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cuous feature in his character, and is indeed the principle which at once lies at the foundation, and constitutes the contral point of all his institutions. The writings which bear his name, whether considered in the light of historical documents, or as furnishing us with a system of legislation, are highly interesting and important. In the former point of view they supply us with the earliest records of the world and of the human race, from the creation to the birth of Abraham, comprizing a period of above two thousand years; and a particular history of the Hebrew nation, his descendants, carried on in a regular series, till the death of Moses. These documents are recommended by their conciseness and simplicity, and not only by strong internal marks of veracity, but also by the testimony of tradition, and the discoveries of philosophy. Whether some parts of them are to be understood in a literal or allegorical sense, has long been the subject of no little dispute, and is a point which it does not belong to our immediate province to discuss. With respect to the system of legislation which these writings contain, as far as it is of a moral nature it is unquestionably pure and excellent; its political and judicial regulations are wise and equitable, and the ritual part of it, drawn up with a particular reference to the time and people, was admirably adapted to establish and secure the worship of the one true God, by preserving the Israelites from all intermixture with other nations, and from adopting any part of their idolatrous worship into their own. Speaking of the great excellence of these writings in point of composition, leaving all idea of divine inspiration out of the question, Dr. Geddes says, “I know not if it would be too much to affirm, that, whether they be considered as a compend of history, or as a digest of laws, or as a system of theology, or as models of good writing, they are in some respects unequalled, in none overmatched, by the best productions of ancient times. Let the Chaldean or Grecian Cosmogonies be compared with the first chapter of Genesis ; the best narratives of Herodotus or Livy, with the whole story of Joseph ; the most laboured harangue of Thucydides or Sallust, with the simple tale of Abraham's servant, or the pathetic and winning speech of Judah ; the most sublime ode of Pindar, with either of the songs of Moses; the twelve tables, with the decalogue; and the republics of Plato or Tully, with the whole mosaical jurisprudence; I will venture to say,

that, if the taste of the comparer have not been previously vitiated by modern meretricious refinemcnts, he will be induced to give to the former, either a decided preference, or an equal praise.” We have no hesitation in concurring with those who award the honours of uprivalled superiority to the Hebrew sage. And when we observe the peculiarities in which his institutions and dogmas differ from those of the legislators and moralists who were the most famed for their wisdom among other ancient nations, we are satisfied that, considering his circumstances, and those of the Israelites at the time when they were established and promulgated, they ought not to be attributed to a human, but to a divine origin. That the first five books of the Old Testament, commonly known by the name of the books of Moses, or the Pentateuch, were actually written by him, excepting the last chapter of Deuteronomy, which is thought to have been added by Ezra, was the general opinion both of Jews and Christians, till between six and seven hundred years ago, when Aben Ezra, a jewish doctor, raised some doubts on the subject, in his notes upon Deuteronomy. These doubts he was led to entertain by certain passages, in which mention is made of events subsequent to the time of Moses. But may not these passages well be supposed to have been added afterwards, like notes in the margin, whence in time they would be incorporated with the original text The introduction of passages of a like nature into other ancient writings has been accounted for in this manner without any exception, and we see no reason, why the same method of removing objections should not be allowed to the advocate for the genuineness of the books attributed to the pen of Moses. Among modern critics, some are of an opinion that the passages were added by the prophet Samuel; others are inclined to think that he was the compiler of the books themselves, from original documents in the hand-writing of Moses; while Dr. Geddes places their first appearance in their present form under the reign of Solomon, when he believes that they were compiled from the journals of Moses, and other ancient documents, some of which were coeval with him, and others of anterior date. We leave our readers to form what opinion they please con- . cerning these hypotheses, which are wholly conjectural ; and we see no necessity for adopting either of them, for the purpose of removing the difficulty occasioned by the

