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Siary that of an author so much esteemed nothing is come down to our time except some fragments, chiefly of the sentimental kind, and in general of a gloomy and querulous tenour ; which, indeed, may have been only characteristic of the persons into whose mouth they were put. The plays of Terence, however, closely copied from the Greek theatre, will afford an idea of his manner. The fragments of Menander have been several times published. The most complete edition is that of Le Clerc, Amst. 1700, octavo. The editor's defective knowledge of Greek prosody led him into many mistakes, which were animadverted upon and corrected by Bentley in his “Emendationes in

Menandri et Philemonis Reliquias,” printed in

1713 under the name of Philoleutherus Lipsiensis. Possii Poet. Grac. Quintilian. Ovid. Monthl. Magaz. v. XI.Y. —A. MENARD, LEoN, an historical writer, was born at Tarascon in 1706. He was probably brought up to the law, as he is entitled counsellor to the presidial of Nismes; but he seems to have devoted himself entirely to the studies of history and antiquities. He obtained a place in the Academy of Inscriptions and Belles Lettres, and from that time passed his life chiefly at Paris, where he died, in indigent circumstances, in 1767. The first work of this writer was a “History of the Bishops of Nismes,” two volumes 12mo, 1737 ; which was the precursor of a publication, the product of many laborious years, “L’Histoire civile, ecclesiastique et litteraire de la Ville de Nismes,” seven volumes quarto, 1750 et seq. In depth of research and abundance of curious matter this is surpassed by few topographical works; but its enormous bulk implies a prolixity that could not fail to prove revolting to readers in general. By way of relaxation from his serious labours, Menard composed a romance entitled “Les Amours de Callisthene et d’Aristoclie,” first printed in 1740, and reprinted with additions in 1766. Its scene is laid in ancient Greece, and its principal merit consists in the delineation of Grecian manners. This last topic he treated on expressly in his “Maeurs et Usages

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nour to his erudition and was read with avidity. He carried his enquiries into French history,and published a collection of “Pieces fugitives pour servir à l’Histoire de la France,” three volumes quarto, 1748. He likewise published in 1750 a “Refutation of the Arguments of Voltaire against the Authenticity of the political Testament of Cardinal Richelieu.” Necro1:ge Franc. Nouv. Dict. Hist.—A.

MENARD, Nicholas Huch, a learned French Benedictine monk of the congregation of St. Maur, who flourished in the seventeenth century, was a native of Paris, where he was born in the year 1585. When he was very young he entered among the Benedictines at the abbey of St. Dennis ; and at the age of twenty-nine he embraced the reform of St. Maur, of which he was one of the earliest members who became distinguished for crudition and critical skill. He died at Paris in 1644, about the age of fifty-nine. He was the author, or editor, of the following works, which display much profound learning, curious research, and judicious criticism : “Martyrologium Sanctorum Ordinis S. Benedicti,” &c. 1629, octavo ; “Concordia Regularum.S. Benedicti de Aniana, &c.” with the life of that saint, 1628, quarto; “Sacramentarium S. Gregorii Magni,” 1642,quarto; “Diatriba de unico Dionysio,” 1643, octavo; and he prepared for the press an edition of “the Epistle of St. Barnabas,” in the original Greek from an ancient MS. in the abbey of Corbie, accompanied with the ancient Latin version, and illustrated with learned notes. This work was not published during father Menard's life-time, but was printed in 1645, quarto, under the inspection of father D'Achery, who wrote the preface to it. Moreri. Nouv. Dict. Hist. MENASSEH, BEN-1s RAEL, a very celebrated rabbi who flourished in the seventeenth century, was a native of Spain, where he was born about the year 1604. Some writers make him a descendant from the family of Abrabarnel; but to this honour he lays no claim, when, in more than one of his writings, he says that his sons would be able to boast of it, on their mother’s side. His father, after having been cruelly tortured by the Spanish inquisition, and stripped of his property, made his escape into Holland, with his wife and two sons, one of whom was the subject of this article. Here young Menasseh was placed under the tuition of a famous rabbi, called Isaac Usieli, and pursued his studies with such uncommon diligence and success, particularly in Hebrew and divinity, that at the age of eighteen he was judged fully qualified to a succeed his tutor in the office of preacher and expounder of the Talmud, in the synagogue at Amsterdam. This post he occupied during several years, with very high reputation for learning and abilities, which excited the envy of the jealous rabbis, and created him many enemies; but he despised their calumnies, and

