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Dettingen Te Deum. Purcell did not long survive the of an earlier canon of the same council, by which it is conproduction of this great work. He died at his house in demned as heretical to say that after the reception of the Dean's Yard, Westminster, on 21st November 1695, leaving grace of justification the guilt of the penitent sinner is so a widow and three children, the former of whom soon after- remitted, and the penalty of eternal punishment so annulled, wards published a number of his works, including the now that no penalty of temporal punishment remains to be famous collection called Orpheus Britunnicus.

paid either in this world or in the future in purgatory Besides the operas we have alreaily mentioned, he wrote Don before the kingdom of heaven can be opened. Thus the Quixote, Bonducia, The Indian Queen, The Fuiry Queen, and others, essential point of the doctrine is that Christian souls a vast quantity of sacred music, and nunierous odes, cantatas, and having any sin upon thein at the moment of death pass other miscellaneous pieces.

(W. S. R.)

into a state of expiatory suffering, in which they can be PURCHAS, SAMUEL (1577-1626), compiler of works on helped by the prayers and other good works of living betravel and discovery, was born at Thaxted, Essex, in 1577. lievers. And this is all that modern Catholic theologians He was educated at St John's College, Cambridge, where regard as being de fide. It is hardly necessary to say that he gravluated M.A. in 1600, and some time afterwarıls the doctrine as popularly held and currently taught is B.D)., with which degree he was also admitted at Oxford generally much more detailed and explicit. In view of in 1615. In 1604 he was presented by James I. to the some of these developments, there is on all lands admitted vicaraye of Eastwood, Essex, and 1615 was collated to to exist abundant room for the admonition of the council the rectory of St Martin's, Ludgate, London.

He was

of Trent, when it proceeded to warn the clergy to exclude also chaplain to Abbot, archbishop of Canterbury. Some from popular addresses all the more difficult and subtle years before his ecclesiastical duties called him to London questions relating to the subject, and such as do not tend Purchas had given over the care of his vicarage to his to edification or make for piety. “They must not allow brother, and spent most of his time in the metropolis in the uncertainties or things which have the appearance of falsity compilation of his geographical works. In 1613 he pub- to be given forth or handled, and they are to prohibit as lished Purrhus, his Pilgrimage or Relations of the World, scandalous and offensive such things as minister to curiosity and the Religions observed in all ages, which reached a or superstition or savour of filthy lucre. Let the bishops fourth edition, much enlarged, in 1626; in 1619 Purchas, see to it that the prayers of the living-to wit, the sacrihis Pilgrim or llicrocosmus, or the Ilistorie of lan; relut fices, prayers, alms, and other works of piety which have iny the wonders of his Generation, varieties in his Degeneru- been wont to be rendered by believers for the departed—are tion, and necessity of his Regeneration ; and in 1625, in four done piously and devoutly, according to the institutions of volumes, Purchas, his Pilgrimes; or Relation of the World the church, and that those which are due by the wills of in Sea Voyages and Lande Travels, by Englishmen amd testators or otherwise be not rendered in a perfunctory others. This last work was intended as a continuation of manner but diligently and punctually, by priests and other Hakluyt's loyages, and was partly founded on MSS. left ministers of the church who are bound to this service.” him by Hakluyt. The fourth edition of the Pilgrimage Among the details of the doctrine, which have been the is usually catalogued as vol. v. of the Pilgrimes, but the subject of much speculation among Catholics, may be two works are quite distinct, and essentially different in specified the questions relating to the locality of purgatory character, as is indeed indicated in the names, the differ- and the nature and duration of its sufferings. On none ence being thus explained by Purchas himself : in the Pil of these points has anything authoritative been delivered. grimage he makes use of his own matter though borrowed, It is of course conceived of as having some position in while in the Pilgrimes the authors themselves act their own space, and as being distinct from heaven, the place of eternal parts in their own words. He was also the author of the blessedness, on the one hand, and from hell, the place of King's Tower and Triumphal Arch of London, a sermon eternal woe, on the other. But any theory as to its exact on 2 Sam. xxii. 51, published in 1623. He died in Sep latitude and longitude (such, for example, as underlies tember 1626, according to some in a debtor's prison, and Dante's description) must be regarded as the effort merely although Anthony Wood affirms that he died in his own of the individual imagination. As regards the nature of house there can be no doubt that the publication of his its pains, there has been a constant disposition to interpret books had involved him in serious money difficulties. with strict literality the expressions of Scripture as to the