passages in question. Besides the Pentateuch, some authors have attributed the book of Job to Moses, as we have already seen under his article ; and eleven psalms, from the ninetieth to the hundreth, both inclusive, are supposed to be his compositions. A few fragments of other books, of a mysterious nature, pretendedly written by him, are also quoted by some of the ancients; but of their spuriousness, the best jewish as well as christian critics have been long perfectly satisfied. Books of Exodus, Numbers, Leviticut, and Deuteronomy. Joseph. Antiq. jud. Jib. ii. cap. 9. lib. iv. cap. 7. Anc. Un. Hist. vol. III. book i. ch. 7. sect. 6–8. Patrick's Paraph. Geddes's Prof. to his Wersion and Crit. Rem. Priestley's Notes on Scripture, vol. I.-M. MOSES CHORENENsis, a historian and geographer, was archbishop of Chorene, now Keroma, in Armenia, and flourished about A. D. 462. He was one of the most learned men of his nation, having studied Greek at Athens, from which language he made several esteemed versions into the Armenian. He was also well acquainted with the Syriac, and was a proficient in music and poetry. His principal work is a “History of Armenia,” from the deluge to the middle of the fifth century, written in his native tongue, and divided into three books and a great number of chapters. This work was first given to the public, with a Latin version, by William and George, the sons of William Whiston, in 1736, Lond quarto, with a preface and appendix. Though intermixed with fable, it is a valuable piece of history, containing many narratives from the national records, not to be met with elsewhere. The same author composed an “Abridgment of Geography,” which was first published at Amsterdam in 1668, and was added to the edition of the History of Armenia above mentioned. He likewise composed some sacred canticles, which are sung in Armenian, on the anniversary of Christ's presentation at the temple. A/oreri. Gibbon. Saxii Onomast.—A. MOSHEIM, John-LAwRENcE-vox, a learned German Lutheran divine and celebrated ecclesiastical historian in the eighteenth century, was descended from a noble family, and born at Lubeck, in the year 1694. When young, he cultivated an acquaintance with the Muses; and though in more advanced life he no longer wrote poetry, he discovered the marks of his early taste in his various literary productions. His noble birth seemed to open to his ambition a fair path to civil promotion; but his zeal for the interests of religion, his insatiable thirst after knowledge, and, more especially, his predominant inclination for Sacred literature, in

duced him to consecrate his admirable talents to the service of the church. The fame of his acquirements was soon diffused over Germany, and the universities of that country vied with each other in loading him with literary honours. From various quarters he received invitations to professorships; and the first which he appears to have accepted was from the king of Denmark, who was desirous of securing the benefit of his instructions to the university of Copenhagen. From this place he was called by the duke of Brunswick to the university of Helmstadt, where he received the marks of distinction due to his eminent abilities; filled with applause the academical chair of divinity; was honoured with the character of ecclesiastical counsellor to the court; and presided over the seminaries of learning in the duchy of Wolfembuttle and the principality of Blanckenburg. When king George II. formed the design of giving an uncommon degree of lustre to the university of Gottingen, by filling it with men of the first rank in the literary world, Dr. Mosheim was deemed worthy to appear at the head of that celebrated seat of learning, in the quality of chancellor; and here he died, universally lamented, in 1755, in the sixty first year of his age. In depth of judgment, in extent of learning, in the powers of a noble and masculine eloquence, in purity of taste, and in a laborious application to all the various branches of erudition and philosophy, he had certainly very few superiors. He published a Latin translation of the learned Dr. Cudworth’s “Intellectual System of the Universe,” illustrated with large annotations, which shew that he possessed a profound acquaintance with ancient philosophy and erudition, and justly excited the admiration of the learned world. In the year which terminated. his useful labours, he presented the public with his “Ecclesiastical History,” which alone would have rendered his name illustrious in the records of reiigion and letters. Many years before, he had published a small work, in two volumes, 12mo, entitled, “Elements of Christian History.” This work was designed. principally for the use of those who are appointed to instruct young students in the history and vicissitudes of the christian church, and who stand in need of a compendious text to give a certain order and method to their lectures. Such being the design of these “Elements,” the author treated each subject with the utmost brevity, and left, as was natural and proper, much to the learning and abolities of those who should choose to make use of

