetual praises of Grecian music excited a desire in the queen to hear a performance upon the principles and with the instruments of antiquity, and a day was appointed for a public exhibition of this kind. Meibom himself, who had a bad voice and no practice in singing, undertook the vocal part ; and, as might be supposed, rendered himself supremely ridiculous. The general laughter of the audience provoked him to such a degree, that unmindful of the royal presence he ran up to Bourdelot, the queen's favourite and physician, whom he suspected of being the author of his disgrace, and gave him a blow on the face. He immediately quitted Stockholm and went to Copenhagen, where he was well received. He obtained a professorship in the college of Sora with the title of king's counsellor, and was afterwards made president of the board of customs at Elsineur. His irritable temperinvolved him in so many disputes, that he resigned or was dism.issed from this employment, and soon after settled at Amsterdam as professor of history in the collegiate school of that city. A quarrel with a burgomaster caused his dismission from this station, and he visited France and England, for the purpose, it is said, of selling the discovery which he thought he had made of the mode in which the ancient galleys were constructed. On this subject he published an essay entitled “Marci Meibomii de veteri fabrica triremium Liber,” 1671, quarto. Returning to Amsterdam, he died there at a very advanced age in 17 Io or 1711. Besides the works above mentioned, he published “Davidis Psalmi XII. et totidem sacrae Scripturæ Veteris Testamenti integra capita, prisco Hebræo metro restituta, et cum tribus Interpretationibus edita,” 1698, folio, which was a specimen of his plan of emendation of the Hebrew text of the Bible by means of a metrical system which he fancied he had discovered. He also wrote notes to Menage's edition of “Diogenes Laertius,” and printed editions of the “Greek Mythologists,” of “Epictetus and Cebes’ Table.” He was a man of deep and extensive erudition, but little under the controul of sound judgment. 44%reri. Hawkins' Hist. of Music.—A.

MEISNER, BALTHASAR, an eminent Ger-.

man Lutherandivine and professor in the seventeenth century, was born at Dresden in Saxony, in the year 1587. At the age of fifteen he was sent to pursue his academical studies at the University of Wittemberg, where he was ad

mitted to the degree of M.A. in 1604. Af

terwards he applied with great diligence to the study of divinity, and acquired no little reputation by his exercises in the public schools, both in that faculty and in philosophy. In 1609 he quitted Wittemberg, and studied during two years in the Universities of Strasburg, Tubingen, and Giessen. In 1611, he was recalled to Wittemberg, where he was appointed professor of moral philosophy, and discharged the duties of that office with great applause. In 1612, he was created doctor of divinity ; and two years afterwards was elected to the theological chair, which he filled with great honour and

success during the remainder of his life. In

1624, he was nominated assessor of the consistory; and he was thrice raised to the post of rector of the university. By the indefatigable

diligence with which he applied to the duties of his several appointments, he injured his constitution, which was naturally delicate, and at length brought on a fever, which proved fatal to him in 1626, when he was only forty years of age. He was the author of “Commentarius in Hoseam ;” “Meditationes sacrae in Evangelia,” octavo ; “Anthropologia Sacra,” published in 1663, in two volumes quarto; “Philosophia Sobria, hoc est, consideratio Quaestionum Philosophicarum, &c.” published in 1665, in three volumes quarto ; and a multitude of “Dissertations,” “Orations,” “Disputations,”“Sermons,” controversial treatises, &c. the titles of which are given in Freheri Theatrum Vir. Erudit. Clar. A soreri.-M. MELANCTHON, PHILIP, one of the wisest and best men of his age, and an illustrious instrument in bringing about the great work of the reformation, was born at Bretten in the Palatinate upon the Rhine, on the sixteenth of February, 1495. His family surname was Schwartserdt, literally meaning Black Earth, which Reuchlin changed for Melancthon, a word in Greek of the same signification. He received his early education in his native place, where for some time he attended the public school, and was afterwards placed under the care of a private tutor. From Bretten he was sent to the college of Pfortsheim, and had lodgings in that town at the house of one of his relations, who was sister to the famous Reuchlin; by which means he became known to that learned man, who conceived a tender affection for him. After remaining here about two years, in 15cQ he was removed to Heidelberg, where he made such a rapid and uncommon proficiency in literature, that, before he had completed his fourteenth year, he was entrusted with the tuition of the sons of the count of Leonstein. So early an exhibition of extraordinary talents and improvement was deservedly celebrated by Baillet, who has bestowed a chapter upon him in his “Historical Treatise of young Men, who became famous by their Study or Writings.” From that we learn, among other curious particulars, that at the age of thirteen, our young scholar dedicated to Reuchlin a comedy which he wrote without any assistance. M. Baillet adds, “that he was employed to make the greatest part of the harangues and orations, which were delivered

in public” in the university of Heidelberg; in

which statement he is confirmed by the testimony of Melchior Adam. In the year 151 1, he was admitted to the degree of B. A. ; but