pursued his studies with increasing vigour and assiduity. He was not quite twenty-eight years of age, when he published, in 1632, in the Spanish language, the first part of his work, entitled, “Conciliador, &c.,” of which, in the following year, a Latin version was published by Dionysius Vossius, entitled, “Conciliator, sive de Convenientia Locorum S. Scripture, quae pugnare inter se videntur, Opus ex. Vetustis et Recentioribus omnibus Rabbinis, magna Industria ac Fide congestum,” quarto. This work, with the exception of such passages as were dictated by the author's Jewish prejudices, is entitled to very high commendation, on account of the intimate acquaintance with the Old Testament writings, profound skill in the Hebrew language, and judicious criticisms and

conjectures, original as well as selected from

the most valuable labours of preceding doctors, which it displays. It deservedly procured the author the admiration and esteem of all the learned, both Jews and Christians. Grotius, in particular, in a correspondence which he maintained with the author, acknowledged his high opinion of its merits, and strongly recommended it to the notice of biblical scholars. This part of the work is confined to the Pentateuch, and was followed by a second part, containing the earlier prophets, and the books of Joshua, Samuel, and Kings, with additions to the preceding; a third part, including the later prophets, with additions to part two ; and a fourth, comprizing the remaining books of scripture. These three parts, however, were not published till after the author's death; the second part appearing in 1681, in the Spanish language, and the others at subsequent periods. R. Menasseh had confined himself to the pursuit of his theological and literary studies till he was thirty-five years of age ; when the expences of his growing family, to which the salary of his appointment was very inadequate, obliged him to engage in the mercantile line. By this means much of that time was necessarily occupied in business, which he would have devoted with greater satisfaction to the study of philosophy and the sacred scriptures. He also set up a printing press in his own house, at which he printed three editions of the Hebrew Bible, and a number of rabbinical books, in the Hebrew and Spanish languages, of which some account may be seen in the first of our authorities. Under the protectorates of Cromwell, he came over to England, in order to solicit leave for the settlement of the Jews in this country. On this WOL. VII,

account Bartolocci accused him of unworthily taking advantage of the civil wars in England, to secure that privilege for his nation. On the other hand, a Jewish historian affirms, that he was invited over by Cromwell and his parliament, in order to treat of that affair. Be the truth what it may, it was certainly natural, and commendable in him to endeavour to procure such an advantage for his people; and we have no evidence of his having had recourse to any dishonourable measures in the pursuit of that object. In England he met with a favour

able reception from Cromwell and the parlia

ment, and succeeded, if not to the full extent gf his wishes, yet in obtaining greater privileges for his nation than they had ever before enjoyed in this country. Here he also published, in 1656, his “Apology for the Jews,” in the English language, in which he satisfactorily exploded many calumnies which were propagated against them, particularly those of their crucifying, and using the blood of Christian children at their passover. This piece was afterwards reprinted in the second volume of the collection of scarce and curious tracts, entitled, “The Phoenix, &c.” He died at Annsterdam, most probably about the year 1659, and left a son, who inherited his press, and employed it in printing some of his father's works. R. Menasseh was respected for his erudition, liberality, and excellent moral character, by the Christians as well as his own people, and lived in habits of familiar intercourse and correspondence with some of the most learned men of his time, particularly the Vossii, Barlaeus, Episcopius, and Grotius. Of his numerous productions, in different languages, published either by himself or after his death, the following are the principal, exclusive of the “Conciliador,” and “Apology,” already noticed : “A Spanish Bible,” 1630; “The Pentateuch,” in Hebrew, with a Spanish version, and notes, 1646, octavo ; “El Tesoro dos Dimim,” or “Treasury of Rites,” in Portuguese, being an abridgment of the Mishnah ; “La Economia, &c.” in Spanish, relating ta questions concerning marriage, the condition of children, and the division of estates; “On the Resurrection of the Dead,” in three books, 1636, 12mo, published both in Spanish and Latin; “On Adam's Fall, and the Frailty of human Nature,” 1642, quarto, bothin Spanish and Latin; “Of the Hope of Israel,” dedicated to the parliament of England, 1650, octavo, published originally in Spanish, and afterwards translated into Rabbinical Hebrew, German, and English, one object of which is to prove that - * F