them in their course of instruction. The different editions of this performance met with such a favourable reception from the public, and the demand for them was so great, that they were soon out of print. Upon this occasion, the author was earnestly desired to give a new edition of the same work, improved and enlarged. For a long time he was prevented from yielding to that request, by the other occupations in which he was engaged, and a consideration of the labour which such an undertaking would necessarily require. At length, however, the importunities of his friends prevailed with him to apply to the work; and he employed assiduously his hours of leisure, during the space of two years, in making very considerable additions to it, in illustrating many things which had been there obscurely expressed for the sake of brevity, and in reducing to a regular and perspicuous order a variety of facts, the recital of which had been more or less attended with perplexity and confusion. To this augmented edition, which he wrote in the Latin language, he gave the title of “Institutiones Historiae Ecclesiasticae,” &c. in quarto; and it is justly characterized by Dr. Maclaine, when he calls it, a history of the christian church, composed with judgment, taste, and candour; drawn with uncommon discernment and industry, from the best sources; enriched with much useful learning and several important discoveries; and connected with the history of arts, philosophy, and civil government. To Dr. Maclaine, the English reader is under great obligations, for furnishing him with an elegant translation of this work into his native idiom, enriched with his own judicious and valuable notes, and improved by useful chronological tables, which have been compilcd with much attention and labour from the best authors. This translation is entitled, “An Ecclesiastical History, Ancient and Modern, from the Birth of Christ to the Beginning of the present Century,” and has undergone numerous impressions, in five volumes, octavo. Dr. Mosheim was the author of “De Rebus Christianorum ante Constantinum,” &c. quarto; “Historia Mich. Serveti,” 1728, quarto; “DisSertationes Sacrae,” 1733, quarto; and various other learned and ingenious illustrations of the sacred writings, as well as successful labours in defence of christianity, a list of which we have not been able to procure. He, likewise, published a collection of “Sermons,” in the German language, which are said to be excellent specimens of such kind of compositions, and have induced some writers to give

