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Committee were misled by the words cle, will make it more valuable in proof their appointment, and they mis- portion to all other articles; the same led all their witnesses by the ques. quantity of gold will purchase a greater tions proposed to them. They were

quantity of any other article than it did

before ; in other words, the real price pursuing a non-existence, or as Mr. Locke expresses himself on a similar (value) of gol.), or the quantity of commo

dities given in exchange for it, will rise, occasion, " they were pursuing a sha.

and the money prices of all commodities dow that constantly followed them, will fall; the money price of gold itself but which they could nol overlake.” will remain analiered, but the prices of

The first question asked of their all other commodities will fall.” first witness was, “ What is the pre- Notwithstanding the truth of the sent price of gold?” The words price above observations of the Committee, of gold are iterated and reiterated

and the proofs they contain of the through every page of their printed impossibility of any change in the report, and it is every where assumed

price of gold, or rather that gold that gold is risen in price, and is a

cannot have a price, the Committee saleable commodity. Now, by con. continued agreeably to the words of sidering gold as a commodity capa

their appointment, to consider the ble of being bought and sold, we are

cause of a high price, and they conforced into the use of expressions cluded without being able to find it ; that are direct contradictions ; for

for how could they find what is not when we say that gold is dearer, we in existence ? absolutely mean that it is of legs va- The Committee did not discover lue, and when we say it is cheaper, that bullion is always a buyer, and we mean it is more valuable.

could not itself be bought; and al. The Select Committee in their Re. though they admitted the price of port thus express themselves :

foreign bills, they never once ad“ If gold is rendered dear by any other verted to the price of our own docause than scarcity, those who cannot mestic bills, but considered them as purchase it without paying the high price, the purchasers of gold, instead of the will be apt to conclude that it is scarce."

gold as the purchaser of the bills. Gold cannot be rendered either Yet the Committee generally argued dear or cheap ng any cause whatever ; on the soundest principles, and their it becomes indeed of more or less ya- labour cannot be too highly apprelue, according to its scarcity or abun- ciated. dance, and according as more or less Since the sitting of the Bullion will purchase more or less commo- Committee, a host of writers have dity; but in the sense that the Com obtruded their observations ; some mittee state it of a high nominal contending, that it was the Bank Bill price, gold does not become dear, which had fallen, others that the Gold bat cheap.

The Committee seein had risen, but all admitting a price well aware of this fact, and also that of gold, and consequently, a variagold is invariable in price ; for they bility in the measure of value : and also say:

while all lamented the wapt of an “Gold being thus our measure of prices, invariable standard of price, no one a commodity is said to be dear or cheap. discovered it, though each one had according as more or less gold is given in

it in his hands. If gold or silver, exchange for a given quantity of that com- whichever is the legal tender, canmodity; but a given quantity of gold it. not be bought, it cannot have a self will never be exchanged for a greater price, and therefore must be in varior a less quantity of gold of the same stan- ably weight for weight in every part dard fineness.” And again, “But gene- of the world. rally speaking, the price of gold being

All the foregoing quotations have measured and expressed in gold, cannot been selected with a view to prove be raised or lowered by an increased or diminished demand for it.” And again,

the absolute necessity of entirely set. “An ounce of standard gold bulliou will ting aside the phrase price of gold, not fetch more in our market than 31. together with the idea which it con175. 102d. unless 31. 175. 10 d. in our veys, namely, that gold is a puractual

currency, is equivalent to less chaseable comipodity; and also, of a than an ounce of gold." And still fur- more careful appropriation of the ther, “ An increased demand for gold, words price, value, weight, and exand a consequent scarcity of that artis change.



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Compendium of County History.-Oxfordshire.


OXFORDSHIRE. (Continued from p. 397.)

