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elected one of the eight foreign members of that institution. In the year 1760, our author gave offence to the orthodox clergy, by publishing his “Compendium of Dogmatic Theology,” consisting of doctrinal lectures which he had delivered by a special licence from the government. Owing to this, some zealots preferred a charge against him at Hanover, of innovation, and teaching erroneous doctrines; but the court was satisfied with his own explanation of his sentiments. Again, complaints were alleged against him, in consequence of the appearance of a criticism of Haller's on one of the opinions of the reformed church, in the “Literary Notices” of which he had the direction after the departure of Haller from Gottingen; which terminated in nothing more serious than a rescript, communicating to him a censure on his theological tenets. Thus his work, notwithstanding its deviations from the established faith, excited neither much criticism, nor any powerful opposition in Germany; but in Sweden, a strong disapprobation of it was expressed by the counsellor of state count Höpkin, chancellor of the university of Upsal, who prohibited the introduction or reading of the author's writings within his jurisdiction. Before the termination of the seven years war, Michaelis shewed his zeal in the interests of science and literature, by the part which he took in the project for sending a mission of learned men into Egypt and Arabia, for the purpose of obtaining such information concerning the actual state of those countries, as might serve to throw light on geography, natural history, philology, and biblical learning. He first conceived the idea of such a mission, which he communicated by letter to the privy counsellor Bernstorf, who laid it before his sovereign Frederic V. king of Denmark. That prince was so well satisfied of the benefits which might result from such an undertaking, that he determined to support the expence of it; and he even committed to Michaelis the management of the design, together with the nomination of proper travellers, and the care of drawing up their instructions. The persons whom he selected were Von Haven, Forskal, and Niebuhr, whose proceedings have been communicated to the public; and though the fruits of them were not fully reaped, they were not unproductive of valuable accessions to our stores of curious and useful information. For the incredible zeal and diligence which our author discovered in the preparations for this bold and commendable adventure, the king of

Denmark recompensed him with a present of four hundred ducats, and other proofs of his royal favour. Upon the death of Gesner in 1761, Michaelis succeeded him in the office of librariant to the Royal Society, and was the means of introducing regulations which proved highly beneficial to that institution ; but he did not retain this situation during twelve months, being nominated, instead of it, to the place of director, with the salary forlife of the post which he resigned. Two years afterwards he was tempted to remove to Berlin, by honourable and lucrative offers made him in a letter from Potsdam by Guiscard, or Quintus Icilius, in the name of the king of Prussia; but his attachment to Gottingen determined him to decline them, without any prospect of equivalent advantages. In the summer of 1766, he had an interesting visit paid to him at Gottingen by his friend sir John Pringle, whom he had known in England, accompanied by the celebrated Dr. Benjamin Franklin. With the first, who was a zealous and conscientious advocate for religion, he afterwards corresponded on the subject of the leprosy, spoken of in the books of Moses, and on that of Daniel's prophecy of the seventy weeks. The latter subject was discussed in the letters which passed between them during the year 1771, and was particularly examined by our professor. This correspondence was printed at London by sir John Pringle, in 1773, under the title of “Joan. Dav. Michaelis, Prof. Ord. Philos, et Soc. Reg. Scient. Gottingensis Collegiae, Epistolae, de LXX. Hebdomalibus Danielis, ad D. Joan. Pringle, Baronettum ; primo privatim mittae, nunc vero utriusque Consensu publicë edit:e,” octavo. With Franklin, among other topics of discourse, he conversed on the relative situation of the colonies and the mother country; the serious differences which then existed between them; and the probable issue of a rupture, should it unhappily take place. On the subject last mentioned, Michaelis concurred in opinion with the misguided statesmen in our own country, who conceived it impossible for America to oppose a successful resistance to the fleets and armies of Great Britain. In the year 177c, some differences having arisen between our author and his colleagues in the Royal Society, he resigned the directorship, and withdrew his name from the list of members. However, before his connection with that body was dissolved, he had the satisfaction of overcoming the opposition of Münchausen and Tobias Mayer, against his sending to England the lunar tables of the latter, which had been read before the Society; and also of obtaining for them the attention of the English board of longitude, who voted a reward of three thousand pounds sterling to be

