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MESSINA.

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1820.]
Account of Messina.

105 Mr. URBAN, Queen Sq. July 15. 4. The Grotto, a Church built on The beautiful City of Messina, the the foundation of the Temple of

capital of the kingdoin of Sicily *, Diana. 104 miles E. of Palermo, N. lat. 38° 5. The Village of St. Agatha I, 10, E. long. 15° 40', is situated on where part of the English troops the East coast towards the narrow were quartered ; all along this coast sea called " The Straits of Messina,' there is a white sandy beach, along formerly called "Zancle,” which name which people ride to the Faro, there it derived from the form of the bar- being no road but this for three miles. bour, which resembles a hook.

6. The Calabrian Hills, just above The Drawing (see Plate I.) was the glorious plains of Maida. made in 1806, at the time the British 7. The Village and Lighthouse of troops were at Messina, and gives a Faro, a strait of the Mediterranean, faithful representation of the Straits between Sicily and Calabria, remarkof Messina, and the immediate coun able for the tide ebbing and flowing try of Calabria t, with all the re. every

six hours. markable points, and a distant View 8. Continuation of the distant Ca. of the Proipontory, or Rock of labriao Hills. Scylla.

9. Town of Palma , then lately in Explanation of the Figures of

the possession of the French. Reference.

10. In this nook lies Scylla || and

Bagoara I; the view of them is obTo avoid disfiguring the View, the structed ooly by the Promootory, numbers are referred to by the same at which distance the Calabrian Hills number of birds flying over the ob

continue towards the South, the jects herein explained.

whole length of the Straits. 1. The upright building in the left corner of the View, is part of a Con Thucydides supposes that this city vent left unfinished; its foundation was founded by the pirates of Cuma, having been shook by an earthquake. but some others have traced its ori

2. The roof next to the above is gin to a higher antiquity, and date the Palace where General Fox re 530 years before the siege of Troy, sided.

and 964 years before Romulus laid 3. The lower roof is part of that the foundation of Rome ; when the of the house occupied by Thomas inhabitants were molested by the piWarrington, .esq. from whence the rates of Cuma, they sought the as. View was taken.

sistance of the Messinians, a people * Messina claims the prerogative of being styled the Capital of the kingdom, though Palermo disputes the precedency with it.

+ Calabria, a country of Italy, in the kingdom of Naples, divided into Calabria Citra, Calabria Ultra, or Hither and Farther Calabria ; the former is bounded on the North by Basilicata, on the East by the Gulf of Taranto, on the South by Calabria Ultra, and on the West by the Mediterranean, and a small part of the Principato Citra. The town of Maida (a town of Naples) is in Calabria Ulira.

St. Agatha, a small town of Naples, in the further principality, on the confines of Terra di Labora, between Capua and Beneventum, eight leagues North-east of Naples.

§ Palma la Nuova, a town of Italy, in the country of Friuli, on the borders of Goritz, situated on a canal which communicates with the Lizonzo. It is fortified and surrounded by nine bastions, which bear the names of nine Venetian noblemen.

|| Scylla, a rock at the entrance of the Straits of Messina, about 200 feet in height. Scylla was famous in antiquity for the danger which it presented to navigators who approached it. It is now called Sciglio in Calabria Ultra. The town is partly situated on the shore, but the greater part among the rocks above it; its streets are narrow, and nine different rows of houses are observed standing one above anoiher, and over the highest of these, which are straight rows, are six or seven others, in an oblique direction, and froin the rock rushes a waterfall, supposed by Cluverius to be the Cratais of Homer, the fabulous mother of Scylla. The earihquake in 1783 destroyed some churches and damaged others; and though most of the houses escaped, a great number of the inhabitants perished. Most of them, terrified by the shock, fled preci. pitately to the sea shore, which being thrown into the sea by the agitation and resilition of the water, caused 1450 persons to be overwhelmed by the waves and drowned.

q Bagnara, a sea-port town of Italy, in the kingdom of Naples and province of Calabria Ultra, was destroyed by the earthquake in 1783. Gent. Mag. Aligust, 1820.

