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3 miles long. The harbour, about 2 miles long and from one-fourth of a mile to a mile in breadth, is formed by a narrow spit of land or coral ledge running out for about 2 miles from the coast in a northerly and westerly direction. The entrance, about 90 feet deep, is so clear that no pilot is required; and in the outer bay (100 to 300 feet deep) there is safe anchorage. On a high rock to the southeast of the town is the Mirador of Solano, or castle of Puerto Cabello, which has often proved an obstacle to enemies advancing from the interior. In 1883 the municipality, with a population of 12,000, contained a tannery, a foundry and machine-shop, a coffee-mill, two soap and candle factories, and about fourteen wholesale warehouses. The exports consist of coffee, cocoa, hides, goat and deer skins, bark, woods, indigo, and cotton, but only the first in large quantities. Germany and the United States are the chief recipients. Within 6 miles of the town there are four villages of from 200 to 1500 inhabitants. See Jülfs and Balleer, Sechäfen der Erde, Oldenburg, 1878; and U.S. Consular Reports, Nos, 24, 26, 30, &c. PUERTO DE SANTA MARIA, probably the “Menesthei Portus” of Ptolemy, commonly called EL PUERTO (“The Port”), a town of Spain, in the province of Cadiz, 7 miles to the north-east of that city (21} miles by rail; see sketch map, vol. iv. p. 627), near the mouth and on the right bank of the Guadalete, which is here crossed by a suspension bridge. It is a pleasant and well-built though somewhat dull town, in a fertile country, and its houses resemble those of Cadiz, though they are often larger and profusely decorated with painting. Calle Larga, the principal street, is handsome and well-paved; there are several “alamedas” or public promenades, that of La Victoria being the finest. The place is famous for its bull-fights, that given here in honour of Wellington being the subject of the considerably idealized description in 3yron's Childe Harold. Among the public buildings is a large Jesuit college, recently established. Puerto is chiefly important as a wine-exporting place; the “bodegas” or wine-stores are large and lofty, but hardly equal to those of Xerez. The harbour is formed by the river; its mouth is considerably obstructed by a bar. There is regular steam communication with Cadiz. Timber and iron are the chief imports. The population of the municipality in December 1877 was 22,125. PUERTO PRINCIPE, or now more correctly CIUDAD nel. PRINcipe, a city at the head of the central department of the island of Cuba. When first founded in the beginning of the 16th century by Velazquez, it was, as its more familiar name implies, on the sea-coast; but it has been more than once shifted southward and inland, and is now nearly as far from the north as from the south side of the island. Though for some time after the surrender of San loomingo to France in 1800 Principe was the seat of the central government and supreme courts of the Spanish West Indies, it is no longer a place of much importance. The population is estimated at 31,000. Since 1840 the city has been connected by a railway with its port, which is sometimes called by its own name and sometimes by that of a smaller town on the bay about 11 miles from its entrance, San Fernando de Nuevitas. The harbour or lay is large, completely sheltered, and capable of admitting
vessels of the largest draught : but it is entered by a narrow crooked passage 6 miles long, which, though there
are no hidden dangers, makes the assistance of a pilot desirable.
I'l ERTO RICO. See Porto Rico.
PUFENDORF, SAMUEL (1632-1694), was born at Chemnitz, Saxony, on the 8th of January 1632, the same year which also saw the birth of three other illustrious
olitical and philosophical writers—Locke, Cumberland.
