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PART II.] Frankfort.-Modes of Salutation.

597 interesting objects. The Dome, or particular ceremony:

Io these acCatbedral, is an old Saxon building; tions there must exist different cusbut has nothing interesting. We toms. Every nation imagines it emwent into the Protestant Church, ploys the most reasonable ones; but which is large and respectably fur- all are equally simple, and none are nished. Service began by singing a to be treated as ridiculous. psalm, accompanied by the organ;

The infinite number of ceremonies but the style of performance was so may be reduced to two kinds, to reharsh and dissonant, that it seemed as verences or salutations, and to the if it was intended to make Protes. touch of some part of the human tantism as repulsive in its features body. To bend and prostrate onesand address as possible. This, in a self to express sentiments of respect, Roman Catholic country, is surely appears to be a natural notion ; for bad policy. There were only a dozen terrified persons throw themselves on people at the Protestant Church, the earth, when they adore in visible scattered about the building. A beings. The affectionate touch of neighbouring Roman Catholic Church the person they salute is an expreswas quite crowded, and the people sion of tenderness. joined loudly both in the singing and As pations decline from their an. in the responses, in a style which is tient simplicity, much farce and griquite exploded in our Protestant mace are introduced. Superstition, Churches. It rem

me of the the manners of a people, and their remark of one of the Fathers, that in situation, influence the modes of sa. the primitive Church, the amens were lutation, as may be observed from like thunder.-The river Mayne is the instances we collect. here as broad as the Seine, but the Modes of salutation have somebapks as flat as the Ouse at Booth times very different characters, and it Ferry. It is full of small vessels. is no uninteresting speculation to We are to spend another day at examine their shades. Many display Frankfort, and then set our faces a refinement of delicacy, while others homeward. After seeing so many

are remarkable for their simplicity, towns, there is little in Frankfort or for their sensibility. In general, which is interesting. One cannot, however, they are frequently the however, avoid remarking that trade same in the infancy of nations, and in is the grand source of prosperity. more polished societies. Respect, We have travelled through a country humility, fear, and esteem, are exwhich has all the fertility of a gar- pressed much in a similar manner; den, and yet the towns and inhabit for these are tbe patural conseants are poor and in decay. But trade quences of the organization of the makes Frankfort flourish. Thus, Eng- body. land compared with France is a bar. The demoustrations become in time ren soil; and a great proportion of only empty civilities, which signify our country is either wholly unpro- nothing, we shall police what they ductive, or is only made productive were originally, without reflecting on at a great expense of tillage and ma what they are.

The superiority of England The first nations have no peculiar arises from its commerce; and I sup- modes of salutation; they knew of pose the chief use of agriculture to no reverences, or other compliments, us is, that it enables us to barter with or they despise aud disdain them. other nations on more advantageous The Greenlanders laugh, when tbey terms, by not being wholly dependent see an European uncover his head on them for our subsistence. X. and beod his body before him whom (To be continued.)

he calls his superior.

The Islanders, near the Philippines,

take the hand or foot of him they saOn the Modes of Sulutation and amin lute, and with it they gently rub their

cable Ceremonies observed in va. face. rious Nations.

The Laplanders apply their nose HEN men salute each other in strongly against that of the person fies little whether they move a parti Dampier says, that at New Orleans cular part of the body, or practise a they are satisfied in placing on their



W He amieab la lutander, it signi- they salute.

and peace.

heads the leaves of trees, wbich have of esteem, they breathed a vein, and ever passed for symbols of friendship presented for the beverage of their

This is at least a pictu- friend the blood as it issued. resque salute.

The Franks tore hair from the Other salutations are very incom- head, and presented it to the persoa modious and painful ; it requires they saluted. The slave cut his bair great practice to enable a man to be and offered it to his master. polite in an island situated in the The Chinese are singularly affected Streights of the Sound. Houtman in their personal civilities; they even tells us, they saluted him in this odd calculate the oumber of their reverway :-" They raised his left foot, ences. These are their most remark. which they passed gently over the able postures :—The men move their right leg, and from thence over his hands in an affectionate manner, while face.”

they are joined together on the breast, The inhabitants of the Philippines and bow the head a little. If they bend their bodies very low, in placing respect a person, they raise their their hands on their cheeks, and hands joined, and then lower them to raising at the same time one foot in the earth, in bending the body. If the air with the knee bent.