aid to that excellent astronomer, or rather to F. heirs, as we have already mentioned under his article. In 1775, our author's well-established reputation had so far removed the prejudices against him in Sweden, that count Höpkin, who eighteen years before had prohibited the use of his writings at Upsal, how

revailed upon the king of Sweden to confer on }. the order of the polar star. Accordingly, our professor was decorated with the ensigns of that order; on which occasion he chose for a motto to his arms, the words libera veritar. In 1782, his health was impaired by the attack of an influenza; and still more so two years afterwards, by a severe sit of the gout attended with a bilious fever, from the effects of which he never entirely recovered. In 1786, he was raised to the distinguished rank of privy counsellor of justice by the court of Hanover; in the following year, the Academy of Inscriptions at Paris elected him a foreign member of that body; and in 1788 he received his last literary honour, by being chosen a member of the Royal Society of London. In the summer of 1791, his strength was so greatly diminished, that after he had begun a course of lectures he was obliged to relinquish them: upon which, having requested the attendance

of his pupils in his chamber, he informed them.

of the necessity he was under of interrupting his course of lectures, which it was his intention to complete, should his health be re-established; but, since he had much reason to apprehend from all his symptoms that his dissolution was approaching, he wished now to take his leave of them. He continued his literary exertions, however, as long as he was able, and a few weeks before his death, shewed a friend several sheets in manuscript, of annotations which he had lately written on the New Testament. When the same friend spoke to him for the last time one evening, his body was so enfeebled that he could with difficulty walk alone; but the energics of his soul seemed to rise superior to the enervation of his corporeal faculties. After having complained of awakening too early, and of being disturbed by his own confused thoughts, he added, in a determined tone peculiar to himself, “I am resolved to rise as soon as ever I awake, and to chase away these phantasms of the brain.” He

never entertained the least fear of death, which his increasing debility led him to wish for as a welcome visiter; and he would frequently cilquire of his physician if it was not near at hand. He expired on the twenty-second of August 1791, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He had been twice married, and had ten children, of whom only two sons and three daughters survived him. His eldest Son, Christian Friedr. Michaelis, was counsellor and lecturer on physic at Marpurg in the landgraviate of Hesse, in the year 180 l ; and his youngest son, Gottfried Philip Michaelis, had also been educated to the medical profession, and admitted to the degree of M. D. That the subject of this article was a man of very extensive and profound erudition, as well as of extraordinary talents, which were not less brilliant than solid, is sufficient by his writings, the honours which were paid to his merits, and the testimony of his acquaintance and contemporaries. His application and industry were unwearied, and his perseverance in such pursuits as he conceived might prove useful to the world terminated only with the declension of his powers. His great critical knowledge of the Hebrew language, in particular, which he displayed in a new translation of the Bible, and various other works, raised him to a degree of eminence almost unknown before in Germany ; and his indefatigable labours were equalled only by his desire of communicating the knowledge which he had acquired. In his office of professor, which he filled at Gottingen during the long period of forty-five years, he had an opportunity of displaying his oratorical powers, which were very considerable. He was free from all pedantry, had an abundant share of humour, extensive information, and a happy talent of expressing his sentiments without the least embarrassment. He would render the driest subjects interesting, by his lively and easy manner of delivery ; and would often introduce into his lectures anecdotes and witticisms, which, however, it must be confessed, were rather calculated to amuse than to instruct. It was not unusual with him to take this method of concluding his lectures, when want of time had prevented him from preparing more important materials. His writings are distinguished not only by various and solid learning, but by a profusion of ideas, extent of knowledge, brilliancy of expression, and a frequent vein of pleasantry. With the serious he often blended the jocose, and interspersed the most abstruse disquisitions with various anecdotes and bon-mots. At the same

