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in a new character in 1789, when he published a novel entitled “Zeluco; Various Views of Human Nature,” two volumes duodecimo. In this work, he displayed a knowledge of mankind, and a force of moral painting, which rendered it much superior to the ordinary comsitions of this class, and at once placed him i. among the writers of fictitious narratives. It is probable, indeed, that many of the personages and dialogues introduced in his travels were the offspring of invention, though employed to elucidate real national manners. The French Revolution was the topic that next employed his pen. He had viewed some of its effects upon the spot, and in 1793 he published “A Journal during a Residence in France, from the Beginning of August to the Middle of December 1792 : to which is added, an Account of the most remarkable Events that happened at Paris from that Time to the Death of the late King of France,” two volumes, octavo. In this work he follows his usual method of anecdote and description intermixed with remarks; and of the many writers on this interesting subject, he may rank among the most impartial and discerning. The same character was merited by his “View of the Causes and Progress of the French Revolution,” two v lumes, octavo, 1795. The rapid changes that have since occurred in France and the rest of Europe have, however, thrown these works out of circulation. Recurring to fiction, Dr. Moore, in 1796, published his “Edward; Various Views of Human Nature, taken from Life and Manners, chiefly in England,” two volumes, octavo. This chiefly consists of conversation pieces and detached incidents, in which the author's characteristic dry humour displays itself with some success, but upon the whole becomes rather stale. The last product of his fertile pen was “Mordaunt,” a novel, in three volumes, octavo, published in 1800, which seems to have been regarded as the offspring of a nearly exhausted invention. Dr. Moore spent the last years of life in retirement at Richmond, where he died in 1803, regretted for his social and domestic virtues. He lest a promising family of sons, one of whom he had the satisfaction of seeing advanced to a high military station, and universally esteemed for his skill and bravery. Month. Rev. Biog. Scot.—A. MOORE, SIR Jonas, an eminent Englishmathematicianin the seventeenth century, was born at Whitlee in Lancashire, about the year 162o. He enjoyed the advantages of a liberal schooleducation ; and afterwards applied himself
principally to the study of the mathematics, for which, from his childhood, he had discovered a strong partiality. This favourite pursuit he cultivated with great diligence and success, and acquired such reputation for his proficiency, that during one of the expeditions of king Charles I. into the northern parts of England, he was introduced to his majesty, as a person studious and learned in those sciences. Upon conversing with him the king expressed much approbation of his acquirements, and gave him a promise of encouragement; which laid the foundation of his future fortune. Afterwards he was appointed mathematical tutor to the king's second son James, to instruct him in arithmetic, geography, the use of the globes, &c. During Cromwell's government, he appears to have followed the profession of a public teacher of mathematics; for he is styled in the title-pages of some of his publications, “professor of the mathematics.” Mr. Granger says, in his “Biographical History of England,” that he was employed by the commissioners for draining and dividing the sens; and in his survey took notice that the sea made a curve line on the beach, from which he took the hint to keep it effecto ally out of Norfolk. This added much to his reputation; but no mention is made of the period of his life when he was thus occupied. After the restoration of king Charles II. he was noticed and employed by that prince, who bestowed on him the honour of knighthood, and at length promoted him to the important office of surveyor-general of the ordnance. He appears to have been a great favourite both with the king and the duke of York, who often consulted him, and followed his advice upon ..". occasions. To his honour it ought to recorded, that he frequently availed himself of his interest at court for the advancement of learning, the encouragement of merit, and the establishment of institutions highly favourable and beneficial to the interests of the public, and of science in general. He patronized the famous Mr. Flamsteed, who had but a very scanty income at Cambridge when he took him under his protection. In connection with sir Christopher Wren, he persuaded the king to erect Flamstoed house at Greenwich, for a public observatory, in 1675, recommending Mr. Flamsteed to be the king's astronomer, to make observations there; and being surveyor-general of the ordnance himself, this was the reason why the salary