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The eldest son is presumptive heir and The circumstanee of his having lived successor to the titles and estates of bis
so long at Edinburgh and “ ever borne uncle, the present Lord Grantley. He his faculties so meek, and been so clear was the oldest Judge in his Majesty's in his great office," will readily account dominions, and, it is believed, in Europe. for the anxious inquiries that were made He succeeded Baron Wynne, who re- by all ranks and classes of people in that signed in 1776 ; and has, therefore, sat city during the tedious illness' which in that Court 44 years. There has sel preceded his death, and for the general dom appeared a stronger instance of concern it occasioned.
His remains the influence of manners and conduct, were interred in the family vault at that is, the manners and conduct which Wonersh, in Surrey. spontaneously arise from the best feelings of our nature when combined with
Sir JOSEPH BANKS, G.C. B. the soundest judgment, in acquiring the esteem and affection of all ranks in so- (Further Particulars, in addition to those ciety. Baron Norton took up his resi
already given in Part I. pp. 574.637.) dence in Scotland at a time when the This eminent man was born Dec. 13, prejudices between that country and 1743. He was the only son of William England, which had been gradually Banks, esq. who had assumed the sursubsiding after the rebellion in 1745, name and arms of Hodgkinson (being were revived by the periodical publica- those of his maternal grandfather), for tion of the “ North Briton." But these an estate at Overton (before the death of prejudices were converted into senti. his eldest brother Josepb). He married ments of regard for him as soon as he Sarah, daughter of Wm. Bate, esq. (who was known. His conduct as a Judge died Aug. 27, 1804), by whom he had increased the respect which his behavi. one daughter, the late celebrated Colour in private life had obtained. His lector, Miss Banks, who died Sept. 27, perspicuity easily discovered the true 1818 (see vol. LXXXVIII. ii. p. 472); merits of the cases before him, while his and one son, the subject of this Memoir. dignified and conciliating manner, joined His father died in 1761, leaving him, at to the universal confidence which pre- the age of eighteen, possessed of an vailed in his rigid impartiality, recon- ample fortune; he was at that time a ciled to him even those who suffered by member of the University of Oxford ; such verdicts as were given against and it was in the retirement of colthem, in consequence of his charge to legiate studies that he acquired bis taste the juries.
for natural history, and resolved to de. In domestic life, the effects of his vote himself to its advancement, with amiable qualities were most interesting. all the resources of his mind and bis As a husband, a father, a friend, and a fortune. master, he was equally revered. The The passion of the young student for fund of information-of anecdotes admi. his favourite pursuit was not confined to rably well told his social disposition, the researches of the closet. Immediand the gentlemanly pleasantness of his ately on his leaving the University, in manners, made his society be universally 1763, he made a voyage to the coasts of coveted.
Newfoundland and Labrador. He reResentment had no place in bis bosom. turned with those habits of investigation He seemed almost insensible to injury, which are induced by a contemplation so immediately did he pardon it. Amongst of rare and novel objects; and be made his various pensioners were several who many acquisitions to his cabinet of nahad shewn marked ingratitude. But
tural history. distress with him covered every offence The talents of Mr. Banks were called against himself.
into action at a period remarkably pro: His attention to religious and moral pitious to their developement. The duties was uniform and constant. Not reign of George Ill. comnienced with a Sunday passed, either in town or that high and liberal attention to nauticountry, when he was prevented from cal discovery, which benefited the Gogoing to church, that the service of the vernment of a nation that was prepared Church of England, and a sermon se- by its wealth, its intelligence, and its lected from the works of the best English industry, to derive from an intercourse and Scotch divines, were not read to his with unknown and babarous countries family; and so inviolable was his regard new materials for commercial activity, to truth, that no arguments could ever new facts of science, and new incenprevail upon him to deviate from the tives to go forward in the duty of bestowperformance of a promise, though ob- ing civilization to the whole human tained contrary to his interest, and race. Mr. Banks saw that the genius of by artful representations, imperfectly Cook was destined to accomplish the founded.
most arduous and important 'enter
prises; be engaged himself in the under: with attentious from the literary bodies taking of the great circumnavigator at home and abroad, and was looked with ardour and liberality, which were upon as one of the most prominent young worthy the objects of bis devotion. men of the age.