our author the title of “the Bourdaloue of Germany.” Author's and Translator’s Prefaces to Ataclaine's Version of the Eccles. Hist. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—M. MOSS, Rope RT, a learned English divine of the established church, and celebrated preacher in the seventeenth and former part of the eighteenth century, was the son of a gentleman of good landed property at Gikingham in Norfolk, where he was born in the year 1666. After receiving a classical education at the free-school at Norwich, in the year 1682, he was entered of Bennet college in the university of Cambridge; where he acquired such reputation by his ingenious exercises while he was an undergraduate, that immediately after his admission to the degree of B. A. in 1685, he was elected into a vacant Norfolk fellowship in that house. He now undertook the office of tutor, and conducted himself in that department for several years, with great success and credit. He commenced A. M. in 1686, and distinguished himself in the schools by his skill as a disputant, and also by the evidence which he afforded of his proficiency in classical, as well as the various branches of academical learning. Having taken holy orders at the canonical age, the first display of his talents as a public preacher created such a strong impression in his favour, that his sermons in the university were always attended by a full audience. In 1696, he proceeded bachelor of divinity, and was encouraged to become candidate for the office of public orator; but, though great exertions were made by his friends on his behalf, and he was universally allowed to be admirably well qualified for discharging the duties of that post, he lost his election by two or three votes. His friends, likewise, proved unsuccessful in an effort which they made about the same time to raise him to the mastership of his college. It was readily acknowledged by all, however, that he lost no credit by either of these competitions. In the }. 1698, he was appointed preacher to the onourable society of Gray's Inn, London; which place he held as long as he lived, that society ever retaining the highest regard for him, and allowing him, when disabled by the infirmities of his latter years from officiating in person, to discharge the duty by a deputy. In the course of the succeeding year, Dr, Wake, rector of St. James's, Westminster, with the concurrence of the vestry, appointed him preacher-assistant at that church; and he was soon afterwards nominated chaplain in ordinary to king William III. He held the same station under queen Anne; and being one of the chaplains in waiting when her majesty visited the university of Cambridge in 1705, he had the degree of doctor of divinity conferred upon him in the queen's presence. In 1708, the parishioners of St. Lawrence, Jewry, in London, invited him to accept of their Tuesday's lectureship, which, though not producing any considerable emolument, was considered to be an honourable station, on account of the many eminent men who had filled it. Here he ably maintained the reputation which the lecture possessed in the hands of his predecessors, and was constantly attended by a numerous and very respectable audience, and particularly by the clergy of the first distinction in the city. During the following year, an attempt was made to eject him from his fellowship at Cambridge, upon the supposition that, according to the statutes of the college, it was vacated by his preferments in London; and the master, in order to oblige him to resign, wrote a letter, in which he acquainted him that he would no longer dispense with his absence: but this effort proved abortive. In the year 1712, the queen was pleased to nominate Dr. Moss to the deanery of Ely. Soon after his promotion to this dignity, he voluntarily resigned his fellowship, and formed a matrimonial connection with a widow lady at Cambridge, by whom his affections had been engaged in the early part of his life. In 1714, he was collated by Dr. Robinson, bishop of London, to the rectory of Gilston in Hertfordshire. This benefice was of small value, in point of revenue; but it was an agreeable retirement, and a convenient resting place in travelling from London to Ely, particularly in the latter part of his life, when the gout and other infirmities disabled him from taking such a long journey, without some intermission. Upon the accession of king George I. Dr. Moss was sworn, a third time, chaplain in ordinary; which place he retained till 1718, when the part which he took in the famous Bangorian contest gave such offence at court, that he was dismissed, in company with Drs. Hare and Sherlock, his most intimate friends. He had been subject to the gout from a very early age, and in some of the last years of his life the returns of it were so severe, that he was almost totally deprived of the use of his limbs. With his constitution thusimpaired, in 1727, he was under the necessity of resigning his lectureship of St. Lawrence; and not long afterwards, the diserder with which he had been so much asilicted

increased with such violence, that it proved fatal to him in March 1729, when he was in the sixty-third year of his age. By his own express directions he was buried without ostentation, under a plain stone, inscribed only with his name, his titles of D. D. and dean, the day of his death and his age. In the preface to the collection of “Sermons,” mentioned below, we are assured that “he was of so open and generous a disposition, and such a stranger to all artificial disguise, that he affirmed, and you believed him; he promised, and you trusted him; you knew him, and you loved him : that he was very communicative both of his substance and his knowledge, and a man of so much honour and integrity, candour and humanity, as, joined with his other

christian virtues and intellectual endowments,

as well as a graceful person, genteel address, and engaging conversation, gained him universal respect.”. He had printed several single “Sermons,” which after his death were collected together, and published in 1736, with many others not originally designed for the press, under the inspection of Dr. Andrew Snape, provost of King's-college, Cambridge. Prefixed to the collection is a character of the author, which has been commonly attributed to Dr. Snape, but is understood of late to have been drawn up by Dr. Zachary Grey. Dr. Moss was also the author of a treatise in the Bangorian controversy, entitled, “The Report win

dicated from Mis-reports, being a Defence of

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1717, octavo ; and some small poems, both Latin and English, which the reader may either

see, or find references to the collections which contain them, in the Gen. Dict, Big, Britan. British Biog.—M. MOTHE LE-VAYER, FRANCIS DE LA, a learned French writer, born at Paris in 1588, was descended from a family originally from Mons, and distinguished in the profession of the law. He was bred to the same profession, and long occupied the post of substitute to the procureur-general in the parliament of Paris, which he inherited from his father. His attachment to letters, however, induced him to quit this occupation, and he became one of the most studious and universal scholars in his time. The learned works

