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3 miles long. The harbour, about 2 miles long and from and Spinoza. He belonged to an ecclesiastical family; one-fourth of a mile to a mile in breadth, is formed by a his father was a Lutheran pastor, and he himself was narrow spit of land or coral ledge running out for about 2 destined for the ministry. Having completed his premiles from the coast in a northerly and westerly direction. liminary studies at the celebrated school of Grimma, he The entrance, about 90 feet deep, is so clear that no pilot was sent to study theology at the university of Leipisic, is required ; and in the outer bay (100 to 300 feet deep) at that time the citadel of Lutheran orthodoxy. Its there is safe anchorage. On a high rock to the south narrow and dogmatic teaching was profoundly repugnant east of the town is the Mirador of Solano, or castle of to the liberal nature of the young student, who was not Puerto Cabello, which has often proved an obstacle to long in bidding adieu to the professors of theology and enemies advancing from the interior. In 1883 the muni- throwing himself passionately into the study of public law. cipality, with a population of 12,000, contained a tannery, He soon went so far as to quit Leipsic altogether, and a foundry and machine-shop, a coffee-mill, two soap and betook himself to Jena, where he formed an intimate candle factories, and about fourteen wholesale warehouses. friendship with Erhard Weigel the mathematician, a man The exports consist of coffee, cocoa, hides, goat and deer of great distinction. Weigel was imbued with the Cartesian skins, bark, woods, indigo, and cotton, but only the first philosophy; and it was to his teaching and to the impetus in large quantities. Germany and the United States are he gave to the application of the mathematical method the chief recipients. Within 6 miles of the town there are that Pufendorf owes the exact and ordered mind, and the four villages of from 200 to 1500 inhabitants.

precision, frequently approaching almost to dryness, which See Jülfs and Balloer, Sechäfen der Erde, Oldenburg, 1878 ; and characterize his writings. It was also under Weigel's inU.S. Consular Reports, Nos, 24, 26, 30, &c.

fluence that he developed that independence of character PUERTO DE SANTA MARIA, probably the "Vene- which never bent before other writers, however high sthei Portus” of Ptolemy, commonly called EL PUERTO their position, and which showed itself in his profound ("The Port”), a town of Spain, in the province of Cadiz, disdain for “ipsedixitism,” to use the piquant phrase of 7 miles to the north-east of that city (211 miles by rail ; Bentham. sce sketch map, vol. iv. p. 627), near the mouth and on Pufendorf was twenty-five years old when he quitted the right bank of the Guadalete, which is here crossed by Jena. He hoped to find a career in some of the adminisa suspension bridge. It is a pleasant and well-built though trative offices which were so frequently the refuge of the somewhat dull town, in a ile country, and its house learned in the small states of ancient Germany; but in this resemble those of Cadiz, though they are often larger he was unsuccessful. In 1658, thanks to his eldest brother and profusely decorated with painting. Calle Larga, the Isaiah, who had given up university teaching to enter the principal street, is handsome and well-paved; there are Swedish service, he went, in the capacity of tutor, into several "alamedas” or public promenades, that of La the family of Petrus Julius Coyet, one of the resident Victoria being the finest. The place is famous for its ministers of Charles Gustavus, king of Sweden, at (openbull-fights, that given here in honour of Wellington being hagen. At this time Charles (rustavus was endeavouring the subject of the considerably idealized description in to impose upon Denmark a burdensome alliance, and in the Byron's Childle Harold. Among the public buildings is middle of the negotiations he brutally opened hostilities. a large Jesuit college, recently established. Puerto is The anger of the Danes was turned against the envoys chiefly important as a wine-exporting place; the "bodegas” of the Swedish sovereign ; (oyet, it is true, succeeded in or wine-stores are large and lofty, but hardly equal to escapiny, but the second minister, Steno Bjelke, and the those of Xerez. The harbour is formed by the river; its whole suite were arrested and thrown into prison. Pufenmouth is considerably obstructed by a bar. There is dorf shared this misfortune, and the future successor of regular steam communication with Cadiz. Timber and Grotius was subjected to a strict captivity of eight months' iron are the chief imports. The population of the munici- duration. Like Grotius, he too had his Loevestein. The pality in December 1877 was 22,125.