On the 26th of August, 1768, the En- His ardour was not exhausted. The deavour sailed from Plymouth, on this natural curiosities of Iceland attracted great expedition. Lieutenant Cook was bis atteution. He hired a vessel, and Commander ; but Sir Joseph Banks with Drs. Solander and Van Troil inwent in circumstances wbich made it vestigated the Island. His hazards were improbable that he should be subjected rewarded by the discovery of the cave to any disagreeable control. No unfor. of Staffa, in the Hebrides, the most tunate accident occurred in the early magnificent specimen of the columnar course of the voyage. Even in the pas. basalt in the world ; but he bad a still sage to Madeira, Sir Juseph and his more gratifying reward in having atcompanions discovered many marine tracted the benevolence of the Danish animals which no naturalist bad de. Court to Iceland by the information scribed. At Madeira, and as they sailed contained in his voyage. on to Rio Janeiro, their vigilance was Mr. Banks having satisfied, and nobly still eagerly awake, and was sufficiently satisfied, bis ardour for foreign inquigratified by observations and specimens ries, settled in his native country, with siew to science. The jealousy of the the patriotic purpose of devoting his forPortuguese greatly disappointed their tune and infuence to the encouragecuriosity, by forbidding their researches ment of science. His labours had been at Riu Janeiro.
properly appreciated by the most emiOn Wednesday, April 12, 1769, the sent men of Europe; and while, thereEndeavour arrived at Otabeite. For fure, bis laudable desire of forming a three months the voyagers continued at splendid collection of natural curiosities tbis and the contiguous isles, making was abundantly gratified by his extenthose astronomical observations for the sive intercourse, the still higher ambisake chiefly of which Lieut. Cook was tion, of widening his sphere of utility, sent out; surveying, as navigators, the enlarged his association and his corcoasts of the different isles; collecting respondence with the learned and the specimens of the natural productions pe- great, and rendered him a nucleus round culiar to tbem; and studying the lan- which the scattered science of all coun. guage, manners, and arts of the Islanders. tries migbt be gathered.
In August, 1769, the Endeavour sailed Upon the retirement of Sir John Prinfrom the last Isle of the group. Iu 0o- gle from the Presidency of the Royal tuber they made New Zealand, which had Society in 1777, Mr. Banks was elected not been visited since Tasmau's voyage. to the vacant chair. The decision was a They next sailed to New Holland, chiefly wise one. Though the object of this along the East coast ; they gave the highest honour which Science has to name of New South Wales to ihe adja- bestow, was not ainongst the mighty cent territory. The ship here struck names who have built up the temple of upon a rock, and was saved only by ex- philosophy, and have left to succeeding traordinary skill. In laying ber down ages little more tban its adornment, for repairs the sea broke in, and spoiled though he brought to the chair in which the greater part of Mr. Banks's speci: Newton had sat, qualities which only mens of natural history. But he was re- clained the merit of an unbounded love compensed by the discovery of the kan. of science, an unequalled industry in colgaroo. In August, 1770, they sailed for lecting its materials, a liveral and gentleNew Guinea. On their homeward voy- manly spirit of patronage, an influence age, their short stay at Batavia was with the great and powerful of eminent hearly fatal to the expedition. Mr. advantage to the particular interests of Baoks and Dr. Solander caught the fever. the Suciety; and a reputation wbich The Olabeitan priest and interpreter might receive some additional lustre Toffa and his son died. Every person of from the honours which were proposed the crew but one was taken ill, Seven to it-we yet think that the decision died at Batavia, and twenty-three more was a wise one. The new President within six weeks after. On Wednesday formed a link between the scientific, the 12th of June, 1771, the vessel an- and the ennobled and wealtby, which chored in thc Downs. Thus closed per- no deep and abstracted scholar, no man baps the most meinorable voyage since of professional eminence could have supthe days of Vasco and Columbus. Mr. plied. With character and ability suffiBanks was now received with the public cient to maintain the honour and dignity respect due to knowledge, intelligence, of the Society, bis genius was not so elpa and enterprise. He was overwbelased vated as to abash the candidate for its
honours, honours, nor his fame so considerable Our space will not allow us to follow as to leave him satisfied with his per- the late President of the Royal Society sonal importance, without. seeking to in his various labours for the advance derive additional bonour froin tbe ad. ment of scientific knowledge. Sir Jou vancement of the Institution over which seph Banks has been attacked by that be presided. The rauk wbich the Royal vain ribaldry, which would prostrate all Society now holds, is the best proof of rank,, and eminence, and useful ability, the success which has been derived at the feet of its own grovelling ridicule from the character of its President. - he bas been lampooned as a weak ex
In 1779 he married Dorothea, daugh- perimentalist, hastening with childish ter and co-heiress of William-Weston curiosity through a series of idle investiHugessen, of Provender, in the parish gations establishing no principles, and of Norton, Kent, esq. by whom he had without obvious usility. It is known, no issue. Lady Banks survives to la- on the contrary, that he has devoted ment her loss.
