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himself to the leading men in the nation, and rs a proper person to assist in paving the way for that event. With this design, he talked much to the Presbyterians of moderation in general, without entering into particulars, and took care to court their good opinion by letting them know that he was a Calvinist. The royalists he found it necessary to check in their too-forward zeal, and in their unseasonable threatenings of revenge upon the republican party. But his principal commission was to contradict, in the most absolute and solemn manner, the report that the king was become a convert to popery. There is no reason to doubt but that Dr. Morley firmly believed it to be entirely unfounded, as he strenuously maintained; though the event showed that he was a complete dupe to the king's scandalous hypocrisy. Upon the restoration of Charles II. 1)r. Morley was not only restored to his canonry, but promoted within a few weeks to the deanery of Christ-church; and no sooner had he reinstated the members of the college who had been ejected by the parliamentary visitors, and filled up the other vacant places, than he was nominated to the bishopric of Worcester, and consecrated in October 1660. In the following year he was one of the principal managers, and indeed the chief speaker, among the bishops, at the famous Savoy conference. Here he showed that he possessed little of that moderation which he had formerly talked about to the Presbyterians; for his manner was vehement, and he was obstimate against making the least concession to the puritan party. Soon after this he was made dean of the chapelroyal ; and in 1662, upon the death of Dr. Duppa, he was translated to the see of Winchester, to which he proved a munificent benefactor. He was likewise a benefactor to the university of Oxford, in which he received his cducation; for he gave a hundred pounds a year to Christ-church-college, and he founded in Pembroke-college, three scholarships for the isle of Jersey, and two for Guernsey, of ten pounds per annum each. On these, and other objects of beneficence and charity, bishop Morley expended the greatest part of his ample income. His constitution was naturally excellent; and by temperance and regular exercise he protracted his life to a very advanced period: for he did not die before October 1684, when he was in the eighty seventh year of his age. Bishop Burnet says of him, that “he was in many respects a very eminent man, pious and charitable, of a very exemplary life, considerably learned, but extremely pissionate and very ob