of the astronomer-royal was madepayable cut of the office of ordnance. Being elected a governor of Christ's hospital, he appears to have been instrumental in persuading the king to found the mathematical school there, with the allowance of a handsome salary for a master to instruct a certain number of the boys in mathematics and navigation, to qualify them for the sea service. It ought not to be concealed, that the duke of York also took a zealous and active part in determining his brother to found this useful establishment. This foundation presented sir Jonas with an opportunity of exerting his abilities in a manner agreeable to his wishes, namely, that of serving the rising generation. And reflecting within himself on the benefit which the nation might receive from a mathematical school if properly conducted, he made it his utmost care to promote its improvement. In pursuance of his majesty's grant, the school was established; but there was still wanting a methodical institution, from which the youths might receive such necessary helps as their studies required: a laborious work, from which his other great and assiduous employments might very well have exempted him, had not a predominant regard to a more general usefulness determined him to devote all the leisure hours of his declining years to the improvement of such an useful and important seminary of learning. Having thus engaged himself in the prosecution of this generous undertaking, he sketched out a plan or system of mathematics for the use of the school, and afterwards drew up and printed several parts of it himself; but death put an end to his labours, before the work was completed. We are not informed of the year when this event took place; but it could not be long before 1681, when the work was published by his sons-in-law, Mr. Hanway and Mr. Potinger, who spared neither expence nor labour to have it finished in the best manner, and in securing proper assistants for that purpose. Besides the “New Systemcof the Mathematics,” &c. in two volumes, quarto, above mentioned, Sir Jonas published, “Arithmetic, in two Books, viz.Vulgar Arithmetic, and Algebra. To which are added two Treatists, the one, a new Contemplation Geometrical, upon the oval Figure called the Ellipsis; the other, the two first Books of Mydorgius, his Conical Sections analyzed,” 1660, octavo; “A Miathematical Compendium; or, useful Practices in Arithmetic, Geometry, and Astronomy, Geography, and Navigation,” &c. &c. the fourth edition of which is dated in 1795, 12mo, “A General Treatise of Artillery; or, Great Ordt OL. VII.
nance. Written in Italian by Tomaso Moretii of Brescia. Translated into English, with Notes thereupon, and some Additions out of French for Sea-gunners. By Sir Jonas Moore, Knt." octavo, with the date of 1688. Preface to the new Systeine of the Mathematics, Martin's Biog. Phil. Hutton’s Math. Dict.—M. MOORE, PHILIP, a learned and very respectable clergyman of the church of England in the eighteenth century, was born about the year 17c6; but we have no information concerning the place of his birth, or of his education. Having been admitted into holy orders, he was made chaplain to the venerable Dr. Wilson, bishop of Sodor and Mann, whose friend and companion he was for many years. At the funeral of that excellent prelate he was appointed to preach the sermon on that occasion, which is inserted at the end of the second volume of Cruttwell's edition of the bishop's works. He became rector of Kirkbride, and chaplain of 1)ouglas in the Isle of Mann; and besides discharging his ministerial duties with great diligence and fidelity, devoted much of his time to the education of young persons for undertaking the sacred office among the Manks. He also performed the arduous task of revising the translation of the holy scriptures into the Manks language; and while he was employed on it was honoured with the advice of those learned Hebræans, bishop Lowth and Dr. Kennicott. This work was recommended to him by the society for promoting christian knowledge; at whose request he likewise translated into the same language, the Book of Common Prayer, bishop Wilson on the Sacrament, and other pious pieces printed for the use of the diocese of Mann. He died at Douglas in 1783, in the seventy-eighth year of his age. He maintained an extensive correspondence in the literary world, and was regarded in a highly respectable light, both as a divine and as a scholar. In performing his duty as a clergyman he was uncommonly zealous and active, and it is not easy to say whether he produced greater effect on his flock by his doctrine or example: in both religion appeared most amiable, and addressed herself to their judgements cloathed , in that cheerfortss which is the result of the firmest conviction, and the greatest purity of intention. His conversation, prompted by an uncommon quickness of parts, and refined by study, was at once lively, instructive, and entertaining; and his friendly correspondence breathed perhaps as much original humour as can be met with in any writer who has appeared in public, Sterne C C