and Spinoza. He belonged to an ecclesiastical family; his father was a Lutheran pastor, and he himself was destined for the ministry. Having completed his preliminary studies at the celebrated school of Grimma, he was sent to study theology at the university of Leipsic, at that time the citadel of Lutheran orthodoxy. Its narrow and dogmatic teaching was profoundly repugnant to the liberal nature of the young student, who was not long in bidding adieu to the professors of theology and throwing himself passionately into the study of public law. He soon went so far as to quit Leipsic altogether, and betook himself to Jena, where he formed an intimate friendship with Erhard Weigel the mathematician, a man of great distinction. Weigel was imbued with the Cartesian philosophy; and it was to his teaching and to the impetus he gave to the application of the mathematical method that Pufendorf owes the exact and ordered mind, and the precision, frequently approaching almost to dryness, which characterize his writings. It was also under Weigel's influence that he developed that independence of character which never bent before other writers, however high their position, and which showed itself in his profound disdain for “ipsedixitism,” to use the piquant phrase of Bentham. Pufendorf was twenty-five years old when he quitted Jena. He hoped to find a career in some of the administrative offices which were so frequently the refuge of the learned in the small states of ancient Germany; but in this he was unsuccessful. In 1658, thanks to his eldest brother Isaiah, who had given up university teaching to enter the Swedish service, he went, in the capacity of tutor, into the family of Petrus Julius Coyet, one of the resident ministers of Charles Gustavus, king of Sweden, at Copenhagen. At this time Charles Gustavus was endeavouring to impose upon Denmark a burdensome alliance, and in the middle of the negotiations he brutally opened hostilities. The anger of the Danes was turned against the envoys of the Swedish sovereign : Coyet, it is true, succeeded in escaping, but the second minister, Steno Bjelke, and the whole suite were arrested and thrown into prison. I'ufendorf shared this misfortune, and the future successor of irotius was subjected to a strict captivity of eight months' duration. Like Grotius, he too had his Loevestein. The young tutor, deprived of books, occupied himself during his captivity in meditating upon what he had read in the works of Grotius and Hobbes. He mentally constructed a system of universal law; and, when, at the end of his captivity, he accompanied his pupils, the sons of Coyet, to the university of Leyden, he was enabled to publish the fruits of his reflexions under the title of Elem, utor The work was dedicated to ('harles Louis, elector palatine, an enlightened prince and patron of science, who offered Pufendorf a chair of Roman law at Heidelberg, and when this was declined he created a new chair, that of the law of nature and nations, the first of the kind in the world. Pufendorf accepted it, and was thus in 1661, at the age of twenty-nine, placed in the most enviable of positions. He showed himself equal to his task, and by his science and eloquence proved himself to be an honour and an ornament to the university. The keenly sarcastic tract D, statu imprii on roman; i. /* r unus, dates from this period of his life. Small in bulk, it is great in significance, and is one of Pufendorf's most important works. Written with the assent of the elector palatine, but published under the cover of a pseudonym at Geneva in 1667, it was supposed to be addressed by a gentleman of Verona, Severinus de Monzambano, to his brother Lelius. The pamphlet male a Its author arraigned directly the organi
and the future has accepted an estimate dictated by anger and spite. See H. von Treitschke, “Samuel von Pufendorf," Preussische Jahrbücher, 1875, vol. xxxv. p. 614, and vol. xxxvi. p. 61; Bluntschli, Deutsches Staats-Wörter. buch, vol. viii. p. 424, and Geschichte des allgemeinen Statsrechts und der Politik, P. 108; Lorimer, The Institutes of the Law of Nations, vol. i. p. 74; Droysen, ‘Zur Kritik Pufendorf's," in his Abhandlungen zur neueren Geschichte: Roscher, Geschichte der National-Oekonomik in Deutschland, p. 304; Franklin, Das deutsche Reich mach. Severinus von Monzambano. (E. N.
PUFF-ADDER. See WIPER.