HISTORY. 556. Near Banbury, Saxons defeated by the Britons. 572. Bensington taken from the Britons by Ceaulin, King of Wessex. 614. Near Bampton Britons defeated, and above 2000 slain, by the Saxons,

under Cynegils and Cwhichelm. 682. At Burford a Council held by Kings Etheldred and Burthwald. 727. At Oxford was founded a Monastery by Didanus, lord of this county,

and his daughter St. Fridiswide, the germ of the present University. 752. At Battle edge, near Burford, Ethelbald, King of Mercia, defeated by

Cuthred, Kiog of Wessex, through the valour of his chieftain Edelhun. 775. At Bensington Cynewulf, King of Wessex, defcated by Offa, King of

Mercia. 778. This county being ceded by Cynewulf to Mercia, Offa made a ditch

as a partition between his kingdom and Wessex, which may still be traced at Ardley, Middleton-Stoney, Northbrook, Heyford, and Kirtlioglon. 866. At Woodstock a Wittenagemot held by Ethelred I. 885. At Shifford a Wittenagemot held by Alfred. 886. Oxford University founded, and learned Professors placed in it, by

Alfred. 917. 'At Hook, or Hogs Norton, Saxons defeated, with great slaughter, by

the Danes. 958. At Dorchester a Wittenagemot held by Athelstap. 977. At Kirklington a Synod held by Edward the Martyr, and Dunstan,

Abp. of Canterbury. 979. Oxford burned by the Danes. 1002.. At Oxford, Gunilda, sister to Sweyn, King of Denmark, her husband

Polingus, and all the Danes residing in the city, murdered by order of

Ethelred the Voready. 1003. Oxford burot by Sweyil, io revenge of the inhuman massacre of his

sister and countrymen. 1009. At Eosham a Wittenagemot held by Ethelred the Uoready.--Oxford

again burnt by the Danes. 1010. Thame plundered by the Danes. 1015. At Oxford two Danish noblemen assassinated by order of Edric Streon,

the infamous Earl of Mercia ; and many Danes, who had taken shelter in

the church of St. Fridiswide, burnt to death. 1016. Al Oxford, Nov. 30, Edmund Ironside murdered. 1022. At Oxford, a great Council-held by Capute, in which the laws of

England were first translated into Latin, and enjoined equally on his Danisla

as on his Saxon subjects in this realm. 1026. At Oxford a great Council beld by Canute, in wbich tbe Edicts of

King Edgar were confirmed. 1036. At Oxford Harold 1. surnamed “ Harefoot," crowned. 1040. At Oxford Harold Harefoot died. 1069. Oxford having revolted and sbut its gates against William 1. was

taken by him by storm. 1136. Ai Oxford a Parliament held by Stephen, when he abolished the tax

of Dane Gelt, and granted great immunities to the people. 1139. At Oxford a Parliament held by Stephen, when the Bishops of Lin

coln and Salisbury were imprisoned in consequence of a quarrel which arose

belweep their servants and those of the Earl of Brittany. 1142. In Oxford Castle the Empress Maud was besieged by Stephen for three mooths, when the river being frozen over, and the ground covered with snow, she, accompanied by three Knights, dressed all in white, passed the septinels of the garrison upobserved, crossed the river, and walked on foot to Abingdon. Thence she took horse, and arrived safely at WallingGENT. Mag. December, 1820,





ford, when she was joined by her son Henry, and her half-brother the brave Earl of Gloucester. The day after her escape, Oxford Castle sar

reudered to Slephen. 1154. At Oxford a Parliament was held upon the convention entered into at

Wallingford for Stephen to hold the Crown for his owo life, but to acknowledge Henry Fitz Empress as his successor, was fully confirmed. 1163!4. At Woodstock, a Parliament at which Malcolm King of Scotland,

and Rees Prince of Wales, did homage to Henry II. 1166. At Oxford a Council held by Henry II. when 30 Germans of a sect

called Publicans, probably disciples of the Waldenses, were examined and branded with a hot iron, after which they were discharged; but all persons being probibited, under heavy penalties, from giving lhem any shelter or sustenance, they perished with hunger and cold. 1177. At Oxford a Parliament held by Henry II. when the Priaces of Wales

did homage to him, and his son John was declared Lord of Ireland. 1185. At Oxford a Parliament held by Henry II. 1203. At Oxford a Parliament granted an aid to John for his war with