young tutor, deprived of books, occupied himself during PÚERTO PRINCIPE, or now more correctly Citdad his captivity in meditating upon what he lrad read in the DEL PRINCIPE, a city at the head of the central department works of Grotius and Hobbes. He mentally constructed of the island of Cuba. When first founded in the begin- a system of universal law; and, when, at the end of his ning of the 16th century by Velazquez, it was, as its more captivity, he accompanied his pupils, the sons of (opet, familiar name implies, on the sea-coast; but it has been to the university of Leydlen, he was enabled to publish more than once shifted southward and inland, and is now the fruits of his reflexions under the title of Elementu nearly as far from the north as from the south side of the jurisprudentiæ uziversalis, libri duo. The work was deisland. Though for some time after the surrender of San dicated to (Charles Louis, vector palatine, an enlightened Domingo to France in 1800 Principe was the seat of the prince and patron of science, who offered I'ufendorf a (Putral government and supreme courts of the Spanish chair of Roman law at lleidelberg, and when this was West Indies, it is no longer a place of much importance. declined he created a new chair, that of the law of nature The population is estimated at 31,000. Since 18.10 the and nations, the first of the kind in the world. Putencity has been connected by a milway with its port, which dorf accepted it, and was thus in 1661, at the age of is sometimes called by its own name and sometimes by twenty-nine, placed in the most enviable of positions. He that of a smaller town on the bay about 11 miles from its showed himself equal to his task, and by his scienre and entrance, San Fernando de Vueritas. The harbour or lay cloquence proved himself to be an honour and an ornain large, completely sheltered, and capable of admitting 'ment to the university. Vessels of the largest dranght; but it is entered by a The keenly sarcastic tract Di satu imperii remmii, narrow crooked passage 6 miles long, which, though there'lilere unus, dites from this period of his life. small in stre no hidden dangers, makes the assistance of a pilot bulk, it is great in siyniticance, and is one of Pufendesirable.

dorf's most important works. Written with the wint of PUERTO RICO. See Porto Rico.

the elector palatine, lout published under the cover of a PUFENDORF, SAMUEL (1632-1694), was born at' poseudonym at lieneva in 1667, it was supposed to be ('hemnitz Saxony, on the 8th of January 1632, the same addressed by a gentleman of Verona, Severins de Vine year which also saw the birth of three other illustrious ' zambano, to his brother Lilins. The pampollet m... a litical and philosophical writers-Locke, ('umberlanıl, great sensation. Its author arraigned directly the orani

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zation of the holy empire and exposed its feebleness, ception, in which he scarcely gives proof of historical denounced in no measured terms the faults of the house insight, he shows himself as one of the precursors of of Austria, and attacked with remarkable vigour the J. J. Rousseau and of the Contrat social. On the subject politics of the ecclesiastical princes. But he did not thus of international law, with which he occupies himself indescribe the evil without at the same time suggesting the cidentally, it is to be noted that Pufendorf belongs to the remedy: Thinking that Germany coull not attain to a philosophical school, and also that he powerfully defends true monarchy without a great revolution, he proposed the iclea that international law is not restricted to Christento call together a confederation, with a perpetual council dom, but constitutes a common bond between all nations representing all the members and occupying itself with because all nations form part of humanity. As was to external atlairs. Before Putendorf, Philip Bogislaw von be expected, the work made a sensation : it provoked Chemnitz, publicist and soldier, had written, under the enthusiastic admiration as well as anger and indignation ; pseudonym of “ Flippolytus a Lapide," De rution status in the author was praiscel to the skies on the one hand, and imperio nostro Romano-liermuniro. Inimical, like l'ufen- accused of irreligion and atheism on the other. The dorf, to the house of Austria, Chemnitz had come so far universities of Lund and Leipsic, above all, furnished as to make an appeal to France and Sweden. Pufendorf, adversaries and critics. Being passionately attacked, he on the contrary, rejected all idea of forcign intervention. defended himself with passion, and he may be held to But in his plan, in whichi national initiative was all in have come victorious out of these conflicts in which his all, were propounded the ideas of an army supported at: combative and sarcastic soul delighted, for Pufendorf the general expense, the secularization of the crclesia-tiral, luarly loved a fray. principalities, the abolition of convents, and the expulsion In 1677 he was callel to Stockholm in the capacity of of the Jesuits. Ilis little book is perhaps the most im- historio-rapher-royal. To this new period Lelong among portant that was produced in relation to the public law' others the work on the Spirituel Jon rohy of the Pope, and politics of Germany, and it is noteworthy that he, which was afterwarls inserted in his Introdution to the reveals himself as a consummate statesman, having a History or the principal Stutes in Europe at the present broail comprehension of the present and a clear insight Day also the great Commentariorum ili rebus Shriris, libri into the future. Subsequent civents prove the justice of 12/17., , opetitione linsturi celulphi regis in Germanhis conclusions,