PUFF-BIRD, the name first given, according to Swainson (Zool. Illustrations, ser. 1, ii., text to pl. 99), by English residents in Brazil to a group of Birds known to ornithologists as forming the restricted Family Bucconidae, but for a long time confounded, under the general name of Barbets, with the Capitomidae of modern systematists, who regard the two Families as differing very considerably from one another. Some authors have used the generic name Capito in a sense precisely opposite to that which is now usually accorded to it, and the natural result has been to produce one of the most complex of the many nomenclatural puzzles that beset Ornithology. Fortunately there is no need here to enter upon this matter, for each group has formed the subject of an elaborate work—the Capitomidae being treated by the Messrs Marshall," and the Bucconidae by Mr Sclater”—in each of which volumes the origin of the confusion has been explained, and to either of them the more curious reader may be confidently referred. The Bucconidae are zygodactylous Birds belonging to the large heterogeneous assemblage in the present work generally looked upon as forming the “Order” Picaria (see ORNrthology, vol. xviii. p. 41), and commonly considered nowadays to be most nearly allied to the Galbulidae (JAcAMAR, vol. xiii. p. 531), and like them confined to the Neotropical Region, in the middle parts of which, and especially in its Sub-Andean Sub-region, the Puff-birds are, as regards species, abundant; while only two seem to reach Guatemala and but one Paraguay. As with most South-American Birds, the habits and natural history of the Bucconidae have been but little studied, and of only one species, which happens to belong to a rather abnormal genus, has the nidification been described. This is the Chelidoptera tenebrosa, which is said to breed in holes in banks, and to lay white eggs much like those of the Kingfisher and consequently those of the Jacamars. From his own observation Swainson writes (loc. cit.) that Puff-birds are very grotesque in appearance. They will sit nearly motionless for hours on the dead bough of a tree, and while so sitting “the disproportionate size of the head is rendered more conspicuous by the bird raising its feathers so as to appear not unlike a puff ball. . . . When frightened their form is suddenly changed by the feathers lying quite flat.” They are very confiding birds and will often station themselves a few yards only from a window. The Bucconida almost without exception are very plainly-coloured, and the majority have a spotted or mottled plumage suggestive of immaturity. The first Puffbird known to Europeans seems to have been that described by Marcgrave under the name of “ Tumatia," by which it is said to have been called in Brazil, and there is good reason to think that his description and figure—the last, comic as it is in outline and expression, having been copied by Willughby and many of the older authors—apply to the Bucco maculatus of modern Ornithology—a bird placed by Brisson (Ornith.J.-ric, iv. p. 524) among the Kingfishers. But if so, Marcgrave described and figured the same species twice, since his “ Mutuitui " is also Brisson's “J/artin-pesch, ur to-heto ilu Brésil.”
Mr Sclater in his Jsonograph divides the Family into 7
genera, of which Bucco is the largest and contains 20 species. The others are Malacoptila and Monacha each with 7, Nonnula with 5, Chelidoptera with 2, and Micromonacha and Hapaloptila with 1 species each. The most showy Puff-birds are those of the genus Monacha with an inky-black plumage, usually diversified by white about the head, and a red or yellow bill. The rest call for no particular remark. (A. N.) PUFFIN, the common English name of a sea-bird, the Fratercula arctica of most ornithologists, known however on various parts of the British coasts as the Bottlenose, Coulterneb, Pope, Sea-Parrot, and Tammy-Norie, to say nothing of other still more local designations, some (as Marrott and Willock) shared also with allied species of Alcidae, to which Family it has, until very lately, been invariably deemed to belong. Of old time Puffins were a valuable commodity to the owners of their breedingplaces, for the young were taken from the holes in which they were hatched, and “being exceeding fat,” as Carew wrote in 1602 (Survey of Cornwall, fol. 35), were “kept salted, and reputed for fish, as coming neerest thereto in their taste.” In 1345, according to a document from which an extract is given in Heath's Islands of Scilly (p. 190), those islands were held of the crown at a yearly rent of 300 Puffins” or 6s. 8d., being one-sixth of their estimated annual value. A few years later (1484), either through the birds having grown scarcer or money cheaper, only 50 Pullins are said (op. cit., p. 196) to have been demanded. It is stated by both Gesner and Caius that they were allowed to be eaten in Lent. Ligon, who in 1673 published a I/istory of the Island of Barbadoes, speaks (p. 37) of the ill taste of Puffins “which we have from the isles of Scilly,” and adds “this kind of food is only for servants.” Pullins used to resort in vast numbers to certain stations on the coast, and are still plentiful on some, reaching them in spring with remarkable punctuality on a certain