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time he cannot be acquitted of introducing too frequent repetitions into his works, and by that means rendering them unnecessarily prolix and voluminous. An unshaken integrity formed the basis of his moral character. He was always anxious to discover the rule of proF. and duty by which his actions might e uniformly regulated, and never relaxed in his enquiries, until he had laid some foundation in his own mind, upon which he might build his future conduct. It was a regard to this rule that led him to apply with diligence to the study of the Greek language, that he might supply the defects of his early education, and be enabled to find a solution of many conscientious difficulties which presented themselves to him in the New Testament. “Could I,” says he, “have supposed that a knowledge of the Greek would have thrown so much

light upon the obscurities of the Testament, I

would have studied it with the greatest assiduity.” The same just sense of duty discovered itself on another occasion, which is not undeserving of notice. During the seven years war, one of his pupils undertook to be a spy for the Hanoverian army, to which he conveyed various articles of information out of Gottingen. At one time he had obtained some intelligence that appeared to him important, and which pointed out a certain method of expelling the French, who were then in possession of the city; but not being able to procure a horse, he requested Michaelis to lend him his, and acquainted him with the whole affair. “I replied to him,” says the latter, “that I could not conscientiously comply with his request; as my consent to it would be repugnant to those principles of honour and patriotism which I had always held sacred.” To the love of learning and of his duty, Michaelis united a firm adherence to truth and sincerity, from which he allowed of no deviation. He regarded no sacrifice as too great in its support. Neither the ties of friendship nor of interest could prevent him from frankly expressing his sentiments on any subject concerning which his judgment was asked ; as he particularly shewed by his difference with Dr. Kennicott. That gentleman sent to him one of his productions,which Michaelis criticised with more severity, than the author thought that either impartial justice or the obligations of friendship would warrant. Of his remonstrances to this purport Michaelis expressed his resentment, by breaking off the friendly intercourse that had subsisted between them. “Since

such are his ideas of friendship,” said he, “I have no desire to renew my intimacy with him. I have therefore answered his letters with cool civility.” Of the extent of his own abilities and reputation he shewed himself conscious to an excess, which exposed him to the imputation of unworthy and puerile vanity. He has been charged with the vice of avarice; but without sufficient foundation. He certainly knew the value of money, and neglected no just opportunity that offered of increasing his finances. However, he did not set a value on money for its own sake, but as the instrument of independence and enjoyment. As a proof of his covetousness it is alleged, that he was not liberal in giving his lectures gratis. But it is said in reply, that the extravagance and selfishness of the students fully justified him on that point: for it was not unusual for those who had solicited exemption from the payment of fees, to be observed squandering considerable sums for their own pleasure and entertainment. He was, however, never backward in granting such exemption,and contributing further to the assistance of those poor students who were in unmerited distress. He was also charitable to the poor, whose characters and circumstances came within his knowledge; but he never gave any alms promiscuously to beggars in the streets, considering them to be levying a shameful tax on the public, from which every individual ought to exonerate himself. In his disputes he was very acrimonious, not being able to brook opposition from any whom he conceived to be his inferiors, and frequently treating his adversaries with scorn and ridiculé. By the impatience and violence with which he carried them on, he lessened the number of his friends, and provoked numerous enemies; some of whom retorted on him an abundant measure of asperity, not always unaccompanied with malignity or injustice. But his resentments against them were not durable, nor his spirit vindictive ; and he would forget injuries which he had received, when an opportunity offered of serving the offender. In the latter part of his life he was regarded not only as a literary character, but as a man of business, and was employed in affairs of moment by the courts of England, lenmark, and Prussia. The following is a list of the publications of Michaelis, some in Latin, but the greater number in German, according to the order of their appearance: “De Antiquitate Punctorum Vocalium,” 1739, octavo; “Rudiments of Hebrew Accentuation,” 1741, octavo; “A Hebrew Grammar,” 1745, octavo; “De Mente et Ra

tione Legis Mosaica, usuram prohibentis;”