ilm all wlulistinnen 21.89e Christinix and a History Pi In 1670 Pufendorf was called to the university of Lund. Chuules (ustundis. In his historical works Pufendorf is The influence of his brother Islali, as also some clisyrer hopelessly dry; but he professes a great respect for truth ments which he had hail with his colleagues at Heidelberg; and generally draws from archives. The treatise on the influenced his decision to accept the call; but by this Spirituel Jonuk i the Purple alone recalls Severinus acceptance he did not break with (ierman culture, for in de Monzambino. There we find the same vigour and the Scandinavia that culture was predominant. The sojourn rime passion, and all tlırongh its layes we feel the indiyat Lund was fruitful. In 1672 appeared the Dijune nation of the Protestant who sees the noble cause of reliretrait putium, libri oute, and in 1075 a résumé of it gious liberty menacel by the pajacy and by its two allies under the title of De oricio hominis atviris. The treatise Louis XIV and James II. Of the same nature is another De jure natura anim is the first systematie work on Work of this priod, 1), huthilu rliyionis christine od ritum the subject. (trotins, whom Pufendorf' has been accused of irribem, in which he undertakes to trace the limits between having too servilely followed, had more especially treated ecclesiastical and civil power, and where he expounds for of international relations; and on the other hand Olden- the first time completely the theory known under the dorp, Hlemming, and Winkler treated of the rulimentary name is Kollezial System " or " kollegialismus," which part of the subject. Pufendorf took 11 in great measure Was actually applied later in Prussia. This work is slated ihe theories of (irotius and songht to complete them loy

1657. In 1685 Pufendort was called to the service of means of the dortrines of Hobbies and of his own ideas. Fruclerick William, clector of Brandenburg. lle accepted Julging of the work of Pufendorf its a whole, Vr Lorimer the call; but he had no sooner arriver than the elector hax felt justified in saying that his conception was a lie. Ilisson Frederick III. fultillel the promises of his magnificent on, and in the effort which he made to realize tather, and l'ufendort, historiographer and privy counit he has left behiml him a work which, not withstanding villor, was instructed to write The listory of the Eltor the unparılonable amount of commonplace which it con William the livreet. The king of Sweden dil not on this tains and its conscient (lulness, is entitled to the l'espect illacount crasier to testify lis goodwill towarıls Pufendorf, of all future jurists. It was nothing less than an attempt and in 1691 he created him à barvni.

In the same year, to evolve from the study of human nature il system of on the 26th of October, l'uten dort died at Berlin and was jurisprudence which should be of universal and permanent buried in the church of St. Nicholas, where an inscription applicability." The author deriveel law from reason, from to his memory is still to be seen. the civil law, and from divine revelation, and established The value of the man whose liti luas been thus briefly sketchel thus three " lisciplines "... natural law, civil law, and moral

was rent; he is it once philosopher, luyir, economisi, historian,

We may (Ponudelstatesman. llis intuenee also was considerable, theology. Natural law is all that is commanded to us by

and he has left in protounil impression on thonght, and not on that pure reason, and hence resulted the first important point of Germany alone. Posterity has, however, done him sant justice, in Pufendorf's theory, viz., that natural law cloes not es anel las not acknowledge what it really owes to him. Much of tend beyond the limits of this life and that it contine's

the l'esponsibility for this injustice l'esis with Leibnitz, who woulil itself to regulating external acts. Pufendorf comlats

neper l'ecognize the incontestable greatness of one who was con

stantly his advers:lry. Everybody knows the bitter criticism which Ilobbes's conception of the state of nature, and concludes ho mile on Putindort, "vir parum jurisconsultus et minime philo. that the state of nature is not one of war but of peace. Sophus". This is only the condensiel expression of a multitude of But this peace is feeble and insecure, and if something judgments passed by him on the author of the I!! juri noturas else does not come to its aidd it can do very little for the

antium. It 1.25 on the subject of the pamphlet of Severinus de preservation of mankind. As regarls public law Pufen-Lrilmitz was bunten on the battlefield of politics and public law,