himself, with unceasing perseverance, In 1781, Mr. Banks was honoured by to objects of the first practical benefit, his Sovereign with a baronetcy; as he and it would not be difficult to produce a was some years afterwards, by being long list of improvements in agriculture created a Knight of the Bath, and sworn and horticulture, for which we are in. one of his Majesty's Hon. Privy Council. debted to his patient industry. His
Sir Joseph Banks devoted himself to character in this, indeed in many other the important duties of his station with points, appears to us pretty nearly to rethat arduur and alacrity which belonged semble the excellent Evelyn, one of the to his general babits. His extensive founders and ornaments of the Royal friendship and correspondence procured Suciety. We have no hesitation in becommunications of the highest interest, lieving that the fame of Sir Joseph Banks and the courtesies of his private charac- will go down to posterity with that of ter induced men of the most exalted this good and great man, as an accom. rank to solicit tbe honours of a fellow. plished gentleman, a judicious inquirer, sbip with those of uistinguished excel- a diligent votary, and a liberal patron of lence in scientific attainments. Sir learning as one honoured most partie Joseph was re-elected to the Presidency, cularly with the favour of bis Sovereignfor several years, with an unanimous receiving from the source of all honour, feeling; but the jealousies of some mem- some of the highest dignities which can bers of splendid and commanding ta- be bestowed upon civil services-surlents began to be developed.
rounding himself with the admiration of charged against Sir Joseph Banks, that his contemporaries of every nation--and in the recommendation of candidates, he employing these rare advantages in the bowed rather to the pretensions of rank, great task which he had proposed to him. than to the unobtrusive, but undoubted self, as an improver of his country. claims of eminent ability ; and this In person Sir Joseph Banks was tall, feeling so far extended itself, that a dis. well-built, and manly, with a countetinguished ornament of the Church, no nance expressive of dignity and intelliless distinguished for his mathematical
gence. His manners were polite yet learning, threatened a secession in the urbane; his conversation rich in infollowing terms :-“ if other remedies structive information, frank, engaging, fail, we can at least secede. When the unaffected, without levity, yet endowed hour of secession comes, the President with sufficient vivacity. He possessed will be left, with his train of feeble information upon almost every different amateurs, and that toy upon the table, subject within the range of art or nathe ghost of that Society in wbicb Phi. ture; and on most subjects he exercised lusophy once reigned, and Newi on pre- the discriminating and inventive powers sided as her minister !” The very tem- of an originally-vigorous niind. per of this burst of eloquence is a proof Sir Joseph Banks has bequeathed his of the causes of this schism. The pride fine library to the British Museum ; and of genius was, in all probability, op. bas left 2001. a year to Mr. Brown, his posed to the pride of rank, and the conj. secretary, and some trifling legacies. Alict was as ubstinate as it was violent. His funeral was quite private, The President maintained his position firmly, and he lived to behold that inti. mate union which ought ever to exist Rev. WILLIAM RICHARDSON, D.D. between the patrons and the votaries of learning, producing all the grace and all
Lately. At the glebe house of Clonthe power of such a combination, giving
fecle, in the county of Antrim, aged 60, science a bome in the courts of great. This ingenious Clergymay distinguished
the Rev. William Richardson, D. D. ness, and alluring the bonourable to wins additional honours in the retire.
himself by his pursuits in Natural Hisments of philosophy.
tory, and is well known to the public
(and particularly to the readers of this the Adventures of Gabriel Outcast, 3 v. Magazine), for the zeal he manifested in 12mo. 1785.—The London Adviser and bringing into notice the valuable pro- Guide, 8vo. 1786.—The Country Lawyer, perties of Fiorin grass (see vol. lxxix. 12mo. 1786.—The Honours of the Table, 133, 908. Ixxx. i. 420. ii. 232. Ixxxi. i. or Rules for Behaviour during Meals, 33, 524. lxxxvi. ii. 107). Besides some with the Art of Carving, 12m0. 1788.valuable communications to the Royal Eight Years' Almanack, on a Sheet, Society (particularly a very curious paper 1788.-Summary View of the Constituon the Giant's Causeway, printed in the tional Laws of England, 8vo. 1788.-On Philosophical Transactions), he pub. the Importance of a Farmer's Life, a lished separately the following tracts : Sermon, 8vo. 1793.-The Life and Ad.
