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court, he met with a favourable reception from the queen and her ministers, and succeedeed in obtaining a grant of eighty thousand crowns. The queen even promised to se: d an ambassador, for the purpose of giving weight to his intended application to the protestant princes of Germany, for similar assistance. During his continuance in England, he had the honour of being requested by the prince of Orange to assist his commissioners, who were negotiating a treaty between the United Provinces and the queen ; and on the other hand, the queen directed her ministers freely to communicate with him on that subject. He had also an opportunity of rendering an acceptable piece of service to the Low Countries, by transmitting to the prince of Urange, on the part of the king of Navarre, intercepted letters to the king of Spain from Don John of Austria, and Escovedo secretary of state, urging him, in defiance of his solemn engagements, to make war upon the States, and pointing out the means by which it might be carried on with success. The disclosure of these letters had the effect of uniting all parties in adopting preventions against the intended perfidy. In the mean time, peace having been concluded between Henry III. king of France, and the king of Navarre, M. du Plessis's mission to the German princes was prevented ; but his master did not send him orders to return home, well knowing what little dependence was to be placed on treaties which had been so frequently violated. M. du Plessis now devoted his hours of leisure to the diligent perusal of the Greek and Latin fathers; and he composed his treatise “Concerning the Church,” which, meeting with the approbation of all the French refugee ministers in London, was committed to the press during the year 1577, and afterwards translated into several languages. In the following year, when the prince of Orange was called to Antwerp by the States-General of the country, the friends of M. du Plessis suggesting that he might be of service to the cause of religion there, as well as to the interests of his master, and the rince of Orange himself inviting him over by }. after taking leave of queen Elizabeth, who bestowed on him an honourable present, he crossed the sea and went to that city. Here his pen was employed by the prince and the States, in endeavours to check the intemperate zeal of some reformers, who disgraced their cause, and excited prejudices against it which occasioned the o rupture between
the provinces, by their outrages against the ecclesiastics, the churches, and other religious houses. Afterwards, when a treaty of alliance was signed between queen Elizabeth, the duke of Alençon, now become duke of Anjou, and the States, by M. du Plessis's management the king of Navarre was admitted a party to it. At this place an attempt was made, on the instigation of some bigotted Catholics, to take our author off by poison, which the strength of his constitution alone enabled him to survive. About the middle of the year 1579, M. du Plessis began at Antwerp to compose his treatise “on the Truth of the Christian Religion,” with a view to which his studies had been for a long time directed ; but his progress was interrupted by the attack of a scvere disorder attended by extraordinary symptoms, which was probably occasioned by the poison that had lately been administered to him. Scarcely had he recovered from this attack, when he received intelligence that the king of Navarre had again been obliged to take up arms; and in the spring of 1580, he was instructed by that prince to apply to his allies for assistance, and for that purpose to repair to England without delay. After having partly succeeded in his application to queen Elizabeth, he returned to Flanders, where he was met with the agreeable information that peace had been concluded between the kings of France and Navarre, through the mediation of the duke of Anjou. This mediation the duke had been induced to tender, and the king his brother to accept, from the hope that such a peace would contribute to facilitate the duke's projected marriage with the queen of England, and his establishment in the government of the Low Countries, which the deputies of the States had offered to him. In this state of things M. du Plessis arrived at Antwerp, where he finished and printed in the French language his very excellent treatise, “On the Truth of the Christian Religion,” in quarto ; in which his learning and argumentative powers are ably and successfully employed in combating Atheists, Epicureans, Heathens, Jews, Mahometans, and other unbelievers. In the year 1581, at the request of his friend M. languet, the author translated this work into the Latin language. While he was employed on this version, finding it necessary to have a personal interview with the king of Navarre, he was commissioned by the prince of Orange and the States, to treat on their be. half with the duke of Anjou during his jour