Monzambano that the quarrel begin. The conservative and timid clorf, while recognizing in the state (rivitus) a moral person and the aggressive spirit of l'utendorf aggravateil yet more the dis(persona morulis), teaches that the will of the state is but puter, and so widened the livision. From that time the two writer's the sum of the inclividual wills that constitute it, and that

coull never meet on a common suljert without attacking cach this association explains the state. In this a priori con

other. The combat was almost alwizy's deciiled in favour of Pufendorf, but the irony of fate has ratitieel the worils of his adversary,

and the future has accepted an estimate dictated by anger and genera, of which Bucco is the largest and contains 20 See H. von Treitschke, “Samne von Pufendorf,". Preussische Jahrtüchery arter with 7, Nonnula with 5, Chelidopteru with 2, and Micro

species. The others are Nsalacoptila and llonacha each buch, vol. viii. p. 424, and Geschichte des allgemeinen Statsrechts und der Politik, p. 108; Lorimer, The Institutes of the Law of Nations, vol. i. p. 74; Droysen,

monacha and Hapaloptila with l species each. The Roscher, Geschichte der National-Oekonomik in Deutschland, p. 301 ; Franklin, with an inky-black plumage, usually diversified by white

most showy Puff-birds are those of the genus Jonacha Das deutsche Reich nach Severinus von Monzambano. PUFF-ADDER. See VIPER.

about the head, and a red or yellow bill. The rest call PUFF-BIRD, the name first given, according to Swain- for no particular remark.

(A. X.) son (Zool. Illustrations, ser. 1, ii., text to pl. 99), by PUFFIN, the common English name of a sea-bird, the English residents in Brazil to a group of Birds known to l'ratercula arctica of most ornithologists, known however ornithologists as forming the restricted Family Bucconida, on various parts of the British coasts as the Bottlenose, but for a long time confounded, under the general name Coulterneb, Pope, Sea-Parrot, and Tammy-Norie, to say of Barbets, with the Capitonidæ of modern systematists, nothing of other still more local designations, some (as who regard the two Families as differing very considerably Marrott and Willock) shared also with allied species of from one another. Some authors have used the generic Alcida, to which Family it has, until very lately, been name Capito in a sense precisely opposite to that which is invariably deemed to belong. Of old time Puffins were now usually accorded to it, and the natural result has been a valuable commodity to the owners of their breedingto produce one of the most complex of the many nomen- places, for the young were taken from the holes in which clatural puzzles that beset Ornithology. Fortunately there they were hatched, and “being exceeding fat," as Carew is no need here to enter upon this matter, for each group wrote in 1602 (Survey of Cornwall, fol. 35), were “kept has formed the subject of an elaborate work—the Capi- salted, and reputed for fish, as coming neerest thereto in tonidæ being treated by the Messrs Marshall, and the their taste.” In 13-15, according to a document from Bucconida by Mr Sclater?—in cach of which volumes the which an extract is given in Heath's Islands of Scilly origin of the confusion has been explained, and to either of (1. 190), those islands were held of the crown at a yearly them the more curious reader may be confidently referred. rent of 300 Puffins or 6s. Ed., being one-sixth of The Bucconidæ are zygodactylous Birds belonging to the their estimated annual value. A few years later (1484), large heterogeneous assemblage in the present work gener- either through the birds having grown scarcer or money ally looked upon as forming the “Order” Picaria (see cheaper, only 50 Putlins are said (op. cit., p. 196) to have ORNITHOLOGY, vol. xviii. p. 11), and commonly considered been demanded. It is stated by both Gesner and Caius nowadays to be most nearly allied to the Galbulida that they were allowed to be eaten in Lent. Ligon, who (JACAMAR, vol. xiii. p. 531), and like them confined to the in 1673 published a listory of the Island of Barbadus, Neotropical Region, in the middle parts of which, and speaks (P. 37) of the ill taste of Puffins " which we have especially in its Sub-Andean Sub-region, the Puff-birds from the isles of Scilly," and adds "this kind of food is are, as regards species, abundant; while only two seem to only for servants,” Putlins used to resort in vast numbers reach (uatemala and but one Paraguay. As with most to certain stations on the coast, and are still plentiful on South-American Birds, the habits and natural history of the some, reaching them in spring with remarkable punctuality Bucconida have been but little studied, and of only one on a certain day, which naturally varies with the locality, species, which happens to belong to a rather abnormal and after passing the summer there, leaving their homes genus, has the nidification been described. This is the with similar precision. They differ from most other allerlæ Cheliloptera tenebrosa, which is said to breed in holes in in laying their single eys (which is white with a few grey lanks, and to lay white eggs much like those of the King- markings when first produced, but speedily begrimed by the fisher and consequently those of the Jacamars. From his soil) in a shallow burrow, which they either diy for themown observation Swainson writes (10. cit.) that Puff-birds selves or appropriate from a rabbit, for on most of their are very grotesque in appearance. They will sit nearly haunts rabbits have been introduced. Their pluunaye is motionless for hours on the dead bough of a tree, and while of a glossy black above-. the cheeks grey, encircled by a so sitting "the disproportionate size of the head is rendered black banil- and pure white beneath ; their feet are of a niore conspicuous by the bird raising its feathers so as to bright rullish orange, but the most remarkable feature of appear not unlike a puff ball. . . . When frightened their these birds, and one that gives them a very comical exform is suddenly changed by the feathers lying quite flat." pression, is their huge bill. This is very deep and laterally They are very confiding birds anı will often station them- flattened, so as indecd to resemble a coulter, as one of the selves a few yards only from a window. The Burronila bird's common names expresses; but moreover it is partialmost without exception are very plainly-coloured, and coloured -- blue, yellow, and red ---curiously grooved and the majority have a spotted or mottled plumaye suggestive still more curiously embossed in places, that is to say of immaturity. The first Puff-bird known to Europeans (uring the breeding season, when the birds are most seems to have been that described by Marcyrave under frequently seen. But it had long been known to some the name of " Tamatia," by which it is said to have been servers that such Putins as occasionally occur in winter called in Brazil, and there is yooul reason to think that his (most often washed up on the shore and dead) presenteel decription and figure—the last, conic as it is in outline a beak very different in shape and size, and to account for and expression, having been copied loy Willughly and the difference was a standing puzzle. Many years ago many of the older authors--apply to the Burro muculatus | Bingley (Virth Wilex, i. p. 351) stated that l'uttin"are of modern Ornithologya biril polaced by Brisson (Orni-sail to change their bills annually." The remark seems thrlingir, iv. p. 524) among the Kingfishers. But if so, Marytare described and figured the same species twice,