“ Letter to the Right Hon. Isaac ventures of William Ramble, Esq. 3 v. Corry, on the Properties of Fiorin Grass, 12mo. _1793.-The Art of Gardening, 1809," 12mo. “ Essay on Fiorin Grass, 8v0.-Essay on Literary Property, 8vo. 1810," Evo. “ Letter to the Marquis of 1798.—The Assessed Tax Act explained, Hertford," on the same subject, 1810, 8vo. 1798.-A Tbird Volume of his Chro. 8vo. “A new Essay on Fiorin 'Grass, nology, 12mo. 1805.—Memoirs of bis 1813," 8vo.
Life, part I. 4to. 1806.-Detached Pbilo
sophic Thoughts on Man, 2 v. 12mo. DR. JOHN TRUSLER.
1810.-- Proverbs exemplified, 12mo. 1811. Lately. At the Villa House, Bath- Among other compilations sent forth by wick, aged 85, Jubn Trusler, LL. D. the Doctor, we must not omit to menThis singular character was born in Lon- tion one, in numbers, entitled, The Hadon in 1735. He had no academical bitable World displayed ; besides which, education, but was bred to physic in a he also printed a Clerical Almanack, very bumble line, though afterwards he Moore's Almanack improved, and other contrived to obtain orders, and for some things of a like kind. time officiated as a curate in and about London. In 1771 he started a project
CAPTAIN WOOD, R.N. peculiar to himself, that of abridging June 24. At Bramling House, near the Sermons of eminent Divines, and Wingham, Kent, in his 541h year, Capt. printing them in the form of manu- John Wood, R. N. A long and active scripts, so as not only to save Clergymen service in the varied and opposite climates the trouble of composing theirDiscourses, of the North Sea and the Tropical Ocean, but even of transcribing them. Dr. produced a severe hepatic affection, Trusler next established a printing and which, after 30 years service, compelled bookselling business upon an extensive him to seek, under a temporary retreat and very lucrative scale. He resided in the bosom of his family, tlie restora. several years at Bath on the profits of tion of his health ; but his happiness in his trade, and latterly at bis estate on this retirement was considerably embitEnglefield Green in Middlesex. This tered by the unconquerable nature of wholesale dealer in compilations bas ma- his complaint; which at lengtb, in the nufactured the following works, several prime of his life, in the full enjoyment of of which, however, it must be acknow- his faculties and fortune, and after atledged, have the merit of utility :- taining a high rank in bis profession,
Hogarth Moralized, 8vo, 1766.--Chro- thus prematurely terminated his exnology, or a Concise View of History, istence. 12mo. 1769; of tbis little work there Captain Wood, then a Commander, have been numerous editions, and one had the honour of serving under the late in two volumes 12mo.-Principles of Po- glorious Lord Duncan, during the whole liteness, extracted from Chesterfield's period of his lordsbip's command in the Letters, 12mo. 1775.- Account of the North Sea ; and at the mutiny at the Jslands lately discovered in the South Nore was the happy instrument of dem. Sea, with an Account of the Country of taching many of the disaffected seamen Kamtschatka, 8vo. 1777 ; this is an from that alarming and ihreatening conabridgment of Cook's Voyages.--Prac- federacy; of securing the ring-leaders of tical Husbandry, or the Art of Farming, some of the most refractory crews; and 8vo, 1780.- 'The Sublime Reader, or the of carrying two of bis Majesty's line of Morning and Evening Services of the battle ships into Sbeerness Harbour. Church, pointed as they should be read, The prompt zeal and activity su inva12mo. 1782.–View of the Statute and riably displayed by Capi. Wood during Common Law of England, an abridg- the period of his services in the North ment of Blackstone's Commentaries, Sea, insured him the flattering appro4to. 1784.-Conipendium of Useful Know- bation of Lord Duncan, which his lordledge, 12mo. 1784.-A Dictionary of ship took an early opportunity to testify, Rhymes, 8vo. 1784.--Modern Times, or by advancing him to the rank of Post ĠENT. MAG. July, 1820.