mey to Guienne; and on his return to Antwerp he had business of moment to negotiate with the same prince in the name of the king his master. Towards the latter end of the year, M. du Plessis, being no longer under the necessity of continuing in the Low Countries, made preparations for returning home, took a formal leave of the States, the prince of Orange, and his friends, and was upon the point of departure, when he was unexpectedly detained by the burgomaster of Antwerp, and notwithstanding all his remonstrances conducted back to his apartments. The excuse for this extraordinary treatment was, that since the duke of Anjou was daily expected, with whom there was no person who so well understood, and was so much attached to their interests as himself, the people of the Low Countries could not part with him at that critical time; and the prince of Orange as well as the States united in requesting him to yield to their wishes. They also sent an officer to the king of Navarre, for the purpose of obtaining his sanction to their proceeding, who gave him permission to stay six months longer with them. These evidences of his popularity, however, added to a jealousy of the king of Navarre his master, excited against him, as M. du Plessis foresaw, no little envy in the duke of Anjou and his secret advisers; and it was not long after the arrival of that prince at Antwerp, in the year 1582, before he experienced unequivocal proofs of it. When presented to the duke, indeed, he was received in the most gracious manner, and with warm acknowledgments of the services which he had rendered him. Perfect satisfaction was also expressed at his being nominated by the States one of the French counsellors of the duke, by whose advice he affected to be wholly guided. He even carried his dissimulation so far, that, when a deputation from the States of Flanders requested that M. du Plessis might be appointed their governor, he declined giving him that post, under the pretence that were he to be deprived of the assistance of so wellinformed an adviser, it might prove highly prejudicial to the true interests of their country. But, notwithstanding these public appearances, M. du Plessis soon perceived that in private he had not the confidence of the duke, who concealed from him his designs, and treated him with studied reserve. He had, likewise, reasons for suspecting that these designs were of a dishonourable nature, and, therefore, determined to embrace the first opportunity of retiring into France. WOL, WII.
M. du Plessis was not more desirous of quitting the Low Countries, than the duke was of getting rid of a counsellor who might prove an obstacle to the execution of his projects. The scheme which the duke adopted for this purpose, was the investing him with the character of one of his ambassadors to the emperor, Rodolph, who held an Imperial diet at Augsburg, to pay his homage, and act as his representative in the capacity of the duke of Brabant. Though M. du Plessis was convinced that this appointment was only an artifice for removing him, he readily availed himself of it, and proceeded to Paris, where he was instructed to acquaint the queen-mother with the design of his mission, and to receive from the duke's treasurer the money requisite for defraying the expence of the embassy. Here his connection with that prince was dissolved: for, being informed by the treasurer that the order for issuing the money had been countermanded, M. du Plessis sent back his credentials to the duke, and, after withdrawing his family from Antwerp, repaired to the king of Navarre in Guienne. From this time till the year 1593, when the king renounced the protestant religion, M. du Plessis was consulted by him on a variety of important occasions, to particularize which would be to enumerate most of the diplomatic and military transactions of his reign during that period. To his judgment the king always paid great deference, and he made use of his pen in his edicts, manifestos, and other state papers. In the year 1582, the king was desirous of nominating him his chancellor; but he declined that office, considering its duties to be incompatible with the profession of the sword, which he had then assumed. In 1589, he was appointed governor of Saumur; and in the same year, upon the king's being called to the crown of France after the assassination of Henry III. he was made counsellor of state. In the year 1592, he was empowered on the king's part to treat with M. de Villeroy, who appeared on behalf of the duke de Mayenne, about terminating the civil war; but the demands of the latter were so exorbitant, that their conference was broken off without effect. When in the following year the king gave intimations of his intended conformity to the catholic church, M. du Plessis made use of all his powers of reasoning to dissuade his majesty from that measure, and was not sparing in representations of the disgrace which the sacrifice of principle to motives of interest or policy would attach to his memory.