Philip of France. 1207. At Oxford a Parliament held by Joho, when a thirteenth of all move

ables, both from clergy and laity, was granted to him. 1209. At Oxford female inhabitant having been accidentally killed by a

student, the townsmen seized tbree innocent scholars, and hanged them, In consequence of which many students quitted this town, and settled at

Cambridge, Reading, and Maidstone. 1215.. At Oxford, in April, John insultingly refused to grant the petitions

of the Barons; but in two months after, they compelled, bim to sign

“ Magna Charla." 1217. At Oxford a Parliament held by Louis the Dauphin. 1238. At Woodstock (Sept. 8), one Ribbaod, pretending to be insane, at,

tempted to stab Henry Ill. 1255. At Woodstock Henry III. entertained his daughter Margaret, and her

husband Alexander III. of Scotland. 1258. At Oxford (June 11) assembled a Parliament, the first in which depu.

ties from the Commons formed a part. The regulations then made are called “ The Statutes of Oxford." By these the Goveroment of the kingdom was transferred from Henry III. to 24 Commissioners (12 chosen by Henry, and 12 by the Barons), of whom Simon de Montfort, Earl of

Leicester, was the President, 1263. At Oxford a dispute and battle between the students and the towns,

men, after which many of the former removed to Northampton. 1264. Oxford taken by Henry III. who expelled the students, most of them

being of the Earl of Leicester's party: 1'275. At Woodstock a Parliament held by Edward I. 1312. At Deddington Piers Gaveston, the favourite of Edward II, who had

capitulated at Scarborough to the Earl of Pembroke on the terms of being safely conveyed to the King, was seized by the Earl of Warwick from Pembroke's custody, and in violation of the treaty hurried to Warwick,

and beheaded on Blacklow Hill, near that town. 1349. At Oxford nearly one-fourth of the students and inhabitants died of

the plague. 1354-5. At Oxford (Feb. 10) a quarrel belween the students and the towns

men, when inany of the students were killed. 1355. At Woodstock a tournament held by Edward III. to celebrate the birth

of Thomas of Woodstock, his seventh and youngest sop. 1387. At Radford Bridge, between this county and Berks, Thomas de Vere, Earl of Oxford, and Marquis of Dublin (the first person on whom the title of Marquis was conferred in this realm ; afterwards created Duke of Ireland), was defeated by Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of Gloucester, and Henry Earl of Derby, afterwards Henry IV. and the Marquis with

difficulty saved his life by swimming across the Isis. 1391. At Woodstock, at a tournament held by Richard II. Joho Hastings, the last Earl of Pembroke, of that name, was slain.

1820.] Compendium of County History-Oxfordshire. 499 1469. At Danesmore, near Banbury, July 26, the Yorkists under the Earl of Pembroke defeated by Sir Joha Conyers, when 6500 men were slaiu. The Earl of Pembroke, his brother Sir Richard Herbert, who had twice cut his way with a pole-axe through the Lancastrian army, and Richard Widville, Earl Rivers, father of the Queen of Edward IV. were taken prisopers, and with 7 others beheaded on the following day. 1485. At Oxford a pestilence, which raged for 6 weeks, almost depopu

lated the colleges and city, 1555. At Oxford (October 16) Nicholas Ridley, Bp. of London, and Hugh