Captain. Capt. Wood subsequently com- proficiency in Optics and Astronomy, to manded the Concord and the Phaeton wbich be now principally devoted bis in the East Indies, under Admirals attention, baving, in the earlier stages Rainier, Lord Exmouth, and Sir Thomas of his life, prepared bimself for the Trowbridge.
bigher parts of those subjects by a perThe sudden demise of this officer fect knowledge of Algebra and Geometry. affords a remarkable instance of the un- He designed his eldest son, Peter Dolcertainty and futility of human bopes land, (the subject of the present memoir) and expectations; and forcibly reminds for the same business with himself ; and us of the truth of the adage, “ nous for several years they carried on their proposons, mais Dieu dispose;" for in manufactures together in Spital-fields; the belief that bis health was sufficiently but the employment neither suited the *re-established, he was again preparing expectations nor disposition of the son, for active service, when a sudden and who, having received much information violent attack from the insidious disease upon mathematical and philosophical which bad so long fastened upon his subjects from the instruction of his faconstitution, blighied his expectations ther, and observing the great value in their bud; and to the inexpressible which was set upon his father's knowgrief of his family, relations, and friends, ledge in the theory of Optics by profesbowed him, after a few days of acute sional men, determined to apply that suffering, a martyr to climate, into the knowledge to the benefit of bimself and grave.
bis family; and, accordingly, under the
directions of bis father, commenced PETER DOLLOND, Esq.
optician. Success, though under the July 2. At Kennington, at the ad- most unfavourable circumstances, 'atvanced age of 90, Peter Dollond, Esq. tended every effort ; and in 1752, John of St. Paul's Church-yard; Member of Dullond, embracing the opportunity of the American Philosophical Society at pursuing a profession congenial with his Philadelphia ; and well known, wherever mind, and without neglecting the rules science is cultivated, as one of the most of prudence towards his family, joined celebrated opticians of his day. He was his son, and in consequence of his tbeothe eldest son of John Dollond, F. R. S. retical knowledge, soon became a profi. the eminent optician, and inventor of the cient in the practical part of Optics. acbromatic telescope.
In the beginning of 1761 John Dollond His father was born in Spitalfields in was elected F. R. S. and appointed opti1706 : his parents were French Pro- cian to bis Majesty, but did not live to testants, wbo soon after the revocation enjoy bis bonours long, as he died of of the edict of Nantz sought refuge in apoplexy, Nov. 30, in the same year. An England, in order to avoid persecution, interesting account of this able philosoand to preserve their religion. The first pber and artist may be seen in Mr. years of his life were employed at the Chalmers's Biographical Dictionary, loom ; but, being of a very studious and compiled from a life of him, written by philosophic turn of mind, bis leisure Dr. John Kelly. bours were engaged in mathematical After his father's death, Mr. Peter pursuits ; and though by the death of Dollond carried on the optical business his father, wbich happened in his in- in partnership with his brother, the late fancy, his education gave way to the ne- Mr. John Dollond, till the death of that cessities of his family, yet at the age of gentleman Nov.6, 1804; when Mr. Peter fifteen, before he had an opportunity of Dollond admitted into partnership his seeing works of science or elementary nephew Mr. George Huggins, who, with treatises, he amused bimself by con- the king's permission, shortly after took structing sun-dials, drawing geometrical the name of Dollond, and has recently schemes, and solving problems. An been elected F.R.S.: under the maearly marriage and an increasing family nagementfor this gentleman the business afforded him little opportunity of pur- still Aourishes with undiminished resuing his favourite studies : but such putation. are the powers of the human mind when In 1765, a letter from Mr. Peter Dolcalled into action, that difficulties, which lond was read before the Royal Society, appear to the casual observer to be in- concerning an improvement which be surmountable, yield and retire before had made in his telescopes. perseverance and genius; even
In 1772 he communicated to the same der the pressure of a close application Society, through the medium of his to business for the support of bis family, friend Dr. Maskelyne, the Astronomer he found time, by abridging the hours Royal, a Description of some Addiof his rest, to extend his mathematical tions and Alterations made to Hadley's knowledge, and made a considerable Quadrant, to render it more serviceable