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having made application for the highest degree in arts during the following year, and meeting with a refusal, on account of his youth; and finding also that the air of Heidelberg did not agree with his constitution; he took his leave of that university, and entered himself of Tubingen. Here he diligently attended the different professors of classical and polite learning, J. mathematics, philosophy, divinity, law, and even medicine, and added considerably to the stores of knowledge which he had before acquired. After having afforded the most satisfactory evidences of his abilities and literary progress, in the year 1513, before he had attained the age of seventeen, Melancthon was created doctor of philosophy, or M. A. From the time of receiving this degree, he remained about four years at Tubingen, during which he still attended the several professors, and delivered not only private but public lectures himself, on Virgil, Terence, Cicero, and Livy, with the greatest applause, and to crowded audiences. He also assisted Reuchlin in his controversy with the monks, and, either on account of the talents discovered by him in his polemical pieces, or some other of his productions published when he was very young, drew from the pen of Erasmus the following fine encomium, when writing his paraphrase on I. Thessal. II. : “But, good God | what hopes may we not entertain of Philip Melancthon, who, though as yet very young, and almost a boy, is equally to be admired for his knowledge in both languages what quickmess of invention what purity of diction | what powers of memory ! what variety of reading! what modesty and gracefulness of behaviour !”. This encomium John James Grynaeus has introduced into the parallel which he has given between the prophet Daniel and Melancthon, in the first [. of his “Epist. Select.” While at Tubingen, likewise, Melancthon diligently studied the sacred scriptures, and always carried about with him a Bible which he had received as a present from Reuchlin. By holding this constantly in his hand, and frequently referring to it during divine service, he excited a considerable degree of curiosity, as it was much larger than a Prayer-book; and those who envied him, endeavoured from this circumstance to excite prejudices against him, by insinuating, that he spent his time at church in reading what was unbecoming the place and occasion. In the year 1518, Frederic, elector of Saxony, in consequence of the recommendation of

Reuchlin, offered Melancthon the professorship of the Greek language in the university of Wittemberg, which he accepted; and by his inaugural speech, not only removed the unfavourable impressions which his youth and rather mean personal appearance had created, but excited the highest applause and admiration. This year he began to read lectures upon Homer, and the Greek text of the epistle of St. Paul to Titus, which were attended by crowds of pupils, and contributed greatly to promote the study of Greek literature. Among the letters which Luther wrote about this time to his friends, some are quoted by Melchior Adam, which contain warm commendations of our young professor's profound skill in that language, and the wonderful diversity of his literary attainments. In this situation the cause of learning was highly indebted to him on several accounts, and particularly for reducing the several sciences into systems; which, owing to the vague and confused manner in which they had before been taught, was a task of no little difficulty. In the year 1 & 19, he published his “Rhetoric;” in the following year his “Logic;” four years afterwards his “Grammar ;” and subsequently a multitude of works, in exegetical and controversial divinit

&c., the principal of which will be enumerated at the end of this article. From the time of his settling at Wittemberg, Melancthon contracted a close intimacy and friendship with Luther, and accompanied him to Leipsic in the year 1519, to be a witness of his ecclesiastical combat with Eckius. Hitherto, Melancthon, though he approved Luther's design of deli. vering the science of theology from the darkness and subtilty of scholastic jargon, had been rendered averse from engaging in disputes of this kind, by the mildness of his temper, and his elegant taste for polite literature. On this occasion he appears to have been in some degree a party, and by the acuteness of his observations to have provoked the rage of Ecklus, who called upon Luther to discard the aid of “that bundle of distinctions,” whom he also scornfully styled “the grammarian.” The issue of this debate we have already related in the life of Luther, and also the effect produc. ed by it on the mind of Melancthon, who was convinced of the excellence of that reformer's cause, and by the services which afterwards rendered to it, made his name immortal. In the year 1520, he delivered a course of lectures at Wittemberg, by way of exposition of the epistle of St. Paul to the Romans; with which

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