not excepted, to whom he did not yield, even in philanthropy. His remains were attended to the grave by a great number of the most respectable inhabitants, and by the whole body of the clergy of the island, all of whom, four only excepted, had been educated by him. Gentleman’s Magaz. for Feb. 1783–M. MOPINOT, SIMon, a learned French Benedictine monk of the congregation of St. Maur, who flourished, in the o century, was born at Rheims, in the year 1685. After having been instructed in grammar learning at his native city, at fifteen years of age he was sent to the monastery of St. Faron de Meaux, where he took the vows in 1703. He went through his courses of philosophy and divinity at St. Dennis, and secured the esteem of his superiors by his literary improvement, as well as by his piety and regularity. He taught the classics and rhetoric for some years at Point-le-Foi, in the diocese of Blois, with great success. He also occasionally appeared in the pulpit, and was much admired as a preacher. About the year 1715, his superiors called him to Paris, where he was associated with father Peter Coustant in preparing his laborious collection of “the Letters of the Popes.” . The first volume of this work was published in 17212 in folio, with 2. dedication and preface by father Mopinot, which do him honour as an elegant writer and judicious critic. The preface, however, excited displeasure at Rome, where it was maintained that he had not done justice to the pretensions of some of the sovereign pontiffs; but he ably vindicated himself against this charge, in a letter addressed to the attorney-general of his order, which was printed in quarto. Upon the death of father Coustant, in 1721, the whole care of continuing this collection devolved upon our author: and he sedulously devoted to it all the time which a punctual and conscientious attention to his religious duties permitted. He was prepared to print a second volume, when he was attacked by a violent dysentery, of which he died in 1734, in the thirty-ninth year of his age. Father Mopinot wrote in Latin with all the purity and elegance of the best authors; and he had considerable pretensions to poetic enius. In different monasteries of his order & Hymns” of his composition were chanted, whićh good judges prefer to those of M. San; teuil de St. Victor for genuine devotional sentiment and spirit, while they are inferior to the latter in point of energy and liveliness of imagery. He was also the author of the dedicatory pistlepresixed to the “Thesaurus Anec
dotum,” of fathers Martenne and Durand ; and “a funeral Eulogium” in Latin, on M. Prousteau, professor of law in the university of Orleans. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—M. MORABIN, JAMEs, a man of letters, secretary to the lieutenant-general of the police in Paris, was a native of La Fleche, and died in 1762. He published, a “Translation of Cicero's Treatise on Laws, and of the Dialogue on Orators attributed to Tacitus,” 1722 : “Histoire de l'Exil de Ciceron,” an esteemed work, which has been translated into English: “Histoire de Ciceron,” two volumes, quarto, 1745; this work appeared nearly at the same time with that of Middleton on the same subject, and shared with it in reputation : “Nomenclator Ciceronianus,” 1757: a “Translation of Boetius de Consolatione,” 1753. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—A. MORALES, AMBRosio DE, a Spanish historian and antiquarian, was born at Cordoba in the year 1513, of a truly good family. His father, Antonio de Morales, was a physician, of such reputation that the marquis de Pliego presented to him the house in which Seneca was . said to have lived, saying, that the dwelling of the wisest Cordoban ought to be inhabited by none but by a Cordoban, who was himself equally wise ; and cardinal Cisneros appointed him to the first chair of philosophy at Alcala. Fernan Perez de Oliva was his maternal grandfather. Ambrosio says, that he had availed himself of his learned geographical work, Imagen del Mundo, as of a thing which was his own by inheritance. By a maternal uncle of the same name, who was professor of philosophy and theology at Salamanca, he was educated, and trained up in the way which he should go. He studied under Juan de Medina at Alcala, under Melchior Cano at Salamanca, became a ood Grecian, and while yet a youth translated the fable of Cebes. But, however strong were his aspirations for literary fame, religious enthusiasm mingled with, and at one time suppressed them. St. Hermenegild and St. Domingo were the objects of his especial devotion . At the beginning and end of all his books he wrote the name of Jesus, with an alpha and omega, and composed a pious coupset in honour of the name, worthy, says his last biographer, to be printed in our hearts.