. Tliere lll 110 :

.l cili!... tl. 11.1:.. Puede toilet ince his Matuitui" is ako Brisson's "Martin-perhe ur ilotlins. for an English informatie Corbiers low-r*?"*"" ha

you: points, lirilir!, 1. Pipeed 1.12 7.990: tl...y tashrte lu Brésil."

11 st. 11.2.1, p. 110 18.11.1:n: true fr.:!.T, anil lit. Colofond Mr Selater in his Jonograph divides the Family into 7 only with a more of Wilyah polica 1: 1 :, liestit,

state that cains pravidelar PYr.nomi. 1..lins, fol. 21: 1.1. Vinograph of the Capitoni..e or Surnarial Barlets, by C. II. i that the name is closiva murali vo.. min." Prof. Skea! fair T. and O. FL. Marshall, London, 1870-71, 4to.

i that the woril in 2011.vr, w!! f.15't the view that :: 57:25 i Miragraph of the Jiramars and Ph.bints, or Families Gal- originally used as a nine for those you burels. The pureni Wetu ball.rand Baceonida, by P. I.. Slater, London, 1879-82, 4to. prubably kwnlış one or the bott!: 1.65 kalappalainen

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to have been generally overlooked ; but it has proved to orders of the duke of Beaufort was destroyed by fire, and be very near the truth, for after investigations carefully Puget, disheartened, took leave of Toulon. In 1685 he pursued during some years by Dr Bureau of Nantes he went back to Marseilles

, where he continued the long series was in 1877 enabled to shew (Bull. Soc. Zool. France, ii. of works of sculpture on which he had been employed by pp. 377-399) 1 that the Puffin's bill undergoes what may Colbert. His statue of Milo (Louvre) had been completed be called an annual moult, some of its most remarkable in 1681, Perseus and Andromeda (Louvre) in 1683, and appendages, as well as certain horny outgrowths above and Alexander and Diogenes (bas-relief, Louvre) in 1685; but, beneath the eyes, dropping off at the end of the breeding in spite of the personal favour which he enjoyed, Puget, season, and being reproduced the following year. Not on coming to Paris in 1688 to push forward the execulong after the same naturalist announced (op. cit., iv. PP. tion of an equestrian statue of Louis XIV., found court 1-68) that he had followed the similar changes which he intrigues too much for him. He was forced to abandon found to take place, not only in other species of Puffins, as his project and retire to Marseilles, where he remained the Fratercula corniculata and F. cirrhata of the Northern till his death in 1694. His last work, a bas-relief of the Pacific, but in several birds of the kindred genera Cera- Plague of Milan, which remained unfinished, was placed torhina and Simorhynchus inhabiting the same waters, in the council-chamber of the town-hall. and consequently proposed to regard all of them as forminy Puget was the most vigorous representative of French sculpture a Family distinct from the Alcidaa view which has in the 18th century; in spite of liis visits to Paris and Rome his since found favour with Dr Dybowski (op. cit., vii. Pgalleys of Toulon ; his saints and virgins are men and women who

work never lost its local character : his Hercules is fresh from the 270-300 and viii. pp. 318-350), though there is apparently speak Provençal. His best work, the St Sebastian at Genoa, though insufficient reason for accepting it.