stinate. . He was a Calvinist with relation to the Arminian points, and was thought a friend to the Puritans before the wars: but he took care after his promotion to free himself from all suspicions of that kind.” Towards the latter part of his life, however, having had sufficient experience of the little success in reclaiming them produced by severity and rigour, he showed greater moderation towards the dissenters. He published only some single sermons, and controversial tracts, several of which were collected together, and reprinted in , 1683, quarto. The titles of these and of some smaller pieces may be seen in the Biog. Brit. Burnet's Hist. of his own Time, Vol. I. p. 177, 590. Calamy's Abridg. Life of Baxter, Vol. II. p. 171.-M. MORLIN, JoAcHIM, a celebrated German Lutheran divine and bishop in the sixteenth century, was born in the year 1514; but in what place we are not informed. After having laid a good foundation of the requisite preparatory learning, he entered upon his academical studies at the university of Wittemberg, where he distinguished himself by his proficiency in philosophy and theology, and by his skill as a disputant in the schools. Having been admitted to the ministry, he discharged the duties of that profession, first at Wittemberg, and then at Eisleben,Wollin in Pomerania, and Arnstadt. In the year 1540, he was admitted to the degree of doc tor of divinity at Wittemberg. About three years after this he was expelled from Arnstadt by the magistrates, on account of his intemperate zeal in defending the cause of rigid Lutheranism; upon which he removed to Gottingen, and afterwards to Schleusingen. About the year 1551 he accepted of an invitation from Albert, duke of Prussia, to become a professor at the newly-founded university of Konigsberg. Here, he was soon involved in controversy with Osiander, who propagated notions concerning repentance, and the means of justification with God, widely different from the doctrines of Luther on these points. These novel tenets Morlin opposed with extreme warmth, both in his sermons and writings; but Osiander's influence with the duke prevailed against him, and he was deprived of his professorship, and banished from the Prussian territories, in the year 1552, notwithstanding the intercession of the inhabitants of Konigsberg in his favour. Morlin did not continue long unemployed: for he received an invitation from the church of Brunswick, where he was chosen colleague to the celebrated Chemnitz. While hc continued in this connection, the most violent disputes agitated the Lutheran party, on the subjects of the necessity of good works, the freedom of the human will, justification by faith alone, &c. Into these disputes Morlin entered among the foremost, and was present at almost all the conferences to which they gave rise. When adverting to the heat and viruTence with which they were conducted, Bayle remarks, that “all the fiery spirits which Africa and Asia ever produced, were but phlegm in comparison with these German doctors.” To such an outrageous length did Morlin permit his zeal to carry him against his antagonists, that, it is said, he opposed the burial of those who attended on the sermons of Osiander, and would never be persuaded to baptize their children. In the year 1556, the influence of Osiander being no longer predominant at the court of Prussia, Morlin was recalled to that country, where he was appointed bishop of the province of Sambia, by Sigismund Augustus, king of Poland, and Albert, duke of Prussia. This post he occupied during the remainder of his life, and died in 1571, at the age of fiftyseven, in consequence of his submitting to the operation of cutting for the stone, contrary to the advice of his physicians. He was the author of “Psalmorum Davidis Ennarratio,” which is his most important work; “Catechismus Germanicus;” “Postilla et Explicatio Summaria Evangeliorum Dominicalium;’ “Refutatio Mendacii Theologorum Heildelbergensium, de Luthero;” “De Vocatione Ministrorum, et quatemus Magistratui fas sit eos ab officio removere;” “Defensio adversus Accusationem novorum Wittembergensium Theologorum;” “De peccato originis contra Manichæorum Deliria;” “Epistolae ad Ossiandrum,” &c. Melchior Adam. Wit. Germ. Theol. Bayle. Moreri...—M. MORNAY, PHILIP DE, lord of Plessis-Marly, an illustrious French Protestant and able advocate for the Christian religion, who flourished in the sixteenth and former part of the seventeenth century, was born at Buhy or Bishuy, in the French Vexin, in the year 1549. His father, James de Mornay, was a descendant from an ancient and noble family, and in time of war was always ready to serve his sovereign in the field; but in time of peace led a retired life on his estates. As he was zealously attached to the Romish religion, he intended to educate Philip, who was one of his younger children, to the ecclesiastical profession; to which he was particularly induced by the circumstance that his brother, Bertin de Mornay, dean of Beauvais and abbot of Saumur near Boulogne,

had promised to resign those benefices to his nephew. These prospects, however, were disappointed when Philip was in his eighth year, by the death of our dignitary. In the mean time his mother, who was the daughter of Charles du Bec Crespin, vice-admiral of . France, had secretly become a convert to the protestant religion, and had taken care to instil its principles into her son's mind. When he was eight years old, Philip was placed in the college de Lisieux at Paris, where he continued two years, and was then sent for home to be present at the funeral of his father, who died toward the close of the year 1560. In the following year his mother made an open profession of the protestant religion, and had its rites performed at the mansion of Buhy. Here Philip remained from the time of his father's death till the commencement of theyear I 562, impatient at being kept so long from his studies, and imperfectly retaining, with the assistance of books, what he had already learned; when his mother gave her consent for his return to Paris. Scarcely had he resumed his studies three months, when they were again interrupted, owing to the scandalous breach of the edict by which the Protestants enjoyed the free exer. eise of their religion, and it was found prudent for him to retire to the family seat. When he was fourteen years of age, the Protestants having once more obtained peace, his mother formed an intention of procuring for him the place of page of the chamber to the king; but, yielding to his earnest entreaties, and the advice of some friends, she relinquished that design, and permitted him to return to the prosecution of his studies at Paris. Here he applied with the closest diligence during four years, anxious to redeem the time. which he had lost; and so great was his proficiency, in the learned languages, including the Hebrew, the belles lettres, philosophy, and the mathematics, that his tutors could not but express their astonishment, and the most learned men were lavish in their praises of his abilities and acquirements. Together with his other studies, he had paid particular attention to that of divinity, and become a well-informed and determined adherent to the principles of the protestant religion. Before he had completed his eighteenth year, his uncle the bishop of Nantes, afterwards archbishop of Rheims, came to Paris, and having examined the progress which he had made in the languages and the sciences, was pleased at finding that it greatly exceeded what could have been expected at his years. Afterwards he