Latimer, Bp. of Worcester, suffered martyrdom by fire in front of Baliol

College. 1555-6." At Oxford (March 21) Thomas Cranmer, Abp. of Canterbury, burnt

in front of Baliol. Like Ridley and Latimer, he endured his sufferings with wonderful fortitude, and extending the hand which had signed bis abjuration into the flames, he held it there till it dropped off. 1566. At Oxford Queen Elizabeth sumptuously entertained. 1577. At Oxford the Black Assizes, so called froin an infectious fever of

which the Lord Chief Baron, the Sheriff, several Justices of the Peace, and about 300 persons, died within 40 hours. 1625, at Oxford, August 1, the first Parliament of Charles I, assembled in

Christ Church Hall, having removed from London on account of the

plague. 1 642, in Chalgrove Field, August 15, John Hampden first appeared in arms

against his Kiny, to put the ordinance for the militia in execution.-Oxford taken possession of by Sir Joho Byron for the King, but he was driven from it by Lord Say and Sele, Sept. 14.-Banbury Castle, in which was a garrison of 800 foot, and a troop of horse, and Broughton Castle, Oct. 27, (four days after the battle of Edge Hill) surrendered to the King, and next day Charles entered Oxford ; whence he marched to Brentford, and, after the fight there, returned with his prisoners to Oxford, Nov. 28. 1643, ai Oxford, 12 Commissioners from the Parliament, of whom Algernon

Percy Earl of Northumberland was the chief, waited upon the King with proposals of peace, when other terms were proposed by Charles, but after much negotiation, the treaty was broken off, April 15.-Al Caversham Bridge, between this county and Berks, April 25, Rulbven Earl of Forth, with the vao of Charles I.'s army, repulsed by Lord Roberts in an attempt to relieve Reading, which surrendered ou the following day to the Earl of Essex.-At Wycombe and Postcoinb, detachments of the Earl of Essex's army surprised in the night of June 17, by Prince Rupert, who on his return with many prisoners, and much booty, was overtaken in Chalgrove Field on the following morning, but, after a smart skirmish, the Parliamen. tariaos were repulsed, when Colonel John Hampden was mortally wounded (on the very field where he first appeared in arms against his Sovereign), aod Prince Rupert returned in triumph to Oxford.- August 1, the King left Oxford for Bristol, after its capture by Prince Rupert, but returned on the 16th. On the 18th he proceeded to the unsuccessful siege of Gloucester, and on Sept. 23, three dags after the battle of Newbury, again returned to

Oxford. 1644, at Oxford, Jan. 22, a Parliament assembled by Charles I. in Christ

Church Hall.-Oxford being nearly surrounded by two Parliamentarian armies, under the Earl of Essex and Sir William Waller, who intended to besiege it, the King, on the night of June 3, effected his escape from thence, and proceeded to Worcester, on which the Parliamentariaus abandoned their intention of siege.--At Cropredy Bridge, June 30, an iodecivive action between Charles I. and Sir Williain Waller, in which Sir Wil. liam Boteler avd Sir William Clarke; two loyal Keolish knights, were slain. -Baubury, under Sir William Compton, besieged by Colonel Fiennes and the Parliamentarians, who were compelled by the Earl of Northampton to raise the siege, Oct. 25.—The King returned to Oxford, Nov. 27, and ap

pointed Colonel Legge its governor, Dec. 25. 1645, near Islip Bridge, April 24, four regiments of the Royal horse routed by Cromwell, who on the same day look Bletchingdon-house without re


sistance, for which its governor, Colouel Windebank, was shot at Oxford, May 3.-Oxford left by the King, May 7, and besieged by General Fairfax, May 22; but the siege raised June 7.--The King returned to Oxford, Aug. 27; on the 301b he departed for Hereford, and on Nov. 6, he again came to Oxford, where he passed his melaucholy winter, all hope of success being

gone. 1646, Woodstock Manor-house, after a noble defence by Capt. Samuel Paw

cet, surrendered to the Parliamentariaus, April 26, and on the following day the King left Oxford to surrender himself to the Scotch army besieging Newark.-Banbury Castle, after an heroic defence of 10 weeks, capitulated on honourable terms to Colonel Whalley and the Parliamentarians, May 8. -Oxford, which had been besieged by General Fairfax, from May 2, sur

rendered by the King's command, June 24. 1665. To Oxford, Charles II. his Queen, Court, and Parliament, moved from