After the king had actually reconciled himself to the church of Rome, M. du Plessis withdrew by degrees from the court, and occupied himself in his studies, in the duties of his government, and in exertions for the service of the protestant cause. In the different o: ations between the king and his subjects of the reformed communion he took a very active part, till the famous edict of Nantes was obtained in the year 1598; and in the subsequent provincial assemblies, as well as the national synods of that body, his knowledge, judgment, and prudence, were highly respected, and had a considerable influence on their decisions. He also distinguished himself by his writings as an able apologist for the Protestants and their principles. In the year 1596, he published a work, intitled, “The just Procedures of the Professors of the Reformed Religion;” in which he vindicates the Protestants from the charge of being the causes of the troubles of the times, and retorts it upon those who unjustly denied them that liberty which their services and sufferings demanded. In 1598, he published his work “On the Institution, Practice, and Doctrine of the Eucharist in the Ancient Church,” folio, of which an enlarged edition appeared in 1604. This work gave occasion to a conference in the year 16co, before the king and all the court at Fontainebleau, between Du Perron, then bishop of Evreux, and afterwards cardinal, and M. du Plessis; which catholic writers represent to have terminated in favour of the bishop, while the Protestants, on the contrary, claim the laurels for our author. In 1607, he published his treatise intitled, “The Mystery of Iniquity, or, the History of the Papacy,” folio; in which he points out the progressive steps by which the popes rose to the height of their tyranny, according to the predictions of the apostles, as well as the opposition which, from time to time, they have met with from good men of all nations. This work, as well as most of his other performances, was first printed in French, and afterwards in a Latin version. About the same time he published, “An Exhortation to the Jews concerning the Messiah,” in which his Hebrew literature is advantageously displayed; and “Meditations,” on different passages of Scripture. He was also the author of some other pieces; and from his papers have been published curious, instructive, and interesting “Memoirs, &c. consisting of Discourses, Instructions, Letters, Dispatches,” &c. in four volumes quarto, and sometimes edited in two
large volumes quarto. In the year 1621, Lewis XIII. having determined to make war upon the Protestants, M. du Plessis remonstrated strongly by letters against the injustice and impolicy of such conduct. For his honest freedom on this occasion he was deprived of his government of Saumur ; upon which he retired to his barony of La Forest-sur-Sevre in Poitou, where he died in 1623, about the age of seventyfour, justly regretted by the Protestants, and esteemed by the Catholics, not only on account of his extraordinary abilities and qualifications, but for the useful and amiable private virtues that adorned his character. Histoire de la Vie de M. P. de Mornay, &c, par les Elsevierr. AMoreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—M. MORONE, John, cardinal, a celebrated negotiator, born at Milan in 1509, was the son of Jerome Morone, grand-chancellor of the state of Milan, an eminent political character. John was educated partly at Modena, and afterwards probably studied in the university of Padua. At the age of twenty he was nominated by pope Clement VII. to the bishopric of Modena, but did not enter upon his charge till 1533, when he made a compromise with Ippolito of Este, who had pretensions to the same see. Before that time, such was the confidence placed in his early talents and discretion, he was sent by the pope into France to induce the king to consent to a peace. During his residence at Modena he employed himself with zeal in the foundation of seminaries for the education of youth, and in matters relative to the regulation of his clergy, but he was not suffered to remain there without frequent interruptions. In 1536 pope Paul III. appointed him nuncio in ordinary to Ferdinand king of the Romans, and he was present at the diets held at Hagenau and Spire. It was principally owing to him, that after much discussion concerning the approaching general council, the proposal for holding it at Trent was agreed upon. His success was rewarded in 1542 with the cardinalate ; and he was fixed upon to be president of the council; a remarkable proof of the idea entertained of his capacity, as he was then only thirty-three years old ! In 1544, he was appointed to the legation of Bologna, which he lost in 1548 from the suspicions of the French, who thought him too much devoted to the cause of the emperor. It was perhaps a similar reason that, on the assembling of the council of Trent, excluded him