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of Greece, who came to their succour, The Harbour of Messioa has been
cleared their coasts, and entered into much admired, and the Quay is deco-
au alliaace with them, from which rated with a range of buildings, pearly
circumstance it was called by these uniform in its whole length, and io-
Greeks “ Messene,” and by the La terrupted only by a number of arches,
tíns “ Messana." But Pausanias says, which serve as entrances into the
that Apaxilas, tyraut of Rhegium, streets that terminate upon it.
haviog formed an alliance with the At the bottom of the Port is the
Messenians of Greece against the King's Palace, the residence of the
Zancleaos, with their assistance took Guvernor, before whose door the
possession of the city, which, in com vessels of the Royal Navy lie at an-
pliinent to them, he called “Messene." chor. Near this is a covered walk,
This eveot is said to have taken place which leads to the Ciladel, which is
in the year of Rome 94. It was af almost impregnable, and cannot be
terwards scized by the Mamertiai; attacked by sea, ou account of the
and being made their capital, it be- currents and difficulty of anchorage;
came one of the most powerful cities nor is it overlooked on the land side,
of Sicily. The Mamertipi trausferred whilst it commands the City and
it to the Romans, and from them it Harbour. This was built by Charles
was taken in the first Punic war by XIth, after a revolt of the iohabit.
the Carthaginians. Under the Ron aots. There is a communication by
mans it enjoyed a long interval of a covered way, and a wide subter.
peace, and was spared by the rapa rannean passage formed under the
cious Verres. In the civil wars it Jettee, between the Ciladel and two
took part with Sextus Pompeius. forts; one, that of the Lantero, which

After the fall of the Roman empire, points out the Channel in the Calait was for some time in the possession brian coast, and that of St. Salvador, of the Saracens; and in 1060, was whicb defends the entrance of the taken by Roger, Count of Calabria, port. It seems as if Nature had dewho also assumed the pame of Sicily: signed even the whirlpools of Seylla

Io 1139, Richard I. King of Eng- and Charybdis * to serve as guards to land made himself master of it in his this superb Port, which is capable of way to the Holy Land. It was after- containing all the ships of Europe, wards betrayed to Louis XI. King of and where vessels arrive at the very France, who was compelled to sur door of the merchant, finding any render it.

required depth of water, and needing * Scylla and Charybdis, two whirlpools, the one on the right and the other on the Jeft extremity of the Strails of Messina, where Sicily fronts Italy. Homer and Virgil describe them to be two sea monsters, whose dreadful jaws were continually disteoded to swallow unhappy mariners.

“ Here Scylla bellows from her dire abodes,
Tremendous pest, abborr'd by men and gods !
Hideous her voice, and with less terrors roar
The whelps of lions in the midnight hour.
Twelve feet deform'd and foul the fiend dispreads,
Six horrid vecks she rears, and six terrific heads ; &c."

Pope, Odyssey, xii. I. 107
“ Beneath, Charybdis holds her boisterous reign
'Midst rearing whirlpools, and absorbs the main ;
Thrice in her gulphs the boiling seas subside ;

Thrice io dire thunders she refunds the tide."-Pope, Odyssey, xii. I. 129.
Charybdis is said to absorb and reject the water three times in 24 hours.

“ Far on the right, her dogs foul Scylla hides;
Charybdis roaring on the left presides,

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Then spouts them from below; with fury driving
The waves mount up, and wash the face of Heav'o."

Dryden's Virgil, III. 536.
At Scyllam cæcis cohibet spelunca latebris,
Ora exertantem, et naves in saxa trahentem.
Prima hominis facies, et pulchro pectore virgo
Pube tenus ; postrema immani corpore pristis,
Delphinûm caudas ulero coinmissa luporum."--Æn. III. 424.