which he published opened to him the doors. of the French Academy in 1639; and few of his fellow-members equalled him in erudition, althoughmany surpassed him in elegance of style. When a preceptor was to be chosen for Lewis XIV., Mothe-le-Vayer was thought of for the office; but the queen-mother objected to him as being a married man. Proti. the freedom with which he philosophised, and his known disposition to scepticism, were additional reasons for his exclusion. He was, however, appointed to the preceptorship of the king's brother, then duke of Anjou, and afterwards of Orleans; and he was likewise made historiographer of France, and titular counsellor of state. In the court he lived like a philosopher, immersed in books, simple and regular in his manner of living, and void of ambition and avarice. He bore with calmness the imputations to which his opinions exposed him; and once, while walking in the gallery of the Louvre, having overheard a person say to another, “there goes a man without religion,” he replied, “I have religion enough, friend, to pardon your insult.” His dress and demeanour distinguished him from other men. He always walked with his head raised, and his eyes fixed upon the signs in the street, “so that (says a writer) before I was told his name, I took him for an astrologer or an alchymist.” Guy Patin speaks of him as a stoic, who would neither praise nor be praised, and who followed his own fancies and caprices without regard to the world. He was not, however, void of the tender affections; and he was so much afflicted with the loss of an only son, a young man of great promise, that he married again at the age of 76. He died in 1672, in the eighty-fifth year of his age. La Mothele-Vayer was a writer upon a great variety of topics, in which he displayed more erudition and judgment than taste and invention. One of his works was, a “Treatise on the Virtue of Pagans,” which was refuted by the zealous and orthodox Arnauld. It is said, that LeVayer's bookseller complaining to him that his book did not sell, “I know a secret (said the author) to quicken the sale:” and he immediately procured an order from government for its suppression, which soon disposed of the whole edition. His works were collected in two volumes, folio, 1662, and were afterwards printed in fifteen volumes, 12mo. 1684, and in fourteen volumes, octavo, 1772. They abound in quotations from the ancients, but not without many original remarks and reflections. In this collection are not included his “Dialogues

after the Manner of the Antients,” under the name of Orasius Tubero, in which he gave free scope to his scepticism; nor his “Hexameron Rustique,” a work containing some licentious thoughts and expressions. His son, the abbé Le-Vayer, was the friend of Boileau, who has inscribed to him his fourth satire. He published a translation of “Florus,” with a commentary. Bayle. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—A. MOTTE, ANToNY Houd ART DE LA, an eminent and ingenious French writer, was born at Paris in 1672. His father, who was a rich hatter, sent him for education to a Jesuit seminary, and destined him for the profession of the law. He pursued for some time the studies proper for the bar, but soon deserted em in disgust, and devoted himself to polite literature. At the age of twenty-one he coinposed a comedy, which was represented at the Italian theatre, but failed of success; and this disappointment so much affected his spirits, that he flew to the monastery of La Trappe, with the intention of assuming the habit of that rigorous order. The celebrated abbé de Rancé, however, finding him unable to support these rigours, and probably doubting the reality of his vocation, dismissed him, after an abode of two or three months. Returning to Paris, he renewed his visits to the theatres, and composed an opera, entitled “L’Europe Galante,” which was set by Campra, and obtained great applause. It was succeeded by the pastoral of “Issé,” which he wrote in partnership with Destouches (the musician), and which was also successful. He afterwards composed several other pieces of the opera kind, and it was generally acknowledged that he displayed peculiar talents for lyric poetry, understanding by that term, verse written for the accompaniment of music; as well as much intelligence in the plan and disposition of dramatic pieces of this class. He next attempted the higher species of lyric poetry, and published in 1767, a volume of “Odes.” These obtained the character of being more philosophical than poetical, and though they were read with pleasure, they added little to his reputation. In 1710, La Motte was admitted a member of the French Academy, in preference to Rousseau, a better poet, but much less amiable man. His discourse on reception was reckoned a model of the kind; and he adverted in it with clegance and pathos to the misfortune of an almost total privation of sight, under which,

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