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the ten tribes are settled in America; “Problemata XXX. de Creatione,” 1636, octavo ; “De Termino Vitae Lib. III. ;” “Sepher Phene Rabbah,” or Hebrew index of all the places in scripture which are explaine d in the “Middrash Rabbah,” or large comment on them, alphabetically digested, r028, quarto; “Sod Yesharim,” or, “Secret of the Righteous,” a treatise on the secrets of nature, or natural magic, from the writings of Christians, 1649; “Nishmath Chajim,” or, “Breath of Life,” a treatise on the nature and immortality of the soul, in which the doctrine of the Metempsychosis is laboriously attempted to be established, 1652, quarto; “Shaphah Berurah,” or, “Pure I.ip,” a treatise on Hebrew Grammar, &c. For the titles of his other published or unpublished works, we refer the reader to WWolfii Bibl. Hebrata. Basnage's Hirt. of the jews, b. vii, ch. 32. Moreri. od. Un. Hist. vol. IX. ch. 39.—M. MENCKE, Lewis OTHo (Lat. Menckenius), born in 1644 at Oldenburg in Westphalia, was the son of a tradesman and senator of that city. After studying at Bremen and Leipzig, he visited several of the universities of Germany and Holland, exercising his talents in metaphysical disputation, and giving lectures on that topic. Returning to Leipzig, he was appointed to the chair of moral philosophy in that university in 1668, and in 1671 took his licence in theology. He was five times rector of the university, and occupied his post as professor till his death in 1707. He was the editor of several learned works from the Leipzig press; and was the planner of the periodical work, called the “leipzig Journal,” or, “Acta Eruditorum,” of which, assisted by other men of letters, he published thirty volumes. His own writings were some pieces in jurisprudence and metaphysics, and a treatise on the origin of the house of Hohenzollern. Moreri.-A. MENCKE, John Burch ARD, son of the preceding, was born at Leipzig in 1674. . He distinguished himself at an early age by his proficiency in literature, and at the age of nineteen published a Latin dissertation on the consecration of emperors and empresses as proved by medals. He travelled for improvement into Holland and England, where he formed many connections among the learned. In 1699 he was made professor of history at Leipzig; and applying with great ardour to the study of jurisprudence, he took the degree of doctor of law at Halle in 1701. He afterwards gave instructions in the study of history; and