a little heavy in parts, shows admirable energy and life, as well as The name Puffin has also been given in books to one

great skill in contrasting the decorative accessories with the simple of the Shearwaters, and its Latinized form Putinus is surface of the nude,

Cicognara, Storia della scultura ; Lenoir, Musée des Mon. Franstill used in that sense in scientific nomenclature. This çais ; Lagrange, Vie de Pierre Puget ; Barbet de Jouy, Sculptures fact seems to have arisen from a mistake of Ray's, who, mol au Lourre. seeing in Tradescant's Museum and that of the Royal

PUGIN, AUGUSTUS WELBY NORTHMORE (1812-1852), Society some young Shearwaters from the Isle of Man, architect, was the son of Augustus Pugin, a native of prepared in like manner to youny l'uffins, thought they France, who practised as an architect in London. He was were the birds mentioned by Gesner (loc. cit.), as the born in Store Street, Bedford Square, on 1st March 1812. remarks inserted in Willughby's Ornithologia (1). 251) After completing the ordinary course of education at prove; for the specimens described by Ray were as clearly Christ's Hospital (blue-coat school), he entered his father's Shearwaters as Gesner's were l'uffins.

(A. N.) office, where he displayed a remarkable talent for drawing. PU'GET, PIERRE (1622-1694), born at Marseilles on 31st When he had mastered the elements of his profession he October 1622, painter, sculptor, architect, and engineer, is devoted a large portion of his time to the sketching of a rare instance of precocious genius and mature power. public buildings; he also accompanied his father on several At the age of fourteen he carved the ornaments of the professional tours in France. While still very young he galleys built in the port of his native city, and at sixteen

was employed by his father to design furniture in the the decoration and construction of a ship were entrusted to mediæval style for Windsor Castle, and in 1831 he dehim. Soon after he went to Italy on foot, and was well signed the scenery for the new opera of Kenilworth at Her received at Rome by Pietro di Cortona, who employed Majesty's Theatre. Shortly afterwards he involved himhim on the ceilings of the Barberini palace and on those self deeply in money difficulties by an attempt to establish of the Pitti at Florence. In 16-13 he returned to Mar a manufactory of stained glass, metal work, and furniture seilles, where he painted portraits and carved the colossal at Hart Street, Covent (iarden. From the time, however, figure-heads of men-of-war. After a second journey to that he devoted himself steadily to his profession as an Italy he painted also a great number of pictures for Aix, architect he never failed to find full employment. Shortly Toulon, Cuers, and La Ciotat, and sculptured a large after his secession from the Church of England to that of marble group of the Virgin and Child for the church of Rome he published Contrasts ; or a Parallel between the Lorgues. A serious illness in 1665 brought Puget a pro-Arhitecture of the 15th and 10th Centuries (1836), in which hibition from the doctors which caused him wholly to he severely criticized the architecture of Protestantism. put aside the brush. He now sculptured the caryatides His other principal works are True Principles of Christian of the town-hall of Toulon (Louvre), went to Normandy, Architecture (1811), a Glossary of Ecrlesiastical Ornament where he executed a statue of Hercules and a group of (1814), and a Treatise on Chunrel Screens and Rood Lofts Janus and C'ybele for the marquis of Vaudreuil, and visit-|(1851). Pugin was the designer of a large number of iming Paris made the acquaintance of Le l'autre and Fou- portant Roman Catholic buildings, and also assisted Sir quet, who determined to employ him at Vaux and sent (harles Barry in the preparation of the designs for the new him to Italy to choose marbles for his work. The fall of llouses of Parliament, Westminster. Early in 1852 he Fouquet found Puget at Genoa, where he remained em was attacked by insanity, which caused his death on 14th ployed by the nobles of the town. There he executed for September of the same year. Sublet des Noyers his French Hercules (Louvre), the Future historians who may write the architectural history of the statues of St Sebastian and of Alexandre Sauli in the

