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manufacture of lace. In the above having been io existence in the reiga list are, however, included pine or ten of King John, it seems very difficule, families whose livelihood is chiefly if not impossible, to ascertain through obtained by the business of convey whose baods this manor passed after ing calves bred on the dairy farms in the time of the Domesday survey, this and the neighbouring parishes, until it was vested in the Hospital ; it to distant markets, and a few others certainly, bowever, admits of conjecwho follow mechanical trades and ture, that that establishment haviog handicrafts. Some of the houses of been professedly devoted to the use the village bear evident marks of and accommodation of pilgrims and antiquity; and a considerable pumber sick persons resorting to certain saluhave been taken down within the last brious fountains* or sacred springs century, several small freeholds have (as they were then esteemed), might ing been sold to the larger proprie- have been originally evdowed with tors, or to other purchasers, so that the estate under consideration, as an the number of persons who have a offering piously made by some of Sir right of voting at the election of re- John, or St.John, Schorne's devotees. presentatives in Parliament for the This circumstance, however, is merely county, scarcely exceeds one fourth conjectural. of those who about fifty or sixty The manor house, which had been years ago enjoyed that privilege. the mansion of the Saunderses, was The number of houses was also re- taken down in the last century, and duced by a destructive fire about the part of the stables was then converted year 1700, which, according to tra- into a farm house, which is now ocdition, consumed many of the build- cupied by one of Mr. Lockhart's ings in “ High Street,” as the main tenants. road or street is in the old writings In the year 1785 the open and denominated. At present the farms common fields were inclosed, under are from about 40 to 200 acres each. an Act of Parliament, by which an There is one flour-mill in the parish, allotment of land was assigaed to the of recent erection.

Dean and Capons of Windsor, as imThere are two manors in the parish; propriators, in lieu of tithes: and the superior or paramount manor about ten or twelve acres set apart holden by Mrs. Heaton, as lessee as a compensation for the right of under St. Joho's College in Oxford; common belonging to the poor iohaand the inferior manor (which pays bitants of the parish. tithes to the former), held by lease The effect of such inclosure is from Magdalen College, Oxford, by stated in the Agricultural Survey of Joho Ingram Lockbart, Esq. who the County, to have been a decrease married the daughter of the late of breeding stock, and of the produce lessee Francis Wastil, Esq. formerly in wheat and other grain, and an inLieuteoant-colonel of the Oxfordshire crease of feeding stock.” It is also Militia, and High Sheriff of that fair to remark, that besides the adcounty, whose first wife became en. vantage of bringing into cultivation titled to it under the will of ber ma. the whole extent of waste and unternal aunt Gibbert, to whom, productive land, the inclosure has with other property, it had reverted, had a manifest tendency to improve on the decease of

Saunders, Esq. the roads, and to ameliorate the couheir of an aotient family long resi- dition of the lower classes, whilst it dent at North-Marslon, and originally must be acknowledged to have diJessees under the before-mentioned minished the number of small farms, College. It is believed that this estate, which was included amongst the early possessions of Magdalen Col.

* " The Hospital of St. John the Baplege, had previously belonged to the

tist was, about the year 1233, either re.

built or repaired by Hevry III. and is Hospital of St. John at Oxford, and

said to have been intended for infirm perwas granted to William of Waynfleet

or pour strangers travelling lo St. the founder, by King Henry VI. about Frideswyde's, St. Edmund's Well, and other the year 1457: but no account on

places of superstitious resort. They were which any reliance can be placed possessed of several churches and mabeiwg preserved of the foundation of nors,” &c.-Chalmers's Hist. of Oxford, the said Hospital, besides that of its vol. I. p. 196.


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and thrown the freehold property nation of 2001. by the executors of into fewer hands.

Edward Lord Bishop of Chichester, To the Appendix to the Geoeral in addition to Queen Anne's bounty. View of the Agriculture of Bucks, by

Perpetual Curates. the Rev. St. John Priest (p. 385), the 1587. Edmund Cowdell lived here number of farm houses in North- 49 years. – Mr. Robinson and Marston is stated to be eight, and of Mr. Wentworth, a little while cottages 15: errors the less excus- between. able in a work of such a nature, and 1636. Hanniball Barnes lived here professed to be compiled from actual 22 years. Thorogood, 2 and personal observation : on which years. account only they are here particu- 1660. John Virgin, 34 years. larly noticed.