in 1708 he was appointed to the post of historiographer, and in the next year of counsellor, to Frederic Augustus king of Poland. He was an associate of the K. Societies of London and Berlin. He died at Leipzig in 1732. The reputation of John Burchard Mencke surpassed that of his father, on account of a number of learned publications on historical and philosophical topics. One of the most remarkable of these consisted of two Latin declamations “IDe Charlataneria Eruditorum,” a copious and interesting subject, to which he by no means did justice. Not erudition alone, but a truly philosophical spirit and acute discernment, would be required for such a topic. His work was, however, much read, and translated into various languages. He planned and had a considerable share in a German “Dictionary of Learned Men,” printed at Leipzig, 1715, folio. His principal undertaking was a collection of the German historians, under the title of “Scriptores rerum Germanicarum, speciatim Saxonicarum,” three volumes folio, 1728, 1730. He gave an enlarged edition of Lenglet’s “Methode pour etudier l’Histoire ;” and after the death of his father he continued the “Leipzig Journal” to thirty-three more volumes. A/oreri.-A. MENDELSOHN, Moses, a very celebrated Jewish philosopher and elegant writer in the eighteenth century, was born at Dessau in Anhalt, a principality in the circle of Saxony, in the year 1729. His earliest instructions he received from his father, who was a Jewish schoolmaster: and though this may at first seem to have been a favourable circumstance to a youth desirous of knowledge, yet it will be iß estimated by those who consider what is chiefly taught in Jewish schools. Such seminaries, formed merely for the youth of the Jewish nation, are in their very constitution adapted to tutor them in systematic barbarism ; the summit of Hebrew studies closing with an introduction to that vast collection of puerile legends, and still more puerile superstitions, the Talmud. Young Mendelsohn, with a great appetency for instruction, was not at first undelighted with the scanty portion which he could collect even from this source. Ardent and assiduous in reading the writers who have undertaken to illustrate it, he soon, however, distinguished from the labours of rabinnical dreamers the works of the celebrated Maimonides, which he studied with the closest attention. But his incessant and untired application proved so injurious to his health, and so powerfully excited the irritability of his naturally tender and delicate frame, that, at the age of ten years, he was attacked by a nervous disorder of a very peculiar nature; and all his future life may be termed a protraction of sensibility. It was also his misfortune, that he seemed to be destined to a life of extreme poverty. So miserable was the penury of his #. that when Moses had arrived at the age of fourteen, he could maintain him no longer, and was under the necessity of sending him from home to seek the means of subsistence. With this view young Mendelsohn travelled on foot to Berlin, where he lived for several years in indigence and obscurity, and frequently in want of the necessaries of life. At length a rabbi, who knew his father, employed him in transcribing MSS ; and this man initiated him info the mysteries of the theology, the jurisprudence, and scholastic philosophy of the Jews. Afterwards, we are informed, a wealthy Jew gave him an apartment and diet in his house. É. another account we learn, that he entered as a clerk into the counting-house of one of his own nation, in which he greatly recommended himself by his capacity and integrity in business; and that #: became himself a petty merchant. The study of philosophy and literature, however, was his favourite occupation, to which he devoted the time which he could spare from those pursuits which were necessary to secure him the means of support. The disadvantages of Mendelsohn's humble lot, and the servours of study, were by degrees alleviated and animated by the consolations of literary friendship. The first strict intimacy which he formed was with a Polish Jew, of the name of Israel Moses. He had been the master of a little Jewish school, and had been secuted by the bigots of his town, for indulging to freedom of enquiry, and the love of philosophy. This person conversed and composed in no other language than the Hebrew ; and with this feeble instrument of human reason, Mendelsohn declared, that he

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with a Hebrew Euclid, instructing the other who was one day to be classed among the most eminent literati of his country, may instruct youthful and indigent philosophers, that the cold touch of poverty can never palsy the sublime efforts of resolute genius. This intercourse between our young philosophers, however, was not of long duration: for the calumnies propagated against Israel Moses having occasioned his expulsion from the communion of the orthodox, he became the victim of a gloomy melancholy and despondence, which terminated in a premature death. His loss, which was a heavy affliction to Mendelsohn, was afterwards in some measure repaired by the friendship of Dr. Kisch, a Jewish physician, who afforded himself essential assistance. By his advice our author applied to the study of the Latin language, and was supplied by his benevolence with a dictionary and other books which he was too indigent to purchase. Dr. Kisch also had the uncommon kindness to devote, during the space of six months, some hours every day to the instruction of a scholar, whose great capability of intellect he had the discernment to discover. Mendelsohn was soon enabled to read Locke in a Latin version; but with unspeakable labour. Being compelled to seek for the meaning of every single word, hours were wasted on pages; and when words were collected, he had then to arrange periods, and, at the same time, to unite in his mind the metaphysical ideas. As Mirabeau expresses it, he did not so much translate, as guess, by the force of meditation. This prodigious exercise of his intellectual powers, no doubt contributed to invigorate and strengthen, though it necessarily retarded his progress. In the year 1748, Mendelsohn became acquainted with another literary Jew, Dr. Solomon Gumperts, who had added to his professional studies a knowledge of the mathematics, and was well acquainted with modern lamguages. This gentleman introduced him to a literary circle, by an intercourse with whom his stores of knowledge rapidly increased, and his mind was enlarged. He now applied himself to the study of the living languages, and chiefly to the English, that he might read his favourite Locke in his own idiom. In the number of his literary acquaintance was the celebrated Lessing, who, as the abbé Denina. informs us in his “Prusse Literaire,” assisted and aided him in his Latin studies. The scholar amply repaid the efforts of his master: for he soon became his rival, and his associate ;