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1820.) Account of Messina.--Hist. of Dorsetshire. 107 not to move an anchor, if it were not calamities which this City has suffered for the violence of the Sirocco *, the have not only diminished its populaonly wind to which it is exposed, and tion, but occasioned the decay of by which the ships are in danger of many houses and the desertion of being driven out to sea. In the middle their occupiers, as well as the decline of the Haven are a Lighthouse aud a of their trade, which, however, is Lazaretto. Within the city are hand. still considerable. some streets, elegant marble foun There is an appual Fair in August, taips, equestrian and pedestrian sla at which the merchants of all nations tues of bronze, large and handsome resort, and consequently a large churches, vast convents, hotels, a assortment of foreign goods are exmagnificent general hospital called posed to sale. “ La Loggia," another large hospital, The air of Messina is temperale, and near it a well-regulated and spa- being continually freshened by the cious Lombard-house. The popula- breezes from the sea, purified by the tion formerly corresponded with these nountains, agitated by the currents, appearances ; but the plague of 1743 and moderated by the shade and sheland 1744 reduced it from 100,000 to ter; so that it is rendered one of the 30,000. In 1780 and 1782, it suffered most bealthy and agreeable habitagreatly from an earthquake. The tions in the whole world. W.R.

COMPENDIUM OF COUNTY HISTORY.

ADDITIONS TO DORSETSHIRE. (Continued from p. 15.)

MISCELLANEOUS REMARKS. Asne in Stour-paine was tbe property and residence of Joho Trenchard, author of " Cato's Letters."

At BeminsTEK FORUM, April 14, 1644, 144 houses burnt, loss 21,0001. ; June 28, 1694, a' second tire, loss 13,6841. ; March 31, 1781, 50 houses burnt. In the Chapel are splendid monuments for John Strode, Sergeant at Law, 1698, and George Strode, Esq. 1753. The Rev. Samuel Hood, father of the naval heroes, Lords Hood and Bridport, was masler of the Free School.

Bere Regis, great fire in 1634, loss 70001. June 4, 1789, 42 houses burnt.

AL BLANDFORD Forum, died of the gaol fever Sir Thomas Perigelly, Lord Chief Baron, 1730. In the church are inonuments of its natives, Robert Pill, physician (epitaph by his brother the poet), 1730 ; and Christopher Piti, translator of Virgil, 1748 ; with a cenotaplı

, having the appropriate ornament of a Pultenea, for Dr. Richard Pulteney, physician and botanist, i801.

* Sirocc, or Sirocco, a South east wind of Sicily, particularly at Palermo, attended with an uncommon degree of heat, and singularly relaxing and oppressive in its effects. The blast of it is represented as resembling burning steam from the mouth of an oven; the whole atmosphere, during its continuance, seems to be in a flame. Those who are exposed to it, in a few minutes find themselves relaxed in a most inconceivable man. ner, the pores are opened to such a degree, that they expect immediately to be thrown into a most profuse perspiration. At this time the thermometer from 73, rises immediately in the open air io 110 and 112; the air becomes thick and heavy; but the barometer is litile affected, falling only about a line. The Sun does not appear during the whole day, otherwise the heat would be insupportable; and on that side which is exposed to the wind, it cannot be borne without difficulty for a few minutes. This wiod is more or less violent, and of longer or shorter duration at different times, but it seldom lasts more than 36 or 40 hours. Whilst it lasts, the inbabitants confine themselves within their houses, keeping close shut all their doors and windows, to prevent the external air from entering; and the servants are constantly employed in sprinkling water through all the apartments, in order to keep the air as temperate as possible ; and for this purpose every house in the city of Palermo is provided with a fountain. The scorching heat of the Sirocc never produces any epidemical disorders, or does any injury to the health of the people: they feel relaxed after it, but a few hours of the Tramontane, or North wind, which generally succeeds the Sirocco, .soon braces and restores them to their former state. Some have supposed the Sirocc to be the same wiod as that which is so dreadful in the sandy desarts of Africa ; but that in its

passage over sea, it is cooled and deprived of its tremendous influences before it reaches Sicily.