PURGATORY (Purgatorium). The Roman ('atholic cleansing efficacy of fire, but the possibility of interpreting Church has no more than two declarations of supreme them metaphorically has never been wholly lost sight of. authority on the subject of its distinctive doctrine of With respect to their duration, it must be inferred from purgatory. The first is that of the council of Ferrara- the whole praxis of indulgences as at present authorized Florence, in which it was defined, as regards the truly by the church that the pains of purgatory are measurable penitent who have departed this life in the love of God by years and days; but here also everything is left vague. before they have made satisfaction for their sins of com The thesis of all l’rotestants, as against the Roman mission and omission by fruits meet for repentance, that Catholic doctrine of purgatory, is that “the souls of betheir souls are cleansed by purgatorial pains after death, lievers are at their death made perfect in holiness and do and for their relief from these the suffrages of the living immediately pass into glory." Scripture authority is —the sacrifice of the mass, prayers, alms, and other offices claimed on both sides, but the argument, which is a someof piety—are helpful. The second is that of the council of what complicated one and depends mainly on the view Trent, which runs as follows:—“Since the Catholic Church, arrived at as to the Scriptural doctrine of sin and satisinstructed by the Holy Spirit from the sacred writings and faction, cannot be entered upon here. When the two the ancient tradition of the fathers, hath taught in holy doctrines are compared in the light of ecclesiastical tracouncils, and lastly in this æcumenical council, that there dition it will be found that neither fully coincides with is a purgatory, and that the souls detained there are assisted the opinions somewhat vaguely held by the early fathers, by the suffrages of the faithful, but especially by the most whose view of the intermediate state between death and acceptable sacrifice of the mass, this holy council commands the resurrection was largely affected by the pre-Christian all bishops to have a diligent care that the sound doctrine doctrine of Hades or Sheol. On the one hand, Irenæus of purgatory delivered to us by venerable fathers and (112r., v. 31) regards as heretical the opinion that the sacred councils be believed, maintained, taught, and every- souls of the departed do immediately pass into glory; he where preached.” This decree is to be read in the light | argues that, as Christ tarried for three days “in the lower

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parts of the earth,” so must the souls of His disciples also The census of 1881 returned the population of Puri district at go away into the invisible place allotted them by God, 888, 487 (416,609 males and 411,878 females). By religion 873,664 and there remain until the resurrection, when, receiving Christians. The only town with a population exceeding 5000 is their bodies and rising as their Lord arose, they shall

Puri (9.2.). Puri is strictly a rice-growing tract, but pulses, jute, come into heaven and into the presence of God. On the hemp, flax, and oil-seeds are also produced, while among its misother hand, it is impossible to point out in any writing of cellaneous crops are tobacco, cotton, sugar-cane, and turmeric. The the first four centuries any passage which describes the principal manufactures are salt, earthenware, and brass and bell

metal utensils and ornaments. In 1882-83 the total revenue of the state of any of the faithful departed as one of acute suffer- district amounted to £79,493, towards which the land-tax contriing, although Tertullian's belief that martyrs had the buted £60,255. exceptional privilege of being taken to "paradise" at once Puri first came under British administration in 1803. The only clearly shows that for ordinary Christians the state after political events in its history since that date have been the rebeldeath was regarded rather as one of expectancy than

Îion of the maharaja of Khurda in 1804 and the rising of the paiks

or peasant militia in 1817-18. Since then the country has been of enjoyment. Still less would it be possible to show that gradually restored to order and tranquillity. the intermediate state was regarded by them as one in PURI or Poor EE, chief town of the above district, and which satisfaction was made for sin. Origen's doctrine of com

mmonly known as Jagannath, is situated on the Orissa Trûp kubúpolov is intimately connected with his doctrine of coast in 19° 48' N. lat. and 85° 51' E. long. Its chief apokatastasis ; in his view the application of purgatorial interest is centred in the sacred shrine of Jagannath, a fire was not to take place until the last judgment, nor was temple which dates from the 12th century, and which lies its efficacy to be limited to those who had closed their life at the southern extremity of the town. In 1881 the popuon earth as believers in Christ. In a different connexion lation of Puri was 22,095 (males 11,769, females 10,326), Augustine, expounding 1 Cor. iii. 15 as referring more of whom 21,913 were Mohammedans. immediately to the purification of Christians by means of PURIM (D'79), a feast of the later Jews, celebrated in the trials of the present life, goes on to speak of it as a honour of the deliverance of the nation from the schemes supposable thing that the process might be continued after of Haman recorded in the book of Esther. The historical death, but without committing himself to the belief value of this record has been discussed in the article ESTHER, ("incredibile non est, et utrum ita sit quæri potest "). where also mention is made of the now very prevalent Gregory the Great was the first to formulate in express opinion that the feast is an adaptation of a Persian festival. terms the doctrine which afterwards became that of the The derivation of the name "Purim," as well as the thing, whole Roman obedience “de quibusdam levibus culpis from the Persian Furligem (Pārdigán, Pārdiyān) has been esso ante judicium purgatorius ignis credendus est.” Such raised above the level of a mere guess by Lagarde, who utterances as this were never accepted by the Greek has shown that the readings dorphala and porpora in one Church, which in its doctrine of the intermediate state of the Greek recensions of Esther point with great probstill occupies as nearly as possible the standpoint of the ability to a form forpeava (7710) instead of Purim, ante-Nicene fathers,