19th century will probably describe as its leading characteristic

that enthusiastic revival of the Gothic style which took place in church of Carignano, and much other work. The Doria the second quarter of the century and continued with unabated family gave him a church to build ; the senate proposed vigour for more than thirty years. Among the many able arehi. that he should paint their council-chamber. But Colbert toots who during this period contributed to cover England with bade Puget return to France, and in 1669 he again took

churches and other buildings, designed in a style which for three

centuries had been rejected as barbarous, the name of lugin deserves up his old work in the dockyards of Toulon. The arsenal

to be the most conspicuous. No man so thoroughly mastered the which he had there undertaken to construct under the true principles of the Gothic style in its various stages, both in its

leading lines and in the minutest details of its mouldings and carved 1 A translated abstract of this paper-containing an account of what

enrichments, and that too at a time when illustrated works on is perhaps the most interesting discovery of the kind made in ornithology

Gothie architecture, such as have since been produced in enormous for many years—is given in the Zoologist for 1878 (pp. 233-240) and quantities," had scarcely begun to exist ; thus young lugin had another in the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club for the same 2 These numerous illustrated works, with every detail shown to a year (iii. pp. 87-91).

workable scale, by doing away with the necessity for studying the

1

1861.

to learn the alphabet of his chosen stylo by careful and laborious quence, antiquarian knowledge, and even brilliant humour. This study of the glorious examples of Gothic, both ecclesiastical and last gift is exemplified in a series of etched plates in his Contrasts : domestic, in which England was then (far more than now) so extra on one side is some noble structure of the Middle Ages, and on the ordinarily rich. His father was for many years engaged in prepar- other an example of the same building as erected in the 19th ing a large series of works on the Gothic buildings of England, century. His works on Chancel Screens and on The True Prinalmost, if not quite, the first which were illustrated with accurate ciples of Christian Architecture are very ably written and exquisitely drawings of medieval buildings; the early youth of A. W. Pugin illustrated. was mostly occupied in making minute measured drawings for his Pugin's melancholy and premature end was to a great extent father's books, and in this way his enthusiasm for Gothic art was caused by the embittering influence of the constant frustration of first aroused. All through his life, both in England and during his noblest artistic struggles and conceptions. many visits to Germany and France, he continued to make, for his See Ben. Ferrey, Recollections of A. Welby Pugin and his Father, London, own instruction and pleasure, great numbers of drawings and sketches, especially in pen and ink, and with sepia monochrome. PU'LCI, LUIGI, Italian poet, was born at Florence on These are perhaps the most beautiful architectural sketches that 30 December 1431 and died in 1487. The first edition have ever been produced, perfect in their delicacy and precision of of his lorgante Maggiore appeared at Venice in 1181. They are mostly minute in scale, some almost microscopic in detail

. (See ITALY, vol. xiii. p. 507 s.) Many of the Continental street scenes and interiors of cathedrals PULGAR, FERNANDO DE, Spanish prose-writer of the are of especial beauty from their contrasts of brilliant light and latter part of the 15th century, born probably at Pulyar transparent shadow, 1 treated with Rembrandt-like vigour. At a very early age his wonderful mastery of Gothic detail was shown Henry IV. made him one of his secretaries, and under

near Toledo, was brought up at the court of John II. struction of the new Houses of Parliament in 1836 and 1837. For Isabella he became a councillor of state, was charged with some time he worked as a paid clerk to Barry, and to Pugin is at least one mission to France, and in 1482 was appointed inninly due the very remarkable excellence of all the details in this historiographer-royal. His official Chronicle of the reign hitherto all examples of the revived Gothic were of the most ignor- of the Catholic sovereigns for the period previous to his ant anıl tasteless description. Pugin not only designed and even appointment is loose and inaccurate; but in the later modelled a grcat part of the sculpture and other decorations of the portion, where he had the advantage of personal knowbuilding, but had actually to train a school of masons and carvers ledge, he is always precise and often graphic. It is not to carry out his desigus with spirit and accuracy:3

While still young. Pugin became a Roman Catholie, and this, if brought down beyond the year 1492. It was first printed possible, increased his intense zcal and enthusiasm for Gothic, or,

at Valladolid in 1565 under the name of Antonio de as he preferred to call it, Christian architecture. His profession Lebrija. Pulgar’s Claros Turones de Castilla, a series became to him a sort of religion, and his study of medieval build of sketches of forty-six of the most celebrated men of the and tho highly æsthetic outward form of the old faith. The result reign and court of Henry IV., is of considerable interest of this was that he was almost wholly employed by avlherents of the both for its matter and for its style. He wrote, besides, a Catholic religion. In one way this was a fortunate circumstance, commentary on the ancient Coplos de Vlingo Rerulyo ; and for it saveul liim from the temptation of assisting in that great wavo thirty-two of his Letters written to various persons of emi