day, which naturally varies with the locality, and after passing the summer there, leaving their homes with similar precision. They differ from most other Alcidae in laying their single egg (which is white with a few grey markings when first produced, but speedily begrinned by the soil) in a shallow burrow, which they either dig for themselves or appropriate from a rabbit, for on most of their haunts rabbits have been introduced. Their plumage is of a glossy black above – the checks grey, encircled by a black band- and pure white beneath ; their feet are of a bright reddish orange, but the most remarkable feature of these birds, and one that gives them a very comical expression, is their huge bill. This is very deep and laterally flattened, so as indeed to resemble a coulter, as one of the bird's common names expresses; but moreover it is loarticoloured –-blue, yellow, and red—curiously grooved and still more curiously embossed in places, that is to say during the breeding-season, when the birds are most frequently seen. But it had long been known to some .." servers that such Putlins as occasionally occur in winter (most often washed up on the shore and dead) presented a beak very different in shape and size, and to account for the difference was a standing puzzle. Many years ago Bingley (Vorth Walls, i. p. 351) stated that Puffins “are said to change their bills annually." The remark seems
to have been generally overlooked ; but it has proved to be very near the truth, for after investigations carefully pursued during some years by Dr Bureau of Nantes he was in 1877 enabled to shew (Bull. Soc. Zool. France, ii. pp. 377-399) that the Puffin's bill undergoes what may be called an annual moult, some of its most remarkable appendages, as well as certain horny outgrowths above and beneath the eyes, dropping off at the end of the breedingseason, and being reproduced the following year. Not long after the same naturalist announced (op. cit., iv. pp. 1-68) that he had followed the similar changes which he found to take place, not only in other species of Puffins, as the Fratercula corniculata and F. cirrhata of the Northern Pacific, but in several birds of the kindred genera Ceratorhina and Simorhynchus inhabiting the same waters, and consequently proposed to regard all of them as forming a Family distinct from the Alcidae—a view which has since found favour with Dr Dybowski (op. cit., vii. pp. 270-300 and viii. pp. 348-350), though there is apparently insufficient reason for accepting it. The name Puffin has also been given in books to one of the Shearwaters, and its Latinized form Puffinus is still used in that sense in scientific nomenclature. This fact seems to have arisen from a mistake of Ray's, who, seeing in Tradescant's Museum and that of the Royal Society some young Shearwaters from the Isle of Man, prepared in like manner to young Puffins, thought they were the birds mentioned by Gesner (loc. cit.), as the remarks inserted in Willughby's Ornithologia (p. 251) prove; for the specimens described by Ray were as clearly Shearwaters as Gesner's were Puffins. A. N.) PUGET, PIERRE (1622-1694), born at Marseilles on 31st October 1622, painter, sculptor, architect, and engineer, is a rare instance of precocious genius and mature power. At the age of fourteen he carved the ornaments of the galleys built in the port of his native city, and at sixteen the decoration and construction of a ship were entrusted to him. Soon after he went to Italy on foot, and was well received at Rome by Pietro di Cortona, who employed him on the ceilings of the Barberini palace and on those of the Pitti at Florence. In 1643 he returned to Marseilles, where he painted portraits and carved the colossal figure-heads of men-of-war. After a second journey to Italy he painted also a great number of pictures for Aix, Toulon, Cuers, and La Ciotat, and sculptured a large marble group of the Virgin and Child for the church of Lorgues. A serious illness in 1665 brought Puget a prohibition from the doctors which caused him wholly to put aside the brush. He now sculptured the caryatides of the town-hall of Toulon (Louvre), went to Normandy, where he executed a statue of Hercules and a group of Janus and Cybele for the marquis of Vaudreuil, and visiting Paris made the acquaintance of Le Pautre and Fouquet, who determined to employ him at Vaux and sent him to Italy to choose marbles for his work. The fall of Fouquet found Puget at Genoa, where he remained employed by the nobles of the town. There he executed for Sublet des Noyers his French Hercules (Louvre), the statues of St Sebastian and of Alexandre Sauli in the church of Carignano, and much other work. The Doria family gave him a church to build ; the senate proposed that he should paint their council-chamber. But Colbert bade Puget return to France, and in 1669 he again took up his old work in the dockyards of Toulon. The arsenal which he had there undertaken to construct under the
* A translated abstract of this paper—containing an account of what is perhaps the most interesting discovery of the kind made in ornithology for many years—is given in the Zoologist for 1878 (pp. 233-240) and another in the Bulletin of the Nuttall Ornithological Club for the same year (iii. pp. 87-91).