exactly corresponding with the Persian word ((ex. Ath., . PURI or Pooree, a district of British India in the Orissa 164; simen. Stuul., § 13:39). The feast falls on the 14th division of the lieutenant-governorship of Bengal, lying and 15th of Idar, and is, in accordance with Esther ix. 2.2, between 19° 28' and 20° 16' N. lat. and 85° 0' and 86° 28' of a joyous character, but quite secular in tone, with a E. long., with an area of 2472 square miles. It is bounded great deal of hard drinking, the only quasi-religious features on the N. by the native states of Banki and Athyarh, on being the reading in the synagoyne of the book of Esther the E. and V.E. by ('uttack district, on the S. by the and the section about Imalek, Exod. xvii. 8.34. This celeBay of Bengal, and on the W. by the (tanjam district of the bration appears to have made its way among the Jews Madras presidency and by the tributary state of Rampur. only gradually ; according to Josephus, however, it was For the most part the country is flat, the only mountains generally observed in his day in all parts of the Jewish being a low range which, rising in the west, runs south-east world. On the other hand, the preparatory fast on the in an irregular line towards the Chilka Lake, and forms a 13th of Adlar, which is based on Esther ix. 331, cannot have water-parting between the district and the valley of the been observed in Palestine till a later date, for in the Mahanadi. The middle and eastern divisions of the dis | Joyilluth T'u'ımith (after the death of Trajan), Idar 13, trict, forming the south-western part of the Mahanadi delta, the day of Nicanor," is still one of the days on which consist entirely of alluvial plains, watered by a network fasting is forbidden. of channels through which the most southerly branch of PURITASS. See ENGLAND, ('urrell Of, vol. viii. p. that river, the Koyakhai, finds its way into the sea. The 376 397. ; INDEPENDENTS, vol. xii. 1. 7.26 .; and PRESBYprincipal rivers in Puri are the Bhargavi, the Daya, and TERLANISM. the Vun, all of which flow into the Chilka Lake and are PURNISH, a district of British India in the Bhagalpur navigable by large boats during the rainy season, when the division of the lieutenant-governorship of Bengal, occupiswaters come down in tremendous floods, bursting the banks ing an area of 1956 quare miles, is situated between 25° and carrying everything before them. The chief lakes are 15 and 26'37' X. lat. ani 87 and 33E. long. On the Sar and the Chilka, the former, a backwater of the the it is bounded by the state of Nepal and the Bhargavi, being + miles long by ? broad. The Chilka district of Darjiling, on the E. by the Jalpaiguri, DinajLake is one of the largest in India; its length is 4+ miles, pur, and Maldah distrirts, on the Wily Bhagalpur, and and its breadth in some parts 20 miles. It is separated on the S. by the Ganges, whiclı eparates it from the from the sea only by a narrow strip of sand. The lake is districts of Bhagalpur and the Santal Parganas. Purniah saline and everywhere very shallow, its mean depth ranging is a level de presse tract of country, but for the most part fmm 3 to 5 feet. Puri district is rich in historical remains of a rich loamy soil of alluvial formation : it is traversed by fmm the primitive rock-hewn cares of Buddhism--the several streams, which flow from the Himalayas lying to the earliest relics of Indian architecture—to the mediaval sun north and afford great advantages of irrigation and water temple at Kanarak and the world-renowned shrine of carriage, and is well cultivated: but in the west the soil Jagannath. The chief roads in the district are the Cal is thickly covered with and deposited by the ku-i river, curta and Madras trunk road and the pilgrim road from which rises in the Nepal mountains and tows southwards Chattack to Puri. The climate of Puri is dry and healthy, to the Ganges. The country is destitute of anything that and the average rainfall is 55-80 inches.