* Ad Leges divinas de Poena Homicidii, Diss. II.” 1747 & 1750; “Thoughts on the Atonement of Christ,” 1748, octavo; “ De Prisca Hierosolyma Diss.” 1749; “Translation of the first four Volumes of Clarissa, from the English;” “Paraphrase and Annotations on the Epistles of St. Paul to the Galatians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon,” 1756, quarto; “Introduction to the New Testament,” 1750, octavo, which was enlarged in subsequent editions till it reached the fourth in 1788, in two volumes quarto; “On the Duty of Mankind to speak the Truth;” “On the Reason of the Prevalence of the Misnian l)ialect in Germany,” 1751, octavo ; “Poetical Version of Ecclesiastes;” “Thoughts on the Scripture Doctrine of Sin, as consistent with Reason,” 1752, octavo ; “Argumenta Immortalitatis Animarum ex Mose collecta ;” prefaces to the first, second, and third volumes of the “Commentationes Societ. Reg. Scientiarum Goettingensis,” for the years 1751, 1752, and 1753, quarto; “Commentatio de Battologia ad Matth. VI. VII,” 1753, quarto; “System of typical Divinity;” “Commentationes de Siclo ante Exilium Babylonicum ;” “Oratio de Defectibus Historiae naturalis et Philologiae, Itinere in Palestinam Arabiamdue suscepto Sarciendis,” 1754; “Specimen novie Versionis Corani in Parte Surie II.;” “Curae in Versionem Syriacam Actuum Apostolorum,” 1755, quarto; “Treatise on the Law of Marriage, according to Moses;” “Diss. II. ad Marc. X. 42. et XV. 25. ac Joan. XIX. 14.;” “On the Means adopted to acquire a Knowledge of the Hebrew Language,” 1756; “Lex Mosaica Deut. XXII. 6, 7. et Historia naturali et Moribus Aogyptiorum illustrata,” 1757; “Paraleipomena contra Polygamiam,” 1758, quarto ; “De Connubiis aliarum Scientiarum cum philologia Orientali;” “ Roberti Lowth de sacra Poesi Hebræorum Prælectiones, cum Notis et Epimetris,” 1758, octavo, which notes, &c. were printed at the Clarendon press, Oxford, 1763, octavo ; “Syntagma Commentationum, &c.” in eleven parts, 1759–1767, quarto; “Letters on the Difficulty of reconciling all Religions;”, “De ea Germania: Dialecta, quae in Sacris faciendis et Libris scribendis utimur, &c.; “Critical Lectures on the three important Psalms which treat of Christ, Io, 40, 1 Io.” I 759, octavo ; “A

French Translation of his Prize FSony” “On the Influence of Opinions on Language, &c.” 1759, octavo ; “Compendium Theologic Dogmatica,” 1760, octavo ; “Questions proposed to a Society of literary Mon, who undertook a Journey to Arabia, by Command of the King of Denmark,” 1762, octavo ; “FXplanation of the Epistle to the Hebrews,” 1764, in two volumes quarto ; “Adnotationes ad Głocestrii Ridley Diss. de Versionibus Nov. Test. Syriacis,” 1766, octavo; “Programma on his Lectures on the Septuagint,” 1767, octavo ; “Prolegomena in Jobum, seu Epimetron ad Lowthi Prælectionem XXII. de Po-si Hebræorum,” 1767, octavo; “Treatise on the Syriac Language, and its Use, with the first Part of a Syriac Chrestonathy,” 1768, octavo ; “Specilegium Geographiæ Hebræorum exterae, post Bocharturn,” in eleven parts, 1765– 1780, quarto; “Observations relating to the Protestant Universities in Germany,” 1-69, octavo ; “Fundamental Interpretation of the Mosaic Law,” in six parts, 1770–1775, octavo ; “German Translation of the Old Testament, with Notes, for the Unlearned,” in thirteen parts, 1770–1785, making two volumes quarto; “Attempt to explain the Seventy Weeks of Daniel,” 1771, octavo ; “Grammatica Chaldaica,” 1771, octavo ; “Grammatica Syriaca,” quarto; “Oriental & Exegetical Library,” in thirteen volumes 1771–1789, octavo ; “Daniel secundum Septuaginta,” 1773, octavo ; “Hermanni Von der Hardt Hoseas illustratus,” 1775; “Abulfede Tabulae AEgypti;” “On the most ancient History of the Horses of Palestine, and of the adjacent Countries, particularly Egypt, and Arabia,” 1776, octavo ; “Translation and Exposition of the first Book of Maccabees, with Notes,” 1777, quarto ; “Thoughts on the Doctrine of Scripture concerning Sin and Satisfaction,” 1779, octavo ; “Arabic Grammar and Chrestomathy,” 1781, octavo ; “Of the Taste of the Arabians in their Writings,” 1781, octavo ; “Illustration of the Burial and Resurrection of Christ, from the four Evangelists,” 1783, octavo ; “German Dogmatic IDivinity,” 1784, octavo ; “Supplementa ad Lexicon Hlebraicum,” 1781–1792, in six volumes quarto; “Supplement, or fifth Fragment of Lessing's Collections,” 1785, octavo ; “New Oriental and Exegetical Library,” in nine volumes, 1786–1791, octavo ; “Introduction to the Writings of the Old I estament,” volume I. part I. 1787, quarto; “Translation of the Old Testament, without Remarks,” 1789, in two volumes quarto; “Translation of the New Testament,” 1790, in two volumes quarto; “Remarks for the Unlearned, on the Translation” last mentioned, in four parts, 1790–1792, quarto; “Observationes philologicæ et criticae in Jeremie Vaticia. et Threnos,” edited by Schleusner, 1703, quarto; “Ethics,” another posthumous piece, edited by C. F. Aaudlin, 1792, in two parts, octavo ; and several contributions to the “Memoirs of the Royal Society of Gottingen,” and other foreign journals and periodical works, &c. The most important of our author’s works, with which the English scholar has been brought acquainted, is his “Introduction to the New Testament,” translated into English from the first edition, and published in 1761, in a quarto volume. In 1788, as we have seen, the author gave to the public his fourth, greatly enlarged and highly improved, edition of that work, in two volumes quarto. This work is purely critical and historical, and the reader will therefore expect to find in it no discussions of controverted points in speculative theology, which belong to a different province. Independent of sect or party, the author's object is to explain the Greek Testament with the same impartiality, and the same unbiassed love of truth, with which a critic in profane literature would examine the writings of a Homer or a Virgil. The first volume contains an examination of the title, authenticity, inspiration, and language of the New Testament, the quotations from the Old Testament, the various readings, ancient versions, and manuscripts of the Greek Testament, the quotations of the fathers, critical and theological conjecture, commentarios and editions of the Greek Testament, accents and other marks of distinction, with the ancient and modern divisions of the sacred text. The second volume contains a particular introduction to each individual book of the New Testament. This work is a most valuable present to the biblical scholar, and is deservedly held in high estimation in Germany, a country at this time the most distinguished in Europe for theological learning. The English theological student, therefore, is under no little obligation to the rev. Herbert Marsh, fellow of St. John'scollege, Cambridge, for having published a faithful and elegant version of it in his native tongue. In the year 1793, Mr. Marsh commenced this undertaking by publishing his translation of the first volume of the fourth edition of the original, in three volumes octavo,