from that presidentship to which he had been destined. He continued, however, in great favour with the Roman court, and by Julius III, was sent in 1553 as legate to the diet of Augsburg, where he vigilantly defended the interests of the holy see. He had in the mean time exchanged his bishopric of Modena for that of Novara, for the reform of which church he published some decrees. This cardinal, though firmly orthodox in all his disputations with the Protestants, yet disapproved of the rigorous methods which some zealots employed to bring them back to the pale of the church. His sentiments on this head were similar to those of cardinal Pole, with whom he was in habits of great intimacy. His lenity had caused him to fall under the suspicion of that fiery bigot cardinal Caraffa, who, after his elevation to the pontifical chair, under the name of Paul IV. caused Morone in 1557 to be arrested, and confined in the castle of St. Angelo. Some other eminent prelates underwent the same treatment, and it is thought that Pole would not have escaped, had he not taken refuge in England. Articles of accusation against Morone were rinted in 1558, in which he was charged with i. taught and caused to be taught many of the opinions proper to the Protestants, and with having entertained and favoured heretics. In the course of his trial his innocence became apparent, and the pope offered to liberate him from prison; but the cardinal refused to accept of his release without a solemn declaration of his innocence. The pope hesitated, and died without coming to a resolution; and Morone was admitted to the conclave which elected Pius IV. The examination of his cause was then resumed, and he obtained a complete absolution not only from crime, but from any suspicion in matter of faith. He was recompensed for this injury by being appointed to succeed cardinal Gonzaga as president of the council of Trent, and by the dexterity of his management he brought its great affairs to a conclusion in 1563. He had resigned the bishopric of Novara in 1560, and in 1564 he returned to that of Modena. This he ceded in 1571, and was afterward successively appointed to the sees appropriated to the cardimals, as those of Palestrina, Frescati, Porto and Ostia. At the vacancy occasioned by the death of Pius IV. he was near being raised to the pontifical throne. Upon his failure, he remained at Rome to assist the church with his counsels; and to him was principally due the foundation of the German college. During the troubles
of Genoa in 1575, he was sent thither as legate by Gregory XIII. and contributed much to the re-establishment of tranquillity. In the following year he was delegated to the emperor Maximilian for the purpose of reconciling him with the Polish palatines. His labours were finally terminated by his death at Rome in 1580, where he was interred in the church of Minerva, leaving behind him a name illustrious for his virtues and services. His continual public occupations did not permit him to exercise himself much in literature ; and some Latin and Italian letters, an oration before the council of Trent, and another before the emperor Ferdinand, synodial constitutions for Modena, and a code of laws for the government of Genoa, are his only remains of that kind. Tiraboschi.—A. MOROSINI, ANDRew, a senator of Ve. nice, and writer of Venetian history, descended from the illustrious family of that name, and son of the senator James Morosini, was born at Venice, 1558. He was liberally educated at his native city and Padua, and rose through the different degrees of nobility to the rank of savio grande, and a place in the Council of Ten. He was also three times one of the reformers of the university of Padua. He is called by Foscarini a man of long experience in public affairs, and accomplished in every branch of polite literature. . It was, therefore, a judicious choice which appointed him in 1598 to succeed Paruta in the office of historian of the republic. He was employed in this task till his death, which happened in 1618, and he had not then put the last hand to it. The history composed by this author is written in Latin, and is a continuation of that of Peter Bembo: it takes in the period from 1531 to 1615. His brother Paul first published it in 1623, in folio; and it was re-printed in 1719 at Venice, in quarto, in the collection of Venetian historians. This work has obtained great applause from the elegance of its style, and the eloquence and veracity of its narration; and it ranks among the best performances of that age. Andrew also published a volume of “Opuscula and Epistles,” in Latin, in 1625, octavo, and a narrative in Italian of “Expeditions to the Holy Land, and the Acquisition of Constantinople by the Venetian Republic,” 1627, quarto. Paul MoRosini, brother of the preceding, and also a Venetian senator, was appointed to the same post of public historian after Nicholas Contarini. He chose to give an entire history of