two persons meet after a long separaAo Æthiopian takes the robe of tion, they both fall on their knees, another, and ties it about his own and bend the face to the earth; and waist, so that he leaves his friend this ceremony they repeat two or half baked. This custom of undress. three times. If a Chinese is asked iog on these occasions takes other how he finds himself in bealth? be forms; sometimes men place them- answers, “ Very well, thanks to your selves naked before the person whom abundant felicity.” If they would they salute; it is to show their humi- tell a man tbat he looks well, they lity, and that they are unworthy of say, “ Prosperity is painted on your appearing in his presence. This was face;" or, “ Your air anpounces your practised before Sir Joseph Banks, happiness.” If you render them ang when he received the visit of two service, they say, “My thanks should female Otaheitans. Their innocent be immortal.” If you praise them, simplicity no doubt did not appear they answer, “How shall I dare to immodest in the eyes of the Virtuoso. persuade myself of what you say of Sometimes they only undress partially. me?" If you dioe with them, they

The Japanese only take off a slip- tell you at parting, “We have not per; the people of Arracan, their san treated you with sufficient distincdals in the street, and their stockings tiod." The various titles they inin the house.

vent for each other, it would be im. The Grandees of Spain claim the possible to translate. right of appearing covered before It is to be observed, that all these the King, to show that they are not answers are prescribed by the Chiso much subjected to him as the rest nese Ritual, or Academy of Compliof the nation.

ments. There are determined the The Negroes are lovers of ludi. number of bows; the expressions to crous actions, and make all their cere- be employed, and the inclioations monies farcical; the greater part pull which are to be made to the right or their fingers till they crack. Snel. lest hand: the salutations of the mas grave gives an odd representation of ter before the chair, wbere the strapthe embassy which the King of Da. ger is to be seated, for be salutes it homy seot to bim. The ceremonies most profoundly, and wipes the dust of salutation cousisted in the most away with the skirts of bis robe; all ridiculous contortions. When two these gestures, and other things, are negro Monarchs visit, they embrace noticed, even to the silent gestures, in snapping three times the middle by which you are entreated to enter finger.

the house. The lower class of people Barbarous nations frequently im are equally nice in these puoctilios; print on their salutations the disposic and ambassadors pass 40 days in praclions of their character. When the tișing them before they are enabled jobabitants of Carmena (says Athe- to appear at court. A Tribunal of næus) would sbow a peculiar mark Ceremonies has been erected, and


PART II.] Coins discovered inclosed in a Flint.

599 every day very odd decrees are is- tion, is one of our Henry III. which, sued, to which the Chinese most reli- with several similar ones, was found, giously submit.

either in the county of Rantzau in The marks of honour are fre. Holstein, or in Oldenburgh. . But the quently arbitrary; to be seated, with writer of the article mistakes the

is a mark of repose and faini- moneyers' names on the reverses, as liarity; to stand up, that of respect. RICARD. ON LYND. NICOLE. ON. There are countries, however, in LVND. &c. for Bishops of London, by which princes will only be addressed whose authority these pieces were by persons who are seated, and it is struck.] considered as a favour to be per In a subsequent Number of the mitted to stand in their presence. same year, 1700, p. 243, Otho SperThis custom prevails in despotic coun- lingius, a learned lawyer, in a letter tries ; a despot cannot suffer, without to the editors, attempts to account disgust, the elevated figure of his sub for the circumstance of the coins bejects 3 he is pleased to bend their bo- ing thus inclosed ; and, after 9 pages dies with their genius; his presence filled with all kinds of absurd reasonmust lay those who behold him pros- ing, he gravely declares his opinion, trate on the earth; be desires no ea that they must have been inclosed in gerness, no attention, he would only a purse of linen or leather, dropped inspire terror.

W.R. by some one on the sea-shore, or edge

of a torrent, where the united action Mr. URBAN, Oxford, Nov. 20. of the earth and water had rotted the I

SEND you the following Anec- purse, and engendered the flint around dote from a Work which contains

them! several curious pieces of intelligence,

In the next year in August (p. 261), but which I believe is not much Georgius Conradus ab Horn, not sa. known or consulted at the present tisfied with the solution given by day. I have translated the passage Sperlingius, imagines that the flint as closely as the sense would permit. was artificially softened, and the coins Yours, &c.


inclosed, and that afterwards its ori.

ginal hardness was restored. To Extract from "Nova Literaria maris back this apparently preposterous Balthici et Septentrionis,1700,' explanation, he tells a story of a

Bedel at Helmstadt, who, by a won“ In North Jutland, near to the city of derful liquid, koown only to himself, Grindaa, for many years lay a large flint, could soften the hardest flints to the which the peighbouring inbabitants used

consistence of wax, and used often in for driving into the ground the wooden

times of war to secrete his money in pegs, to wbich were fastened the tethers of their horses sent to feed amongst the

flints thus softened, wbich he immeThis Aint, either casually, or be

diately rendered solid and inaccesscause something seemed to ring in a ca.

ible to others. This extraordinary vity within it, was broken not long ago,

man had also the art of causing iron and in it were found 126 silver coins, two keys to float on water; but, unfor. of which we have seen, nearly resembling tunately for the world, he let his sethose which are given in p. 248 of this crets die with him. work for 1698. Each of them was struck in England; the one is inscribed,


Dec. 14. WARDVS . REX . ANGL.' The other, ED.