Dulce mihi nihil esse precor, si nomen. Jesu Dulce absit cum sit hoc sine dulce nihil.
He wrote these lines in all his books, even in his accounts; sometimes using as a motto, Tiempo fire, que tiempo no fué. Time was when time was not; sometimes as an emblem, four
ravens flying down with bread and meat in their epitaph which Ambrosio placed upon his mo
bills, in reference to Elijah, and the motto Adjicientur. These outward and visible marks of devotion he continued during his whole life, and all his works testify the most blind and contented superstition. But in his youth it was a raging frenzy. At the age of nineteen he resolved to renounce the world, and accordingly entered a Jeronymite convent near Cordoba, under the name of Ambrosio de Santa Paula. His fervour continued during the year of probation, and he professed. He had conquered the world, but the flesh and the devil were still to be subdued, and Ambrosio was as desperate a fanatic as ever engaged in this wild warfare. Determining to secure himself against temptation, like Origen, the method which he took was the most complete and dangerous. At the moment of amputation, an involuntary shriek escaped him, and brought one of the brethren to his cell, who found him lying in his own blood. They ran for his father, and mean time burnt a felt hat, and choked the wound with the ashes; it was afterwards cauterized, the crust of ashes still remaining on it. When the father heard what he had done, he exclaimed to his wife, Loco yo y loca tu, que haliemos de tener Jino un loco 2 I a fool and you a fool— what but a fool could we expect to have 2– Ambrosio recovered of the operation; his fanaticism sobered down into a quiet and settled bigotry, but it ceased to be the ruling passion. Thuanus says, “that in consequence of this circumstance, he was expelled the order. Nicolas Antonio repeats this after him; but Thuanus wrote at a distance, and is mistaken in one material circumstance, making him a Dominican instead of a Jeronymite. Be this as it may, he left the order, being, if not expelled, permitted to remove. I le set off for Rome to procure a dispensation for this purpose, and also for the irregularity which he had incurred. On his way to the ship in which he was to embark, he fell out of the boat: he could not swim, was entangled in his habit, and sunk twice; but the third time he caught a pole which was 1 eld out from a ship, by the special help of St. Hermenegild, according to his own belief. He took this as a manifest sign that he was not to proceed on the voyage, and went to court instead, where his friends had interest enough to procure for him the requisite dispensations, and from this time forward he lived as a secular priest. Shortly afterwards his father died: the estimation in which he was held is shewn by the
His mother soon entered a convent, and from this time Morales had no family cares or other interruptions to impede his literary career. A professorship at Alcala was given him, where D. Juan de Austria was one of his pupils. It is pleasant to see with what affection he speaks of his pupils, acknowledging the assistance which he received from some of them in his antiquarian researches.
Ambrosio’s earliest wish had been to excel as a Castilian writer, a desire which he sucked in, he says, with his mother's milk. Her father's works, the reputation of his own father, and of his uncle who was as a father to him, were all so many stimulants to a mind already well disposed by nature. The great and earliest object of his ambition was to investigate the antiquities, and write the History of Spain. As early as the year 1541, he began to collect materials, but it was not till 1560 that he seriously thought of arranging them. A conversation with the Italian so at Toledo excited him to commence this task; they spoke of it as disgraceful to Spain that it should be without a history. But this was soon suspended. Florian Ocampo the chronicler, who had published the whole fabulous history, told him he had actually proceeded down to the gothic period, and written the antiquities also. Morales therefore laid aside all thoughts of labouring upon a subject which had already been executed by a man of learning and celebrity. It was not long after that Ocampo died, and just enough was found among his papers to shew that he had written nothing more than the published volume, except §§ of the next book.