London on account of the plague. 1681. At Oxford, March 21, a Parliament assembled by Charles II. which

proving very tumultuous, and disposed to urge the Bill of Exclusion against

James Duke of York, was suddenly dissolved, March 28. 1687. At Oxford, Dr. John Hough, President of Magdalen College, after

wards Bp. of Worcester, and 26 of the fellows, expelled and declared inca. pable of receiving any ecclesiastical preferment by the arbitrary mandate of James II. for their firm and manly refusal to elect as President the nominee of the King. On the approach of the Prince of Orange James restored

them to their situations. 1715. Oxford, Oct. 6, entered by Major General Pepper, with a troop of

horse, and several frieods of the Stuarts seized.

EMINENT NATIVES. Allam, Andrew, divine and biographer, assisted Anthony Wood, Garsington, 1655. Bacon, Robert, friend of St. Edmund, Abp. of Canterbury, author (died 1248). Balle, John, divine and school-master, author on Faith, Cassington (died 1610). Bancroft, John, Bp. of Oxford, founder of Cuddesdon-palace, Ascott (died 1640). Beauchamp, Anne, daughter of Richard the brave Earl of Warwick, and wife of Rich

ard Nevil, “ the King Maker,” Caversham. Berriman, William, divine, author of “ Sermons," Banbury, 1688. Blandy, Mary, executed at Oxford in 1752 for poisoning her father, Henley on Thames. Blount, Martha, friend of Pope, Mapledurham. Brigham, Nicholas, lawyer and poet (died 1559). Carleton, Sir Dudley, Viscount Dorchester, statesman, Baldwin Brightwell, 1573. Cary, Lucius, Viscount Falkland, loyalist, Burford, 1610. Case, John, physician and philosopher, Woodstock, 1546. Catharine, daughter of Charles I. died an infant, Oxford, 1643. Chegnel, Francis, nonconformist divine, controversialist, Oxford, 1608. CHILLINGWORTH, WILLIAM, protestant champion, Oxford, 1602. Cole, Johu, botanist, Adderbury, 1626. Coley, Henry, astrologer, assistant to Lilly, Oxford, 1633. Collins, John, mathematician, Wood Eaton, 1624. Cooper, Thomas, Bp. of Winchester, author of Latin Dictionary, Oxford, 1517. Cornish, Henry, founder of a school in 1640, Chipping Norton. Croft, Herbert, Bp. of Hereford, author of “ Naked Truth," Great Milion, 1603. Croke, Charles, traveller, author of " Youth's Inconstancy,” Marston. Davenant, Charles, political economist, Oxford, 1656. Davenant, SIR WILLIAM, dramatist and poet laureat, Oxford, 1605. De la Field, -, historian of his native parish, Hasely, 1690. EDWARD THE Confes30R, Islip (died 1065). EDWARD THE BLACK PRINCE of Wales, Woodstock, 1330. Ellwood, Thomas, quaker, friend of Milton, Cromwell, 1639. Etherege, Sir George, wit and dramatist, about 1636. Etherydge, George, physician and scholar, friend of Leland, Thame, 1534. Heatley, Daniel, polemic divine, Bletchingdon, 1582. Fiddes, Richard, biographer of Cardinal Wolsey, Oxford, 1671. Fiennes, Nathaniel, parliamentarian, Broughton, 1608. Fienges, William, Lord Say and Sele, statesman, Broughton, 1582. F.gg, James, prize fighter, (portrait by Hogarth) Thame (died 1734). Free, Juhn, divine, political and miscellaneous writer, Oxford, 1711.

Fridis wide,

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