THE following Address to his Pa

HYB.' The inscription on the reverse is the same in each, .CIVITAS . LONDON.' The flint had

tion of popular feeling, has been cir

culated by the Rev. Daniel Shepherd no aperture, or an exceedingly small one, and no trace appeared of the mode by Wayland, M. A. Vicar of Kirton in which the coins were inserted into the Lindsey, in the county of Lincolo. stone. Unless, perhaps, we are to be. Perhaps, at this crisis, you may not lieve, that the aperture, formerly large think it unworthy of occupying a enough to admit the pieces, had, by the place in your useful Miscellany. kindness of Nature, in process of time Yours, &c.

ANICUS. closed up; which point is left for the discussion of natural philosophers."

« Nothing can be more abhorrent from

my feelings, or more contrary to my [N.B. The coin alluded to, as given practice, than to address the flock, of in a former part of the above publica. which I am the appointed shepherd, ou


p. 119.


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, the political dissensions which agitate and triumph, which fills our streets with riot, convulse the world. I am far from being is not over the enemies of our country, one of those who would profane the Gos but over many as distinguished by piety pel of peace by the contentions of hostile and talent as they are by rank and inparties, or make the house of God a ve fluence. Let it be remembered that the hicle for any topicks which are unconnected triumph was obtained, not by accusations with pure and undefiled Religion. I am disproved, not by innocence established, desirous to snatch one day at least in but by considerations of expediency, and every week from the contentions and ani. divisions upon minor objects, of which mosities of mapkind. But, fallen as I the enemies of constituted authority knew am on evil days, when the foundations of well how to avail themselves. strict morality and spotless character are “ In the highest and noblest tribunal of all but subverted, to raise my feeble pro our country, amidst all these conflicting test against those exhibitions of feeling opinions, the greater number not only by which, in my opinion, they are under- recognized the guilt, but were ready to mined, seems a duty which am called

award the punishment. And is this to be upon to perform, not only as a private considered as a triumph? And if it be one, Christian, but even as a minister of the is it a triumph at which as men, as Eug. Gospel.

lishmen, and as Christians, we should be “And here, can I fail to look back, called to rejoice? with sensations of the bitterest regret, 6. There was indeed a time when we upon that great Queen and illustrious might have triumphed. There was a time woman, who was, for more than half a when the British Court stood alone in the century, the brightest ornament of the history of nations, when she who presided Court of Britain, as she was its most ef. at its head excluded from its hallowed fectual safe-guard? Who can calculate circle all who were even suspected. Alas! the benefits of her pure example, of her • How is the fine gold become dim ! how unstajoed reputation, of the determined is the most fine gold changed !' stand which she made against rice, how · My brethren ! do you not see the ever high in birth and exalted in rank? mischief of all this? Do you not see that

“ The Court over which she presided it is the triumph, not of the Opposition was the most correct in Christendom; over the Ministry, not of the lower orders and the steady lustre which emanated over the higher, but of levity over discre. from the Throne, though it shone brightest tion, of vice over virtue, or profaneness upon those by whom it was immediately over piety? surrounded, shed a radiance as clear, “We have wives, and sisters, and though it might not be as strong, upou daughters: What a lesson of morality do the humblest cottage in the most remote we give them, by thus offering the incense part of her dominions.

of our praise, almost of our idolatry, to “ When the sad reverse of the picture conduct which, to say the least of it, is is before me, and its melancholy conse equivocal, and which the lowest among us quences are anticipated, can I, as one of might blush to see that of any female the constituted guardians of the public whom he loved resemble ! morals, be silent with innocence ? I view “ Who now shall stop the torrent of • the signs of the times' with the most licentiousness, and tell the unhappy vicmelancholy forebodings. Aud, however tims of their own passions, that they must hopeless I may be that any thing which I be excluded from the pale of virtuous socan say will influence even my own pa- ciety, and that, if they would retrace the rishioners, amidst the general maduess steps of sanctity and honour, it must be which I see around me, I will raise my through pain and disgrace, through peniown individual voice against those who tence and desertion ? No: they will be can triumph in the victory, not of unble. encouraged in their disastrous career. mished honour, not of established inno. They will tell us that accusation only rencence, not of decency and decorum, but ders them more illustrious, and that sus. of popular clamour and opposition to picion will make them “ clear and spot• the powers that be. I must believe that less as unsunned suon. They will at the general tendency to rejoice for one least tell us that a woman who is injured whom her warmest adherents will scarcely may indulge an unbounded licentiousness venture to praise, whom many of her ad with impunity, avd excuse her own vices vocates have openly and decidedly cen- by alleging those of her husband. But sured, is a sacrifice to party and not to such are not the women who mourn in truth; is a departure from Christian mo secret over the desertion of early love, rality, a • loving of darkness rather than who, instead of retaliating to gain the milight,' an encouragement of those whose serable applause of the profligate and deeds are evil.'