accompanied with his own elaborate and learned notes, which constitute more than one third of the whole. After completing the translation of the second volume, it was his intention to draw up a commentary on the author's text, as he had done in the preceding volumes; but being prevented by various interruptions from finishing his design, in the year 1801 he very properly determined to lay the remainder of his version before the public, without any further delay. This part of the work extends to three additional volumes in octavo, including a long and learned dissertation by Mr. Marsh, “On the Origin and Composition of the three first Gospels.” It is to be hoped that he will yet proceed to the completion of his original plan with regard to Michaelis's work, and give the world a commentary also upon the second volume. Extract from Schliciegroll’s Nekrolog in the German A suseum for 1801. Gent. AZagaz. March, 1792. A larsh's Prefaces.—M. MICHAELIS, John HENRY, a learned German Lutheran divine and orientalist, who flourished towards the close of the seventeenth and in the former part of the eighteenth century, was the son of a citizen of Elrich, and born at Klettenburg in the county of Hohenstein, in the year 1668. He had the disadvantage of being placed at very indifferent schools till he was fifteen years of age, when his father sent him to Brunswick, with the design of his being brought up to some trade. Discovering, however, a stronger inclination for study than for business, he was permitted to follow the bias of his mind: upon which he obtained admission into the school of St. Martin in that city. Here he was appointed to instruct some of the younger scholars; in which employment he acquitted himself greatly to the satisfaction of the rector. From this school, after spending some time in a seminary at Nordhausen, he entered of the university of Leipsic in 1688, where he went through courses of philosophy and divinity, and also studied the oriental languages and rabbinical Hebrew. When he had become susiciently qualified he commenced Hebrew-tutor, and had a considerable number of pupils. In 1694, he was induced to quit Leipsic for the university of Halle, where he taught the Greek, Hebrew, and Chaldee, with no little reputation. Here he published, with the assistance of professor Francke, a work entitled, “Conamina brevioris Manuductionis ad Doctrinam de Accentibus Hebræorum Prosaicis;” on account of

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