He was now made chronicler himself; but his first appearance as an author was as the defender of Zurita against the envious enemies of that excellent historian. His next work was in some degree official. Philip II. had translated the reliques of the young saints Justus and
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Pastor to Alcala, and Morales was as much called upon by his office as his inclination to record this important event; so he published a history of their martyrdom and translation, and of the rejoicings on the occasion. On the death of the chronicler Juan Paez de Castro, Philip sent him to inspect his papers, which were, in such cases, the king's property. This, his first literary mission, took place 1570. In the ensuing year he was appointed to examine the collection of councils called the Codex Albel. densis, which the conde de Buendia had presented to the king. Philip, detestable as he was, had yet many qualities to distinguish him from common bigots and common tyrants. He had a true love of literature, and was now endeavouring to make the library of the Escurial worthy the most powerful king in Europe and in the world. The bishop of Plasencia had been a collector of manuscripts; upon his death Morales was sent to select such as deserved a place among the king's. The Codex Emilianensir, another collection of councils, was one of these ; and the last biographer of Morales has in his possession the index which he made of its contents. Mean time he proceeded with his great work as well as such interruptions would permit. Ocampo had just left off where he would have chosen to begin. Ocampo loved fables, and the dark and fabulous period suited him; Morales was advised to begin in like manner from the beginning, but such tales were little adapted to satisfy a scrutinizing and sceptical antiquarian, as Morales was upon all subjects wherein religion was not concerned. Besides this motive, there is, says he, the respect which I bear, as there is reason, towards Florian. He was my friend, and it is just that I should preserve that friendship in the thing most especially his own, which remains of him. . Besides, this much is due to him for what he has done, and done so well; and every man well versed in literature is bound to defend and protect his work, and the fame which he has deserved thereby. Privilege was granted him to re-print the work of Ocampo with his own. After he had brought down his history to the destruction of the Gothic kingdom, he was sent through Leon, Galicia, and Asturias, to examine the state of the reliques, archives, royal sepulchres and libraries, in those provinces. . This mission employed him eight months. His journal, which contains much curious matter, was first published from the original manu
script in the Escurial by the excellent antiquarian Florez, 1765, and has since been inserted in the complete collection of Ambrosio’s works, Madrid, 1791-2. While he was thus occupied, his history was in the hands of the censors Zurita and Fr. Juan de la Vega; the historian being appointed to examine the civil, the friar the ecclesiastical part. But he discovered so much in the course of his mission, that it was necessary to revise the work. The first volume was ublished at Alcala in 1574. A few months i. it appeared, he published the works of St. Eulogio, a saint, who persuaded a number of simple people to insult the religion of their Moorish governor in the hope of martyrdom, an honour which the Moors were obliged to confer upon them.—Bedlams not having been instituted. Morales had not originally intended to bring down his history beyond the Moorish conquest; but he was induced to continue it by the pleasure of introducing these Cordovan martyrs, a subject doubly gratifying to him as a Cordovan and a devotee. Some interruptions delayed the work. A mine of the relics of these very martyrs was sprung in 1575, and Morales was deputed to investigate it. He became, as he says, their agent and advocate; and obtained a decree first from the bishop, and afterwards from the provincial council of Toledo, that these were the bones of saints, and therefore worthy to be venerated. Public rejoicings were made at Cordova; unfortunately the Campo Santo, which, as its name implies, had been hallowed by the blood of so many martyrs, was pitched upon as the place for the bull-fight. Morales remonstrated with Don Diego de los Rios, the manager of the festival; he was a young man, and would not be persuaded to change the ground; one of the bulls gored him, the rejoicings were put a stop to, and he died the next day, an accident as well or ill-timed as if the devil worked miracles for his Babylonian mistress. The second volume of his History was pub
lished in 1577, and with it the Book of the An-
tiquities of Spain, which had been printed two years before. The remaining volume was lon
delayed. In 1578, he was appointed by the archbishop of Toledo to the office of vicar and administrator of the hospital de la Puente del Arzobispo, which he held four years, and then resigned, because it required too much application and activity for a man of his years and habits. During the whole of this time, the History was laid aside. He finished the third