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In BLANDFORD ST. MARY was buried, in 1726, Thomas Pitt, Governor of Fort St. George, proprietor of the Pitt diamond, which weighed 127 carats, and was sold to the King of France for 135,0001.

In BloxWORTH Church was buried Sir John Trenchard, Secretary of State to William II1. 1694.

Near BRIDPORT, in the time of Heury VIII. there was as much hemp grown as furnished cordage for the whole English Navy, which cordage being ordered to be made exclusively within five miles of the town, gave rise to the proverb applied to a man being haoged, “ He was stabbed wilh a Bridport dagger."

BROAD WINDSOR was the vicarage of Dr. Thomas Fuller, the quaint and amusing author of " Church History,” “Worthies,” &c.

BURTON BRADSTOCK was the rectory of Hugh Oldham, afterwards Bp. of Exeter and founder of Manchester School.

In CHARLTON were buried Edward Wake, founder of the Corporation of Sons of the Clergy, 1680; and Dr. Charles Sloper, benefactor, who built the church here, 1727.

CHEDDINGTON was the rectory of Thomas Hare, translator of Horace.

At CHETTLE died, aged 86, its native Rev. Williain Chafin, anecdotist of Cranbourne Chase, 1818.

At CORFE Castle was buried its rector Nicholas Gibbon, loyal divine, 1697, aged 92.

CORSCOMBE was the residence of Thomas Hollis, literary patron, who died here, Jan. 1, 1774.

CRANBOURNE is the largest parish in this county, its circumference about 40 miles.

At Dorchester, April 6, 1613, two churches and 300 houses burot, loss 200,0001. ; Jan. 30, 1622, 35 houses burnt. in St. Peter's Church were buried John White, puritan divine, “ Patriarch of Dorchester," rector of the Holy Trinity, 1648; and Denzil Lord Holles, patriot, one of the five members demanded by Charles I. 1679-80. In Holy Trinity churchyard, Dr. William Cuming, physician and antiquary, friend of Hutchins, 1788. In All Saints churchyard, its puritan rector, William Benn, nonconformist, 1680. Lord Chief Justice Rolle was ! ecorder of this town.

EASTBURY was the magnit nt seat of George Bubb Doddington, Lord Melbourne, celebrated by the poets Thomson and Pitt. It was finished in 1738, cost 140,0001. Its front, now pulled down, was 570 feet loog.

East Stour was the residence of Henry Fielding, the novelist.

In EwERN COURTNEY Church is the monument of its founder Sir Thomas Freke, 1633.

In EwERN MINSTER churchyard was buried John Willis, writing-inaster (portrait engraved), 1760.

Fifende Nevil was the residence of William Salkeld, sergeant at law, author of " Reports.”

Frome ST. QUINTIN was the rectory of George Crabbe, living poet, who resigned it in 1789.

GILLINGHAM was the rectory of the friend of Abp. Usher, Dr. Edward Davenant, Scholar (whose daughter Katheride was married here in 1613, to Thomas Lamplugh, afterwards Abp. of York), buried in the church 1679; John Craig, mathematician; and William Newton, historian of Maidstone. In the free-school was educated Lord Chancellor Clarendon, and the mastership was the first preferment of Dr. Frampton, afterwards Bp. of Gloucester. June 19, 1644, 40 houses burnt, loss 3,9001.

GREAT FONTMEL was the rectory of Thomas Dibben, D.D. who translated Prior's " Carmen Secolare" into Latin.

Jo Great MINTERN resided, and in the church was buried in 1714, Gederal Charles Churchill (brother of the great Duke of Marlborough), who took the Duke of Berwick prisoner at the battle of Lauden, in 1693.

GUSSAGE ALL Saints was the vicarage of Toby Matthews, afterwards Abp. of York.

Gussage ST. MICHAEL was the rectory of Dr. Adam Hill, author on Christ's Descent into Hell.

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