conversed with him on the subject of religion, and endeavoured to tempt him to become a Catholic, by a promise of resigning his bishopric to him at some future period, and by immediately presenting him to the priory of Vertou, for holding which he was qualified by the clerical tonsure that he had received when originally destincá by his father to the church. M. du Plessis thanked his uncle for the offers which he made him, but declined

accepting them, as he could not do so without

violating his conscience. About the year 1567, upon the recommencement of the troubles in France, M. du Plessis found himself under the necessity of quitting Paris, and retiring to Buhy. Having heard on his arrival that two of his maternal uncles were upon the point of taking up arms, he applied to his mother for her consent to his seiving under one of them, M. de Vardes, who was a colonel of light cavalry at the battle of St. Dennis After repeated refusals, she at length yielded to his solicitations, and he was proceeding towards the army, when his horse fell wish him; by which accident he broke both bones of his left leg. During the confinement necessary to his cure, he courted an acquaintance with the Muses, and composed a poem in French on the civil war, and some sonnets in praise of M. M. de Coligni, which he gave after the peace to cardinal Chastillon; and it is supposed that they were destroyed at the }; of his library in the following war. Puring the insidious peace which was signed in 1568, M. du Plessis commenced a design which he had formed of travelling into foreign countries, not only out of curiosity and a desire of improvement, but that he might make use of some baths, which it was hoped would contribute to the more perfect recovery of his crippled limb. He arrived at Geneva in the month of August, having with great difficulty and danger crossed the kingdom, as the towns were all filled with soldiers, and the passages guarded by parties inimical to those of the reformed religion. His stay at Geneva was very short, because the plague was then in the city: he therefore assed on through Switzerland, and went to Hj. in Germany. Here he resided with Emmanuel Tremellius, a man of great learning, and a very able Hebraist; and he presented letters of recommendation from cardinal Chastillon to the elector Palatine Frederic, who gave him a most gracious reception. In this place he began the study of the civil law, and in six months made himself so

far acquainted with the German language, as to be able to read and understand all sorts of books written in it. In the year 1569, M. du Plessis went to Francfort, where he became acquainted with M. Languet, a very learned and pious man, and accomplished statesman, who had been employed on embassies to most of the princes of Europe. This gentleman conceived a strong affection for our young traveller, to whom he gave instructions for his future tours; and when he found that he was going to Italy, furnished him with recommendatory letters to M. de Foix, the French ambassador at Venice, and to many other public men. M. du Plessis made some stay at Padua, for the purpose of improving himself in the study of the civil law ; and while he continued there, he usually spent his evening hours of relaxation at the botanical garden, making himself acquainted with the nature and names of plants and flowers. At the same time he read the greatest part of the Bible, in the original Hebrew, under a learned rabbi. From Padua he went to Venice, where he became acquainted with his learned countryman Francis Perrot de Mezieres, who had been employed on several embassies into the East; and from his conversations with him, he became very desirous of making a tour into those parts of the world; but, owing to the war which then existed between the Turks and Venetians for the island of Cyprus, it was not possible for him to pass the boundaries of Istria and Dalmatia with any degree of safety. He, therefore, relinquished the design of visiting the East. In 'e year 1571, M. du Plessis went from Venice to Rome, where he was exposed to some danger on account of his religion, as he had also been at the former place; and from Rome he returned to Venice through Tuscany, the republic of Genoa, Piedmont, and Lombardy. From Venice he extended his tour to Vienna, and from thence by a circuit through Hungary, Bohemia, Misnia, Saxony, Thuringia, Hesse, Franconia, and the Palatinate to Cologne, where he spent the winter. In 1572, he visited Flanders, and passed over into England, where the fame of his knowledge and accomplishments had preceded him, and he met with a gracious reception from queen Elizabeth, whose courtiers vied with each other in the attention which they paid him. During the course of these travels M. du Plessis, though a very young man, never suffered himself to be seduced by an indulgence to his pleasures, from making such in