1695. Edward Sherrier, B.A. (late Perpetual Curacy.

Rector of Addington), 3 years. The patronage beiog vested, toge- 1698. Richard Purchase, 44 years. ther with the impropriation of the

1742. Purchas Denchfield, 32 years. great tithes, in the Dean and Chapter 1774. Richard Dench field, 32 years. of Windsor, was formerly leased by 1806. WILLIAM PINNOCK (late Recthat body to Mr. Cutler, and subse- tor of Great Woolston), the prequently to the late James Neild, Esq. sent worthy Incumbent. of Chelsea, one of his Majesty's Jus- (To be continued, with a view of tices of the Peace for this county, as North - Marston Church, in our also for Middlesex and Surrey, Sheriff Supplement.) of Bucks in 1804 ; and more distinguished by his philanthropic and be- ACCOUNT OF Rro DE JANEIROT. nevolent exertions to ameliorate and (Resumed from p. 307.)

THIS City .be was the author of an able and very interesting account*. It is at present merit no particular description, as in the possession of John Camden they are all more or less built with Neild, Esq. his son, who is also pro. similar materials, and ornamented in prietor of other estates in the county. the same style as those already de

The living being certified in the scribed. The Public Garden is small, King's Books to be of the annual but the plan is elegant; it contains a value of 331. 15s. and discharged from few acres, enclosed with a circular the payment of first-fruits and tenths, wall, and is situated on the margin was in 1732 augmented with a dona. of the Bay;~from the centre, four

* See an account and portrait of Mr. Neild, vol. LXXXIV. i. 206. LXXXVI. ii. 58. LXXXVII. i. 305.

+ Since I transmitted the first part of this communication for insertion in your widely circulated Magazine, a train of events has taken place in Portugal, which doubtless will ultimately have a decided influence on the future destiny of the Brazils, Stimulated hy the powerful example of the Spanish nation, the Portuguese liave at length shaken off the trammels of superstition and tyranny, which have for so many years fettered the human mind, and clasped in their iron fangs nine tenths of the population. It is a curious circumstance, that the period chosen to effect this great rerolution, was during the absence of Lord Beresford at Rio de Janeiro. The plan was conducted with so much secrecy and address, that he had not the most remote suspicion that such a measure was in contemplation before his departure for the Brazils. The plot appears to have been conducted as privately as the memorable event which emancipated their ancestors from the despotic power of Philip II. and placed the present family of Braganza on the throne. (See p. 195.) The first effort at Oporto, and its successful result, are worthy of the descendants of the conquerors of India, and the nation that produced Camoens, the Albuquerkes, and Almeidas. Like the Spaniards, they hare “relumed their antient light and kindled new," and it is evident that they yet retain a spark of that bright Aame which actuated the courage of the old Lusitanians, and in days of yore produced a constellation of genius, talents, and valour, which enable thenı to carry their arms and extend their conquests in the most remote quarters of the globe, and by discoveries of uuknown regions, acquire a deathless reputation in the annals of Europe. -The Patriots were apprehensive that Lord Beresford, from his popularity among the soldiers, and the high favour and estimation in which he was held by King John, might oppose their measures with all his talents and power; therefore they very wisely took advantage of his absence to effect the glorious measure. His unexpected eleration to



walks diverge, and the angular spaces haod, and the tortoise was made to are divided into flower plats, sur- discharge the water on a perforated rounded with lattice work, and shaded marble slab, from which it trickles in with a great variety of trees and rills down the side of the mount, formshrubs peculiar to the soil and cli- ing several ininiature cascades--this mate; it is fenced towards the Bay magnificent fountain is now comby a lofty terrace, ornamented with pleiely out of order. At each end of a bulustrade; from this spot there ihe terrace there are marble busts of is an extensive view of the Bay and the late Queen, and his present Mamouth of the Harbour. Owing to jesty, King John, when Prince Rethe bad construction of the founda- gent. Opposite the fountain, at each tion of this work, at its first erec- end of the main avenue, and opposite lion, the walls are cracked, and enor- the grand entrance, there are two

masses of the masonry bave Pyramids of granite; they are built tumbled into the water, which have op rocks, in the centre of basins, filt. completely sapped the foundatiou and ed with waler, which was forced inte basement, so ihat it verges fast 10 a cavity, in the basement of cach, ruin, being in a miserable state of di- and discharged from the shaft through lapidation, and several workmen are a pipe into the basin beneath. The continually employed in driving piles entrance to the garden is ornament and laying down enormous blocks of ed with a lofty iron gate, supported granite to preserve the remains from by triple columns of rustic work in the inroads of the tide, which sets in granite,crowned with vases of flowers, at this point with a heavy swell from and enriched with the royal arma, the mouth of the Harbour. Al each emblazoned in gilt brass. in various end of the terrace there were two parts of the walls there are seats and alcoves, adorned with paintings in windows, barred with iron, through fresco, but they are overthrown, and which the prospect opens to the pot a vestige remaios. Al the foot country; and in the centre of the of the Terrace there is an artificial garden, where the walks diverge, mount composed of rocks. At the there are four circular stone benches, base of this work there are Iwo cro- adorned with vares. In the inclosca codiles admirably executed in bronze; ground there are two coltagus, au they are intertwined, and as large as alcove and a simmer-house. life. From the reservoir underneath The Castle of St. Sebastian is the the mount, the water is conveyed most antient military structure in the through the bodies of these figures, place; it is built on a lofty lvill, aut and discharged from their mouths ibe extremity of the City, and cops. into a large basin ; from this basin tains a Church, Barracks, and Nusthe element was forced upwards pital. The principal promenade in through a pipe to the floor of the ihe Palace-square, which opens lo terrace, and conveyed into the body the Bay, and is fenced by a terrace, of a bronze figure, representing an composed of immense blocks of grit angel holling a tortoise in his right nite, with a range of benches formeal