orders of the duke of Beaufort was destroyed by fire, and Puget, disheartened, took leave of Toulon. In 1685 he went back to Marseilles, where he continued the long series of works of sculpture on which he had been employed by Colbert. His statue of Milo (Louvre) had been completed in 1681, Perseus and Andromeda (Louvre) in 1683, and Alexander and Diogenes (bas-relief, Louvre) in 1685; but, in spite of the personal favour which he enjoyed, Puget, on coming to Paris in 1688 to push forward the execution of an equestrian statue of Louis XIV., found court intrigues too much for him. He was forced to abandon his project and retire to Marseilles, where he remained till his death in 1694. His last work, a bas-relief of the Plague of Milan, which remained unfinished, was placed in the council-chamber of the town-hall. Puget was the most vigorous representative of French sculpture in the 18th century; in spite of his visits to Paris and Rome his work never lost its local character: his Hercules is fresh from the galleys of Toulon; his saints and virgins are men and women who speak Provençal. His best work, the St Sebastian at Genoa, though a little heavy in parts, shows admirable energy and life, as well as great skill in contrasting the decorative accessories with the simple surface of the nude. Cicognara, Storia della scultura ; Lenoir, Musée des Mon. Français; Lagrange, Vie de Picrre Puget ; Barbet de Jouy, Sculptures moul, au Louvre. PUGIN, AUGUSTUs WELBy North MoRE (1812-1852), architect, was the son of Augustus Pugin, a native of France, who practised as an architect in London. He was born in Store Street, Bedford Square, on 1st March 1812. After completing the ordinary course of education at Christ's Hospital (blue-coat school), he entered his father's office, where he displayed a remarkable talent for drawing. When he had mastered the elements of his profession he devoted a large portion of his time to the sketching of public buildings; he also accompanied his father on several professional tours in France. While still very young he was employed by his father to design furniture in the mediaeval style for Windsor Castle, and in 1831 he designed the scenery for the new opera of Kenilworth at Her Majesty's Theatre. Shortly afterwards he involved himself deeply in money difficulties by an attempt to establish a manufactory of stained glass, metal work, and furniture at Hart Street, Covent Garden. From the time, however, that he devoted himself steadily to his profession as an architect he never failed to find full employment. Shortly after his secession from the Church of England to that of Rome he published Contrasts, or a Parallel between the Architecture of the 15th and 19th Centuries (1836), in which he severely criticized the architecture of Protestantism. His other principal works are True Principles of Christian Architecture (1841), a Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament (1844), and a Treatise on Chancel Screens and Rood Lofts (1851). Pugin was the designer of a large number of important Roman Catholic buildings, and also assisted Sir Charles Barry in the preparation of the designs for the new Houses of Parliament, Westminster. Early in 1852 he was attacked by insanity, which caused his death on 14th September of the same year. Future historians who may write the architectural history of the 19th century will probably describe as its leading characteristic that enthusiastic revival of the Gothic style which took place in the second quarter of the century and continued with unabated vigour for more than thirty years. Among the many able architects who during this period contributed to cover England with churches and other buildings, designed in a style which for three centuries had been rejected as barbarous, the name of Pugin deserves to be the most conspicuous. No man so thoroughly mastered the true principles of the Gothic style in its various stages, both in its leading lines and in the minutest details of its mouldings and carved enrichments, and that too at a time when illustrated works on Sothic architecture, such as have since been produced in enormous quantities,” had scarcely begun to exist; thus young Pugin had