the republic from its origin to the year 1487, in the Italian language. It was published at Venice in 1637, in quarto. Of this work, Foscarini says, that it is valuable for several notices omitted by the older writers, but that it contains a great number of singular facts, without any reference to the sources whence they were taken. Moreri. Tirabotchi.-A. MOROSINI, FRANcis, doge of Venice, and one of the greatest commanders that the republic has possessed, was born in 1618. His father, Peter, was of the noble family of his name, and a procurator of St. Mark. Francis from the age of twenty bore arms in the Venetian galleys, and distinguished himself so much against the Turks that he obtained the command of a galley in 1645. His valour and success raised him in 1650 to the post of general of the galleys, and the guard of the Adriatic was committed to him. He was present at the sea-fight between Paros and Naxos, in which the Venetians, who lost their general Mocenigo, would probably have been defeated, had not Morosini fallen upon the rear of the Turks, and entirely turned the fortune of the day. In consequence of this victory he was appointed to the command of a fleet in 1651, with which he performed several important services. The government of Candia, which had for some time been besieged by the Turks, was intrusted to him in 1656, where he soon brought the affairs of the island into a better state. In 1658 he was advanced to the rank of generalissimo of the Venetian forces, and being joined by the papal, Tuscan, and Maltese galleys, took several places from the Turks in the Archipelago and Morea. In 1660, returning to Candia with a reinforcement of 4000 French, he carried a fortress sword in hand, and took New Candia, which the Turks had built to block up the Old. His office expiring in 1661, he returned to Venice, where he had the chagrin of undergoing a charge of malversation; but upon an inquiry he was honourably acquitted. When Mahomet Cuprogli, the grand-vizier, went in person to push the siege of Candia, Morosini was again selected by the senate for its defence ; and during twenty-eight months that the place still held out, he sustained fiftysix assaults, besides a number of subterranean attacks, and destroyed a great multitude of the enemy. Being at length obliged to capitulate, he obtained conditions worthy of the esteem his bravery inspired in the Turkish commander. His reception at Venice was at first very favour
able; but in consequence of a violent oration made against him in the senate, he was pat under an arrest. He was, however, so well defended, that his good services were recognised, and he was restored to the office of procurator of St. Mark, conferred upon him a short time before the surrender of Candia. When in consequence of a league between the republic, the emperor, and the king of Poland, war with the Turks was renewed, Morosini was again nominated generalissimo. In 1684 he sailed for Greece, where he took the island and town of Santa Maura. He afterwards made himself master of several places in the Morea, and gave the Turks a total defeat near the Dardanelles. The news of these successes was so pleasing to the senate, that this bcdy conferred upon him the title of The Peloponnesiac, and erected a brass statue of him with this in. scription “Francisco Mauroceno Peloponnesiaco adhucviventi Senatus posuit, Anno 1687.” He extended his conquests to Corinth, Sparta, and Athens; and from the latter sent to Venice some figures of lions of extraordinary beauty, taken from the temple of Minerva, which were placed in the arsenal. On the death of the doge Justiniani in 1688, Morosini was elected to succeed him, to the general joy of the people ; he was obliged, however, in that year to raise the siege of Negropont, and he returned sick to Venice. The war still continuing in the Levant, he was a fourth time chosen generalissimo at the age of seventy-five, and in 1693 departed for the army, and made the Turkish fleet fly before him. Fatigue, however, exhausted his remaining vigour, and he died at Napoli de Romagna in January 1694. His body was brought to Venice and honourably interred under a monument raised by the Senate to his memory. Moreri.-A. MOR TIMER, John HAMILTON, a meritorious painter of the English school, was born in 1741 at Eastbourne in Sussex, of which port his father was a collector of the customs. The early passion he showed for the art of design seems to have been inspired by the constant view of some drawings made by an uncle, who was an itinerant painter of moderate talents. The wild and grand scenes on the coast in his neighbourhood, and the frequent survey of its fierce and lawless bands of smugglers, are also supposed to have impressed his imagination, and fixed the style of his works. After a confined education in his native place, his father, properly giving way to the bent of his genius, entered him as a pupil with