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rank and power, superior to that of a Viceroy, must eventually add to the discontent-rf the people and weakey the links of the connection of Portugal with the Brazils, anel perhaps ultimately burst asunder the chain that united the monarchy.

The refusal of the Government to permit him to land, has been stigmatized as a proof of their imbecility and weakness. Let those sapient politicians enjoy their opinion. Every friend to liberty must consider che measure as an instauce of their firmness, prudence, and moderation. That “ he has done the State some little service, and they kuow it,” cannot be denied; but he received an ample compensation for his services by letters of nobility and estate, and an enormous pension, in addition to his rank and pay as field marshal; under which circumstances, it is to be hoped that the British Government will not interfere in the internal regulations of Portugal, on account of Lord Beresford, who, elevated to the pinnacle of ambition by the favour of the King, ou his arrival, linding his hopes blasted by the Revolution, it seems identified bimself with our Government, and held out threats against the Portuguese. It appears by a document lately inserted in the Newspapers, that the King appointed a person to be Secretary to Lord Beresford, as obnoxious to the Portuguese as the Prince of Peace was to the Spaniards.-A. Sinnot.

of the same material. Here the in the climate, and to admit the cool habitants of all classes iphale the even- air. In the Rua de Directa, the Rua iog breeze, which, after the intense de Ovidero, Rua de Piscatoris, Rua heat of the day, is very salubrious in de Rosario, and some of the olher this burning climate ; here priests, principal streets there are many lofty lawyers, merchants, and tradesmell, uniform and spacious houses, coowith their wives and daughters, pa- structed of the best materials that rade, repose, and pass the cool hours the country affords, a close grained in conversation,' sipping coffee, and granite aod white shiding freestone, smokiug segars. Several boys altend with balconies and terraces. The with baskets of cakes and confec. different avocations are classed here, tionery for sale; they carry each an on a plan worthy of the imitation of carthen jug, ycleped a monkey, filled the cities of Europe; thus, the Jewwith water, from the spouts of which ellers, Silver-smiths, Cabinet-makers, vessels all classes drink, without the and almost every other trade or ocaid of a glass or tumbler, and no- cupation, are confined to separate thing loath.


A. SINNOT. The Town may be computed at

(To be continued.) three miles in length, from the Mo. nastery of Saint Benedict to the Misericordia, the whole length of the Mr. URBAN, Marylebone, Dec. 4. Bua de Direca, loe mainst create which I 4990 Magazsee fora November: but in consequence of the inequality ing that John Scogan, the Jesier to of the ground on which it is built, Edward IV. was sometimes confoundbeing partly on hills and in deep val. ed with Heory Scogao, the Poet, who Jies, it is difficult to ascertaio its ex- flourished at an earlier period. The tent with precision or exaclness. following particulars relating to the Some of the cross streels diverge latter literary character, and which from the main street, nearly a mile are generally (but erroneously) fasin length, whilst others extend voly tened upon the former, although not half that distance. On the whole, on adapted to the History of Anecdote a rough estimation, it may be con- now in progress, may perhaps find a sidered to be about 7 miles iu cir- place elsewhere in your Miscellany. cumference, and the population is Scogan is commonly supposed to said to be (since the emigration of have been a contemporary with Chauthe Royal Family in 1808) about cer, which Henry certainly was: jo 90,000 souls, including all colours. that great Poet's works, are several