and after his death the defender of his fame, even at the expence of his own life. According to Denina, Mendelsohn conmenced author in 1752; but it does not appear from our authorities which was the first of his publications. Among the earliest of them were, a translation of “Rousseau's Essay on the Inequality of Men,” a little dissertation “On the Sensation of the Beautiful,” and a volume of “Pinilosophical Dialogues.” The count de Mirabeau tells us, that these dialogues were published in 1775, and were the first fruits of his connection with Lessing. Denina, in his “Dry Catalogue of dry Authors,” further says, “that Lessing assisted him in all his productions; at least Mendelsohn composed with him the Philosophical Dialogues.” This statement the friends of the latter deny, maintaining that it conveys a malignant insinuation; and to prove that the dialogues were the compositions of Mendelsohn, they appeal to the silence of Lessing on the subject, and particularly to this circumstance, that they bear the marks of our philosopher's defects at this period of his literary life: defects derived from his poverty, his Jewish education, and his numerous impediments in literature. In these dialogues Mendelsohn followed the philosophical system of Baumgarten and Wolff, his genius not being yet emancipated from the bonds of authority. It was, however, the style in which they were written that constituted their principal attraction. At that time the German language was in a neglected and unpolished state; and the lucidity, precision, and elegance of our philosopher appeared to great advantage. He now associated himself with Lessing, Abbt, Ramler, and Nicokai, in conducting a periodical work, entitled, “The Library of Belles Letters;” which was a kind of a review of works in that branch of learning, with original correspondence, and attained such a degree of celebrity, as to form an epocha in German literature. In the year 1764, Mendelsohn was rewarded with the prize of the Berlin academy, for his “Essay on the Evidence in Metaphysical Science.” In 1767, he published his “Phaedon, a Dialogue on the Immortality of the Soul,” in the manner of that of Plato, but presenting us with the arguments of modern philosophy, stated with great force and perspicuity, and recommended by the charms of elegant writing. It is said to be the most curious disquisition that has appeared on such an abstract and sublime topic; and it soon spread the author's celebrity throughout lite

rary Europe, who by some of the periodical writers was styled the Jewish Socrates. Among the various versions of it, one was published in French, by M. Junker, in 1773 ; and another in English, by C. Cullen, in 1789. Mendelsohn, in the next place, employed himself in composing elementary books for the use of the youths of his neglected nation, which he was anxiously desirous of rescuing from its degraded character. One of his productions, entitled, “Ritual of the Jews,” Mr. Dohm informs us was written by the advice, and under the direction of the chief rabbi, Hirschel Levi. A subsequent publication of his, however, entitled, “Jerusalem,” shewed that he was no slave to sacerdotal authority, and gave no little offence to the orthodox among his own people, as well as to many in the Christian world. It attacked hierarchical power with great freedom and energy,and among other bold opinions, maintained that the Jews have a revealed law, but not a revealed religion; that opinions are not subjects of revelation; and that the only religion of the Jewish nation is that of nature. This work exposed him to the animadversions of Jewish rabbis, catholic priests, and protestant divines, in Germany, France, and Switzerland, and thus involved him in a religious controversy, which proved particularly oppressive to his nervous frame. Among others, the celebrated Lavater, the physiognomist, entered the field against him, in a dedicatión to his German translation of “Bonnet's Enquiry into the Evidences of Christianity;” which was addressed to Mendelsohn, and called upon him either to confute that book, or to acknowledge his conviction of the truth of its arguments. Mendelsohn wanted fortitude, or did not think it safe for himself and his nation, to stand forth the champion of a system of natural religion, which, as we have already observed, he considered the Mosaic code solely to be, since it might be construed into an attack upon Christianity. Besides, he could not promise himself the protection of the king of Prussia, whose favour he had not been able to obtain. Frederic is well known to have entertained the strongest prejudices against all German writers, and he could not believe that a Jew, and a Jew who wrote in the German language, was a person either to be admired or countenanced. Mendelsohn also had written an elaborate work on the immortality of the soul, which the king thought very absurd ; and he had incurred his majesty's displeasure, by op

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