guiries and observations as might contribute to enlarge his stock of useful knowledge, or furnish him with rational entertainment. Having returned to France in the summer of this year, after spending some days with his mother he went to visit admiral de Coligni at Paris. Here he drew up a memorial of the observations which he had made in Flanders, and a piece intended to demonstrate the justice and advantages of declaring war against Spain, both of which were presented to the king by the admiral; who urged his majesty to improve the opportunity that offered itself and to send M. du Plessis to the prince of Orange, for the purpose of concerting a combination of the efforts of France and the United Provinces against the common enemy. Ibut the king evaded following the advice of the admiral, partly because he had no sincere intention of breaking with the Spaniards, and partly that no circumstances might arise which should interfere with the speedy execution of his infernal plan for the massacre of the Protestants at Paris. That some mischief was intended against them, M. du Plessis was fully convinced, and communicated his apprehensions to the admiral, who could not be induced to distrust the king's sincerity in the marks of favour and caresses by which he was ensnared to his ruin. M. du Plessis, however, thought proper to adopt the precaution of persuading his mother to leave Paris; as for himself, he would not desert the admiral and the rest of the protestant nobles and gentry in their perilous situation, but resolved to wait the issue of events. At length the fatal eve of St. Bartholomew arrived, and justified the fears which he had entertained. Being awakened in the dead of night, by the noise of the soldiery and infuriated populace who were busy in the work of murder, he hastily dressed himself and attempted to reach the apartments of the admiral; but, learning that he and others of the protestant chiefs had already fallen under the swords of the assassins, he took measures for his own preservation. During three days, under various disguises, and with the aid of compassionate Catholics, he continued undetected amidst surrounding scenes of slaughter; and then, with admirable address, made his escape into the country, which he traversed till he arrived at Buhy. Here he found his family dispersed; but had the satisfaction of being directed to his mother, who had met with an asylum in the house of a neighbouring gentleman. After spending so me days with her, he departed privately for

Dieppe, where a vessel was procured which landed him safely in England. In this country M. du Plessis met with a cordial reception from persons of all ranks, and received particular marks of friendship from Mr. Secretary Walsingham. He had also the happiness of mecting his friend M. Languet, who has been already noticed ; and formed connections with the most eminent men of learning, which proved of considerable service to him in the employments which he afterwards filled. No sooner was it known at Paris that he was safe in England, than the ambassador of he Elector of Saxony, and other German princes at the court of Charles IX. wrote to his friends to supply him with whatever sums of money he might want ; and queen Elizabeth's an bassador at Paris sent letters of recommend:tion in his favour to his sovereign and the principal persons at the English court, dwelling highly on his merits, and his peculiar talents for business, though he was not more than twenty-three years of age. To console himself under the miseries inflicted on his protestant countrymen, he had recourse to his studies, and wrote some “Remonstrances,” both in Latin and French, in which he exhorted the queen of England to undertake the protection of the suffering church ; and also some “Apologies,” in which he refuted the calumnics propagated against the members of the reformed communion. While he continued in England, the duke d’Alençon, brother of king Charles IX. employed him as his negotiator with the ministry, to secure him an asylum in case of the failure of the schemes which he had formed for placing himself at the head of affairs in France, with the assistance of the Protestants, whose injuries he promised to redress. Encouraged by his party, the Protestants entered into a confederacy; and, in consequence of their urgent solicitations, MI. du Plessis returned to France in the year 1574. Soon after his arrival he attended a council of several of the protestant chiefs, in which it was proposed that the party should immediately take up arms, to provide for the security of their own rights by promoting the views of the duke d'Alençon. This measure M. du Plessis strenuously opposed, urging various weighty considerations to prove its impolicy, as well as ruinous precipitancy. The advice, however, of more sanguine spirits prevailing, events soon showed the wisdom and prudence of his counsels. To the historians of the time we must refer for an account of the transactions which terminated in the ruin