The principal avenue into the Town pieces under his name; the chief of from the country is the Rua de Ovi- which is entitled, “ A Moral Balade,” dore. At the entrance of this street addressed to the Dukes of Clarence, there are two squares, in one of which Bedford, and Gloucester, and sent to the opera-house is built. It is a spa- them from a tavero, belonging to cious edifice, with'a heavy portico of Lewis John, in the Vintry. This piece, massive masonry, in rude architec. (says Mr. Warton, in his History of ture. The scenery is wretched, and the Poetry), is the dullest sermon that performance, with the exception of ever was wrilten in the octave stan za : the music, below mediocrity. From it must have been composed before the Misericordia, a pleasant walk ex- the year 1447, and the writer comtends along the edge of the Bay, to- plains of old age, whereas Scogao the wards the Sugar-loaf. On the side of Jester did not fourish till about 1480. this road there is a small church, de. The lines in which he makes that dicated to Saint Lucy, which is filled complaint are as follows: with the votive offerings of mariners “ I complain sore when I remembre me, who bave considered themselves saved The sodain age that it upon me fall *, from shipwreck through the inter. But more complain my mispent juventale cession of this female Saint. The The whiche is impossible ayen † to call, houses in the suburbs, and towards

But certainly the most complaint of all

Is to thinkeu that I have been so nice the country, are generally of one story; the doors and windows are

That I would in ne vertues to my I call, fenced with lattice work, without

lo all my youth, but vices aye cherue." glass, in cousequence of the beat of * Fallen. † Again. # Query, Me?


The poetical trifle, entitled “Flee beer, but he carries them to the market from the Presse,” is also attributed to where he exchanges (sells) them for moScogan, and elsewhere termed “ Pro- ney, and afterwards exchanges that moverbium Joannis * Scogan. After

ney for bread and for beer (buys with the specimen given above, your read

that money bread and beer). The quaners will probably he content, without tity of money which he gets for them re.

gulates too the quantity of bread and beer an additional narcotic.

which he can afterwards purchase. It is Shakspeare has also made mention

more natural and obvious to hiun there. of him in Heory IV. part 2.

fore to estimate their value by the quanJUSTICE SHALLOW-"This same Sir tity of money, the commodity (price) for John [Falstaff), the very same.

I saw

which he immediately exchanges (sells) him break Skogan's head at the court them, than by that of bread and beer, the gate, when he was a crack to not so commodities for which he can exchange high." I

them only by the intervention of another Ben Jonson, in his “ Masque of commodity (medium); and rather to say

that his butcher's meat is worth three the Fortunate Isles,” has comprised in a few lines nearly all that is known

pence or four pence a pound, than that

it is worth three or four pounds of bread, of bim :

or three or, four quarts of small beer. MereFOOL" Skogan? what was he? Hence it comes to pass, that the exchangeJOHPHIEL—0, a fine Gentleman, and able value of every commodity is more a Master of Arts

frequently estimated by the quantity of In Henry the Fourth's time, that made

money, than by the quantity either of disguises

labour or of any other commodity which For the King's sones, and writ a ballad. can be had in exchauge for it.” (Is more royal

frequently estimated by the price than by Daintily well.”

the labour.) No one will, I believe, deny that

Dr. Smith likewise joins in with the these particulars relate to the elder

error, that gold and silver are comScogan, but so little has been preserv- modities to be bought and sold at a ed of them both, that they are easily price; for he says, confounded.


“Gold and silver, however, like every

other commodity, vary in their value, are ON WRITERS ON Bullion.

sometimes cheaper and sometimes dearer, (Continued from p. 392.) sometimes of easier, and sometimes of

more difficult purchase.” pow, most certainly the mea- Even the late Lord Liverpool, who sure of value, but not of price. has written with such extraordinary Doctor A. Smith explains this, where ability, precision, and perspicuity,

misuses, the term value : for he says, “But though labour be the real measure

“ The gold coin had risen to an extraof the exchangeable value of all commodi- ordinary value, while the re-coinage of ties, it is not that by which their value is

the silver coins was under consideration." commonly estimated.” And he then proves that there is

The gold coin had risen to ao exnow a valuation by money as well as

travagant nominal price, but that

could not affect its value. by labour: for he thus continues, His Lordship also says,

“But when barter ceases, and money has change with foreign countries the va. become the common instrument of com

lue of the metal is the only measure. merce, every particular commodity is more frequently exchanged (sold) for

It surely is not the value, it is the money than for any other commodity. weight, which of course creates the The butcher seldom carries his beef or

value. mutton to the baker or the brewer, in

But the most potable misuse of the order to exchange them for bread or for word price, occurred in the year 1810,

when the House of Commons appoint* Should we not read Henrici ?

ed a Select Committee expressly “ to + An old Islandic word, signifying a boy or child-Chalmers.

inquire into the cause of the high I Mr. Chalmers, in his edition of Shaks. price of gold bullion.” peare, actually affirms that this passage

If, as I endeavoured to prove in relates to the Jester; either the Commen. a former Letter, the precious metator has fallen into error, or the Dramat- tals cannot be bought, and conseist into an anachronism.

queutly cannot have a price, then the


LA , is

he says,

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