The ation," has devastated the principal medixval buildings of Great nence, including some

to the queen, are also extant. Britain and Ireland. In another way it was unfortunate, for his first edition of the Claros Varones was that of Seville Catholic employers were mostly much pinched for money, and at (1500); some of the letters did not appear until 1528. the same time so devoid of all sympathy for the principles of which PU'LKOWA. See OBSERVATORY, vol. xvii. p. 714. he was the chief exponent, that they almost always insisted on the

PU'LLEY. See VECILLNICS and BLOCK MACHINERY. greatest possible amount of display being made in the cheapest possible manner. On account of this it is unfair to judge of Pugin's

PU'LTENEY, William, Earl of Bath (1681-1761), a gonius from a critical examination of his executed works. In politician elevated by a living historian) into the importalmost every ciuso his design was seriously injured!, both hy cutting ant position in history of the first leader of the opposition, clown its carefully considered proportions and hy introducing shams was descended from an ancient family with a pedigree duly inbove all things hateful to Pugin), such as plaster groining and eren cast-iron cirving. The cathedral of St George at Southwark, recorded in Nichols's Iristory of Leicestershire (iv. 320). and even the church of the Jesuits in Farm Street, Berkeley Square, His father, William Pulteney, died in 1715, and the future London, are inelancholy instances of this. Thus his life was one statesman was the offspring of his first wife, Mary Floyd, Series of disappointments; no pecuniary success compensated him and was born in 1681. is his grandfather had been intifor the destruction of his best designs, as in him the man of business was thoroughly subordinato to the artist. He himself used to mately connected with the city of Westminster, the boy was say that the only church he had ever executed with unalloyed sent to Westminster school and from it proceeded to Christ srii-fartion was the one at Ramsgate, which he not only designed ('hurch, Oxford, acquiring in these institutions that deep but paid for. 'Pugin was very broail in his love for the mediaval classical knowledge which adorned his own speeches and styles, but on the whole preferred what is really the most suite enabled him to correct his great antagonist when he blunto molern ruirements, namely, the Perpendicular of the 15th century, and this he employeel in its simpler domestic form with dered in a quotation. On leaving Oxford he made the mmh wees both in his own house at Ramsgate and in the stately usual tour on the Continent. In 170.5 he was brought dan Hall in Ireland, built for Loru Dunraven. The cathedral of into parliament by Henry (ny for the Yorkshire borough oppurhaps the ecclesiastic buildings which were carried out with of Herlon, and at the death of that gentleman (a politician lule deviation from l'ugin's original conception.

who had at one time held the office of secretary of the He was a skilful etcher and produced a number of works illus- treasury) l'ulteney inherited an estate of £500 a year and trated in this way by his own hand, and written with much olo. £10,000 in cash. This seat was helil by him without a

break until 1731, and though the family was then dispos F.lling themselves, and being used simply like "cribs" to an unhnwn language, are partly accountable for numberless recent build sessed for a time the supremacy was regained in the return ins which, while they are Gothie in form, are utterly devoid of the of another Pulteney in 1739. Throughout the reign of refinement, fitnes, and true taste displayed in the buildlings of the Queen Anne William Pulteney played a prominent part Melille.com Three volunes of photographs of these sketches have been pubi Sachevereli he exerted himself with great zeal against that

in the struggles of the Whigs, and on the prosecution of lished in a square octavo form, but have suffered from recluction in violent divine. When the victorious Tories sent his friend

Il comparison of the decorations of the flouses of Parliament with ther contemporary anıt even later Gothic buillings shows in a very * Pugin's sense of humour was keeper than is aling their contri). striking way the remarkable talent and industry displayed by Pugin for a man of business ; on one occasion when a certain Catholic 1.i-loop in the work.

wrote a-king him to design a hanılcome church, which was to cost an "A few years ago rery ill-juilgeal attempts were made to claim for absurlly small sum of money, he repliesol, " My lorel, saç thirty shullin, Proin the main crevlit of Barry's design-claims which he himself mre anıl have a tower and pure. woull have been the last to raise.

s Ju-tin M'Carthy, Il.story wit! Fuur liedis, vol i..1554.

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