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this raunfome. But in fine, wonne with the importunitye of hir brother (pleading for life:) upon these conditions The agreed to Promos. First that he should pardon her brother, and after marry her. Promos as fearles in promisle, as carelesse in performance, with follemne vowe, fygned her conditions : but worse than any Infydel, his will satisfyed, he performed neither the one nor the other : for to keepe his aucthoritye, unspotted with favour, and to prevent Cassandraes clamors, he commaunded the Gayler secretly, to present Carsandra with her brother's head. The Gayler, with the outcryes of Andrugio, (abhorryng Promos lewdnes,) by the providence of God, provided thus for his fafety. He presented Cassandra with a felons head newlie executed, who, (being mangled, knew it not from her brothers, by the Gayler, who was set at libertie) was so agreeved at this trecherye, that at the pointe to kyl her selfe, The spared that stroke, to be avenged of Promos. And devysing a way, she concluded, to make her fortunes knowne unto the kinge. She (executing this resolution) was so highly favoured of the King, that forthwith he hafted to do justice on Promos: whose judgement was, to marrye Cassandra, to repaire her crased Honour : which donne, for his hainous offence he should lose his head. This maryage folempnised, Caffandra tyed in the greatest bondes of affection to her husband, became an earnest futer for his life: the Kinge (tendringe the generall benefit of the comon weale, before her special case, although he favoured her much) would not graunt her sute. Andrugio (disguised amonge the company) forrowing the griefe of his fifter, bewrayde his safety, and craved pardon. The Kinge, to renowne the vertues of Caffandra, pardoned both him, and Promos. The circumstances of this rare Historye, in action livelye foloweth.'

The play itself opens thus :

Axtus 1. Scena 1. " Promos, Mayor, Shirife, Sworde bearer : One with a bunche

of keyes : Phallax, Promos man. Pou Dfficers which now in Julio ftaye, “ Knowe you our leadge, the Kinge of Hungarie: “ Sent me Promos, to toyne with you in (way: « That till we may to Justice have an eye. “ And now to fhow, my rule & poloer at laroge, “ Attentivelit, his Letters Pattents heart : “ Phallax reade out my Soveraines chardge, « Phal. As you commande, J wyll: give heedful care. Phallax readeth the Kinges Letters Patents, which

must be fayre written in parchment, with some great counter

feat zeale. * Pro. Loe, here you see wbat is our Soveraignes wyl, “ Lor, heart his with, that right, not might, beare (waye : “ Lot, heare his care, to weed from good the yll, “ To scourge the wights, good Lawes that dilobay."

And thus it proceeds; without one word in it, that Shakspeare could make use of, or can be read with patience by any man living : and yet, besides the characters appearing in the argument, his Bawd Clown, Lucio, Juliet, and the Provost, nay, and even his Barnardine, are created out of hints which this play gave him; and the lines too that are quoted, bad as they are, suggested to him the manner in which his own play opens.

Merchant of Venice.

The Jew of Venice was a story exceedingly well known in Shakspeare's time ; celebrated in ballads ; and taken (perhaps) originally from an Italian book intitid--Il Pecoronethe author of which calls himself,-Ser Giovanni Fiorentino; and writ his book, as he tells you in fome humorous verses at the beginning of it, in 1378, three years after the death of Boccace; it is divided into giornata's, and the story we are speaking of is in the first novel of the giornata quarta ; edit. 1565, octavo, in Vinegia. This novel Shakspeare certainly read; either in the original, or (which I rather think) in some translation that is not now to be met with, and forin'd his play upon it. It was translated anew, and made publick in 1755, in a small octavo pamphlet, printed for M. Cooper : and, at the end of it, a novel of Boccace; (the first of day the tenth) which, as the translator rightly judges, might posfibly produce the scene of the caskets, substituted by the poet in place of one in the other novel, that was not proper for the stage.

. Merry Wives of Windsor. « Queen Elizabeth," says a writer of Shakspeare's life, “ was so well pleas'd with that admirable character of Falstaff, in the two parts of Henry the Fourth, that she commanded him to continue it for one play more, and to shew him in love. This is said to be the occasion of his writing The Merry Wives of Windsor.As there is no proof brought for the truth of this story, we may conclude that it is either some playhouse tradition, or had its rise from Sir William D'Avenant, whose authority the writer quotes for another fingular anecdote, relating to lord Southampton. Be this as it may; Shakspeare, in the conduct of Falstaff's love-adventures, made use of some incidents in a book that has been mention'd before, callid--Il Pecorone; they are in VOL. I.


the second novel of that book. It is highly probable, that this novel likewise is in an old English dress somewhere or other; and from thence transplanted into a foolish book, call'd—The fortunate, the deceiv’d, and the unfortunate Lovers ; printed in 1685, octavo, for William Whittwood; where the reader may see it, at p. 1. Let me add too, that there is a like story in the" Piacevoli Notti, di Straparola, libro primo ; at Notte quarta, Favola quarta ; edit. 1567, octavo,' in Vinegia.

Midsummer-Night's Dream.

The history of our old poets is so little known, and the first editions of their works become so very scarce, that it is hard pronouncing any thing certain about them : but, if that pretty fantastical poem of Drayton's, callid-Nymphidia, or The Court of Fairy, be early enough in time, (as, I believe, it is; for I have seen an edition of that author's pastorals, printed in 1593, quarto,) it is not improbable, that Shakspeare took from thence the hint of his fairies : a line of that


« Thorough bush, thorough briar,” occurs also in his play. The rest of the play is, doubtless, invention : the names only of Theseus, Hippolita, and Theseus' former loves, Antiopa and others, being historical; and taken from the translated Plutarch, in the article-Theseus.

Much Ado about Nothing.

“ Timbree de Cardone deviēt amoureux à Mefline de Fenicie Leonati, & des divers & estrāges accidens qui advindrēt avāt qu'il l'efpoufalt."-is the title of another novel in the Histoires Tragiques of Beile.

forest; Tom. 3. Hist. 18: it is taken from one of Bandello's, which you may see in his first tome, at p. 150, of the London edition in quarto, a copy from that of Lucca in 1554. This French novel comes the nearest to the fable of Much Ado about Nothing, of any thing that has yet been discovered, and is (perhaps) the foundation of it. There is

story something like it in the fifth book of Orlando Furioso: (v. Sir John Harrington's translation of it, edit. 1591, folio) and another in Spencer's Fairy Queen.


Cinthio, the best of the Italian writers next to Boccace, has a novel thus intitld :-“Un Capitano Moro piglia per mogliera una cittadina venetiana, un suo Alfieri l'accusa de adulterio al [read, il, with a colon afteradulterio] Marito, cerca; che l’Alfieri uccida colui, ch'egli credea l’Adultero, il Capitano uccide la Moglie, è accusato dallo Alfieri, non confessa il Moro, ma essendovi chiari inditii, è bandito, Et lo fcelerato Alfieri; credendo nuocere ad altri, procaccia à sè la morte miseramente.' Hecatommithi, Dec. 3, Nov. 7 ; edit. 1565, two tomes, octavo. If there was no translation of this novel, French or English ; nor any thing built upon it; either in profe or verse, near enough in time for Shakspeare to take his Othello from them ; we must, I think, conclude—that he had it from the Italian; for the story (at least, in all it's main circumstances) is apparently the same.

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Romeo and Juliet.

This very affecting story is likewise a true one; it made a great noise at the time it happen'd, and

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