* These numerous illustrated works, with every detail shown to a workable scale, by doing away with the necessity for studying the to learn the alphabet of his chosen style by careful and laborious study of the glorious examples of Gothic, both ecclesiastical and domestic, in j England was then (far more than now) so extraordinarily rich. His father was for many years engaged in preparing a o series of works on the Gothic buildings of England, almost, if not quite, the first which were illustrated with accurate drawings of mediaeval buildings; the early youth of A. W. Pugin was mostly occupied in making minute measured drawings for his father's books, and in this way his enthusiasm for Gothic art was first aroused. All through his life, both in England and during many visits to Germany and France, he continued to make, for his own instruction, and pleasure, great numbers of drawings and sketches, especially in pen and ink, and with sepia monochrome. These are perhaps the most beautiful architectural sketches that have ever been produced, perfect in their delicacy and precision of touch, and masterpieces oil treatment of light and shade. They are mostly minute in scale, some almost microscopic in detail. Many of the Continental street scenes and interiors of cathedrals are of especial beauty from their contrasts of brilliant light and transparent shadow,” treated with Rembrandt-like vigour. At a very early age his wonderful mastery of Gothic detail was shown by the valuable aid he rendered to Sir Charles Barry in the construction of the new Houses of Parliament in 1836 and 1837.* For some time he worked as a paid clerk to Barry, and to Pugin is mainly due the very o excellence of o the details in this at building, executed, it must be remembered, at a time when litherto all examples of the revived Gothic were of the most ignorant and tasteless description. Pugin not only designed and even modelled a great part of the sculpture and other decorations of the building, but had actually to train a school of masons and carvers to carry out his designs with spirit and accuracy.” While still young Pugin became a Roman Catholic, and this, if possible, increased ii. intense zeal and enthusiasm for Gothic, or, as he preferred to call it, Christian architecture. His profession became to him a sort of religion, and his study of mediaeval buildings was closely associated with his love for the mystic symbolism and the highly asthetic outward form of the old faith. The result of this was that he was almost wholly employed by adherents of the Catholic religion. In one way this was a fortunate circumstance, for it saved him from the temptation of assisting in that great wave of falsification and vulgarization which, under the name of “restoration," has devastated the principal mediaeval buildings of Great Britain and Ireland. In another way it was unfortunate, for his Catholic employers were mostly much pinched for money, and at the same time so devoid of all sympathy for the principles of which he was the chief exponent, that they almost always insisted on the greatest possible amount of display being made in the cheapest possible manner. On account of this it is unfair to judge of Pugin's genius from a critical examination of his executed works. In almost every case his design was seriously injured, both by cutting down its carefully considered proportions and by introducing shams tabove all things hateful to Pugin), such as plaster groining and even cast-iron carving. The cathedral of St George at Southwark, anol even the church of the Jesuits in Farm Street, Berkeley Square, London, are melancholy instances of this. Thus his life was one series of disappointments; no pecuniary success compensated him for the destruction of his best designs, as in him the man of business was thoroughly subordinate to the artist. He himself used to say that the only church he had ever executed with unalloyed satisfaction was the one at Ramsgate, which he not only designed but paid for. Pugin was very broad in his love for the mediæval styles, but on the whole preferred what is really the most suited to modern requirements, namely, the Perpendicular of the 15th century, and this he employed in its simpler domestie form with mu, h success both in his own house at Ramsgate and in the stately Al Are Hall in Ireland, built for Lord Dunraven. The cathedral of Kıllırney and the chapel of the Benedictine monastery of Douai were perhaps the ecclesiastic buildings which were carried out with last leviation from Pugin's original conception. lie was a skilful etcher and produced a number of works illustrated in this way by his own hand, and written with much clo
buildings themselves, and being used simply like “cribs" to an unAn own language, are partly accountable for numberless recent buildin:s, which, while they are Gothic in form, are utterly devoid of the refinement, fitness, and true taste displayed in the buildings of the Mu-l-lle Ages.