abandoned, find in the solitary path which “ Let it be remembered that the they are condemned to tread, every hand


PART 11.] · Letter of Rev. George Caunt to Mr. Milner. 601 stretched forth to support them, every eye ways had muche regard for painful ready to beam on them with respect and and conscientious Scholemasters. love. They have not so learned Christ.' What difficulties the work bath in it

« But I have done. I have delivered to encounter all kiods of tempers, my sentiments with pain, for it is painful and improve all sorts of wits, to be to me even to think of such things as these; ingeniorum et morum artifices, to but I have delivered them to satisfy my fashion miods and manners, to cultiown conscience, and to tell those over whom I am deputed to watch, as one who

vate rude soil, and dispose youth to must give an account of my charge at the virtuous behaviour, against their palast day, that the victory which is obtain- tural inclinations, what cares and ed by clamour rather than by truth, the pains, what great abilities, of prurespect which is paid to audacity rather dence and skill, and all virtue, what a than to innocence, is a ground not of re. cycle of knowledge it requires to injoicing but of mourning, not of laughter struct others in the grounds of Litebut of tears. I, for one, find in this the rature, to raise their parts, to heighmost ample reason for prostrating myself ten their fancy, to fix their thoughts, in the deepest humility before the foot. stool of Divine Mercy, to implore Him to

and to crane their genie to the pitch, stop the overwhelming tide of profligacy and so prepare them for the publick which I fear is rapidly approaching my service, is a thing more easily disdevoted country. But, blessed be God? coursed than considered, more talked

there is a remnant left. Ten righteous of than taken notice of. Were pawould have saved a city once, and we rents obliged but for some time to have many righteous' amidst the madness the trouble of instructing their chilof party, and the general carelessness dren, they would, methioks, quickly about practical Religion which prevails, be convinced what respects were fit many, of whom the world is not worthy,' to be paid to him who undertakes in the depths of solitude, and in the hurry such a charge. But quorsum hæc, of public business, are striving to purify Promising you the answer of the said themselves even as He who calleth them

is pure.' While we are consoled by Master Milner to the ensuing epistle, knowing that they exist, may we have

at a fit opportunity, I remain your grace to follow their example! So shall real friend, to love and serve you, we not only edify, and perhaps preserve

Ant, à Wood. our country, but through the merits of our blessed Redeemer be finally admitted

“ Dilectissime Juvenis, into the joy of our Lord.”

r. Dum Rusticus amnis decursum et defluxum præstolatur, nequicquam diu

ad ripam consistit : dumque nos ThompGood Mr. URBAN,

soni tui (nostrique) reditum expectamus,

diu, ah nimis diu hoc respondendi munus ASTER ROBERTE SURTEES intermisi; Hincque factuin est, ut hæ,

quas statim post acceptas tuas exaravepainfull History of ye County Palan ram, literule tam tarde ad manus tuas tyne of Duresme noted some few devolârunt. Tandem vero abjectà omni p’ticulars touching George Caunt, remorâ ulteriori procrastinationi non esse sometime Master of ye Free Gram' locum duxi. Literas tuas accepi, quibus Schole of Houghton * in ye Spring, a

id quod vel maxime scire et audire cupieman well skilled in instructing youth bam, minime cognovi, hic altum silentium in grammaticals, and in preparing agis; in hoc quod mihi minime dubium

fuerat, abuude satisfactum est. Quanti them for academicals. The following me facias, quanto me amore prosequaris, epistle was penned by him to his

quantus sim in tuo Diario, luculenter, scholar Master John Milner, then affabre, graphice depinxisti: Quid boni studying the liberal arts in St. Peter's

tibi obtigerit, numuam in Pauperis Scho. College in je University of Cam laris locum et munus adhuc es cooptatus bridge ; and truly when ye wholesome et ascitus, hic ne my ne gry (quod dici advice and heartie affections of ye solei) audio. Quantum ad prius nihil writer are duly weighed, methinks it erat quod dubitarem; quantum ad postemight not be altogether unwortbie of rius, illud unum erat in votis accepisse, your favourable notice. I have al- utpote qui tuarum rerum studiosíssimus,

tibiq' semper fuerim benevolentissimus.

Sed dulce decus meum (hoc enim primi* See Surtees's Durham; vol. I. pp. tiæ tuæ videntur polliceri) nequeo satis 160, 304.

mirari, quantum Academia vestra mutaGent. Mag, Suppl. XC. Part II.


Mahath in yol

first Tome of his


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