of the confederacy. In this state of things M. du Plessis retired to Jametz, near Sedan, within the territories of the duke de Bouillon, who was a quiet spectator of what had taken place. Soon after this he was commissioned by the duke d'Alençon to treat with count Lewis de Nassau, about marching with the army which he had assembled near Maestricht towards France ; but he did not succeed in that object. This business he undertook at no little personal risk, as he was obliged to pass and repass in disguise through the enemy's territories and garrisons. Upon the death of Charles IX. he retired to Sedan, where his time was chiefly occupied in study till the decease of the duke de Bouillon, who fell a sacrifice to poison. After that event, at the earnest solicitation of the duchess, who placed entire confidence in his capacity for business, he took a journey to the court of the duke of Cleves, for the purpose of prevailing on him to undertake the guardianship of her children, conjointly with the elector Palatine, in conformity to the will of her deceased husband; which commission he executed to the entire satisfaction of that princess, and the great advantage of the young family. While M. du Plessis continued at Sedan, he paid his addresses to a widow lady of great merit, to whom he was contracted in the year 1575. At her request he composed his “Treatise on Life and Death,” which was soon afterwards printed at Geneva, and translated into a variety of languages. Before his marriage could take place, intelligence having arrived at Sedan, that an army of Germans under M. de Thoré was advancing toward France, to join the duke d’Alençon, he determined to delay that ceremony, and to carry a reinforcement to M. de Thoré. Accordingly, he and his cousin M. de Mouy raised a body of more than six hundred well-armed horse and foot soldiers, and by forced marches formed a junction with the Germans on the borders of the kingdom. This enterprize proved unsuccessful, owing both to the incapacity of the commander, and the want of discipline in his troops, which had been hastily raised and were nearly in a state of mutiny for want of pay. After entering France, M. de Thoré became so slow and indecisive in his movements, that he gave opportunity for the duke of Guise to come up with him, near Dormans on the Marne, who attacked and completely routed his tumultuary forces. In this action M. du Plessis was slightly wounded and taken prisoner; but,

assuming a borrowed name, and fortunately passing undiscovered, after a confinement o eleven days he was permitted to ransom himself on easy terms. Having returned to Sedan, he married in the beginning of the year 1576; and soon afterwards was again induced to take up arms, in consequence of the entrance of the prince of Condé into France, assisted with a powerful army by the palatine duke Casimir, for the support of the protestant cause and the interests of the duke d'Alençon. This army was so decidedly superior to the king's, that it was deemed expedient to propose a negotiation; the result of which was a treaty of peace, confirming to the Protestants liberty of conscience, and the public exercise of their religion, &c. On the side of the court, however, it was an insidious treaty, cntered into for the purpose of getting rid of the foreign troops, and of making such proposals to the duke d’Alençon, as should create a breach between him and the Protestants. It also furnished the Guises with an opportunity of establishing the famous catholic LEAGUE, which had been long before concerted. The effect of the proposals made to the duke becoming every day more apparent to M. du Plessis, he at length took his leave of him; but instead of withdrawing into retirement, upon receiving repeated letters of invitation from the king of Navarre, afterwards Henry IV. of France, he determined to enter into the service of that prince. M. du Plessis arrived at the court of the king of Navarre in Guienne towards the close of the year 1576; from which time he was admitted into his intimate councils, and served him diligently and faithfully, with his advice and with his pen, in offices of trust at home, and important commissions in foreign countries, till the king's desertion of the protestant religion made him withdraw himself gradually from the court. Without attempting to follow him through all his services, we must content ourselves with mentioning some of the principal occasions on which he rendered essential benefit to the interests of his sovereign, or of the protestant religion. When in the year 1577, the renewal of the war against the Protestants by the league obliged the king of Navarre and the heads of that party again to take up arms in self-defence, the king determined to send M. du Plessis to England, that he might explain to the queen the justice of their cause, and solicit pecuniary assistance. Having arrived at the English

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