* Three volumes of photographs of these sketches have been published in a square octavo form, but have suffered from reduction in size.
• A comparison of the decorations of the Houses of Parliament with other contemporary and even later Gothic buildings shows in a very striking way the remarkable talent and industry displayed by Pugin in the work.
* A few years ago very ill-judged attempts were made to claim for Pugin the main credit of Barry's design—claims which he himself woull have been the last to raise.
quence, antiquarian knowledge, and even brilliant humour. This last gift is exemplified in a series of etched plates in his Contrasts: on one side is some noble structure of the Middle Ages, and on the other an example of the same building as erected in the 19th century." His works on Chancel Screens and on The True Principles of Christian Architecture are very ably written and exquisitely illustrated.
Pugin's melancholy and premature end was to a great extent caused by the embittering influence of the constant frustration of his noblest artistic struggles and conceptions.
See Ben. Ferrey, Recollections of A. Welby Pugin and his Father, London,
61. PULCI, LUIGI, Italian poet, was born at Florence on 3d December 1431 and died in 1487. The first edition of his Morgante J/aggiore appeared at Venice in 1481. (See ITALY, vol. xiii. p. 507 sq.) PULGAR, FERNANDO DE, Spanish prose-writer of the latter part of the 15th century, born probably at Pulgar near Toledo, was brought up at the court of John II. Henry IV. made him one of his secretaries, and under Isabella he became a councillor of state, was charged with at least one mission to France, and in 1482 was appointed historiographer-royal. His official Chronicle of the reign of the Catholic sovereigns for the period previous to his appointment is loose and inaccurate; but in the later portion, where he had the advantage of personal knowledge, he is always precise and often graphic. It is not brought down beyond the year 1492. It was first printed at Valladolid in 1565 under the name of Antonio de Lebrija. Pulgar's Claros Varones de Castilla, a series of sketches of forty-six of the most celebrated men of the reign and court of Henry IV., is of considerable interest both for its matter and for its style. He wrote, besides, a commentary on the ancient Coplas de Mingo Revu/yo; and thirty-two of his Letters written to various persons of eminence, including some to the queen, are also extant. The first edition of the Claros Varones was that of Seville (1500); some of the letters did not appear until 1528. PULKOWA. See OBSERVATory, vol. xvii. p. 714. PU'LLEY. See MECHANIt's and Block MACHINERY. PULTENEY, WiLLIAM, EARL of BATH (1684-1764), a politician elevated by a living historiano into the important position in history of the first leader of the opposition, was descended from an ancient family with a pedigree duly recorded in Nichols's History of Leicestershire (iv. 320). His father, William Pulteney, died in 1715, and the future statesman was the offspring of his first wife, Mary Floyd, and was born in 1681. As his grandfather had been intimately connected with the city of Westminster, the boy was sent to Westminster school and from it proceeded to Christ Church, Oxford, acquiring in these institutions that deep classical knowledge which adorned his own speeches and enabled him to correct his great antagonist when he blundered in a quotation. On leaving Oxford he made the usual tour on the Continent. In 1705 he was brought into parliament by Henry Guy for the Yorkshire borough of Hedon, and at the death of that gentleman (a politician who had at one time held the office of secretary of the treasury) Pulteney inherited an estate of £500 a year and £40,000 in cash. This seat was held by him without a break until 1734, and though the family was then dispos. sessed for a time the supremacy was regained in the return of another Pulteney in 1739. Throughout the reign of Queen Anne William Pulteney played a prominent part in the struggles of the Whigs, and on the prosecution of Sacheverell he exerted himself with great zeal against that violent divine. When the victorious Tories sent his friend