can be called forest, but much wouli jungle is found in the

neighbourhood of the more swampy tracts. Among other | Here, in addition to the phenomena already mentioned as
rivers of the district is the Mahananda, which rises in the affecting the skin, there is a tendency to the occurrence
mountains of Sikkim and flows through the east of Purniah of hæmorrhage from mucous surfaces, especially from the
into Maldah. Wild animals are not so numerous as in the nose, but also from the mouth, lungs, stomach, bowels,
neighbouring districts, but the tiger is found in all parts kidneys, &c., sometimes in large and dangerous amount.
of Purniah, particularly along the banks and among the Great physical prostration is apt to attend this form of
sandy islands of the Kusi, and also in the scrub jungle the disease, and a fatal result sometimes follows the suc-
that runs along the north of the district. The climate of cessive hæmorrhages, or is suddenly precipitated by the
Purniah is of an intermediate character; the average rain occurrence of an extravasation of blood into the brain.
fall is 67 inches, and the mean temperature is about 76°•8. The causes of purpura are not well understood. The
The staple procluct of Purniah is rice, but jute and tobacco are

condition of the blood has been frequently investigated,
also cultivated to a considerable extent. Its manufactures include but no alteration in its composition detected. The view
indigo, cottons, woollens, and silks, but the chief is that of most commonly held is that the disease depends on an
indigo, which is mostly carried on in the south of the district. In abnormal fragility of the minute blood- vessels owing to
1882-83 the gross revenue amounted to £179,750, nearly two-thirds
(£120,511) being derived from the land. By the census of 1881 the

their mal-nutrition. It would seem sometimes to arise in population numbered 1,818,687 (937,080 males, 911,607 females). persons enjoying perfect health ; but in a large proportion The majority of the people are Ilindus (1,076,539 in 1881); of instances it shows itself among those who have been of Mohammedlans in the same year there were 771,130, and of exposed to privation or insanitary conditions, or whose Christians only 327. Purxian, the capital, is the only town in health has become lowered. Young persons suffer more the district with a population exceeding 10,000.

This district was conquered by the Mohammedans in the 13th frequently than adults, and repeated attacks may occur.
century, but it was not until four centuries later that its value was Purpura has some points of resemblance to scurvy, but a
realized. During the 17th century the frontier was considerably clear distinction both as to causation and symptoms can
extended ; the country, however, remained in a state of anarchy be established between the two diseases.
until 1770, when it was governed by an English official with the
title of “superintendent." Of late years the district has made The treatment will bear reference to any causes which
considerable progress, and under all departments of local adminis- may be discovered as associated with the onset of the
tration there has been steally improvement.

disease, such as unfavourable hygienic conditions, and PURNIAH, chief town and administrative headquarters nutritive defects should be rectified by suitable diet. The of the above district, is situated on the east bank of the various preparations of iron seem to be the best medicinal river Saura, in 25° 46' N. lat. and 87° 30' E. long. It remedies in this ailment, while more direct astringents, such contains a population, according to the census of 1881, of as gallic acid, eryot of rye, turpentine, or acetate of lead, 15,016. The town is neat and well-built, but very un will in addition be called for in severe cases and especially liealthy; it is distant 283 miles north-west of Calcutta. when hæmorrhage occurs.

PURPLE (Topdípa), the name given by the ancients to PURSLANE, the vernacular equivalent of the botanical a dye derived from various species of Jurer and Purpuru. genus Portuluru. The species are fleshy annuals of small (See MOLLUSCA, vol. xvi. p. 618 87: ; DYEING, vol. vii. p. dimensions, with prostrate stems and entire leaves; the 571; and PHENICIA, vol. xviii. p. 804.) For the modern flowers are small and inconspicuous, or in some species sources of the various shades of this colour, see DYEING, brilliantly coloured, regular, with two sepals, five petals, vol. vii. p. 579.

seven to twenty stamens, an inferior ovary, with a style PURPURA, a disease characterized by the occurrence divided into from three to cight branches and ripening into of purple-coloured spots upon the surface of the body, a pod which opens by a transverse chink. P. oleracea is a due to extravasations of blood in the skin, accompanied native of India, which has been introduced into Europe as occasionally with hæmorrhages from mucous membranes. a salad plant, and in some countries has spread to such an Difference of opinion has prevailed among physicians as extent as to become a noxious weed. This is the case in to whether these symptoms are to be regarded as con certain parts of the l'nited States, where the evil qualities stituting a discase per se, since they are frequently seen of "pussly” have become proverbial. Like many other in connexion with various morbid conditions. Thus in succulent plants, its juice is cooling and is used in tropical persons suffering from such diseases as rheumatism, countries as a refrigerant in fever, while the bruised leaves polithisis, heart disease, cancer, Bright's disease, jaundice, are employed as an application in cases of local inflammaas well as from certain of the infectious fevers, extravasa- tion. Some of the species, such as P. grandiflora and its tions of the kind above-mentioned are not unfrequently varieties, are grown in gardens on rock-work owing to the present. But the term "purpura” is, strictly speaking, great beauty and deep colouring of their flowers, the short applicable only to those instances where the symptoms duration of individual blossoms being compensated for by exist apart from any antecedent disease. In such cases the abundance with which they are produced. the complaint is usually ushered in by lassitude and PUSEY, EDWARD BOUVERIE (1800-1882), originally feverishness. This is soon followed by the appearance on Edward Bouverie, was born near Oxford in 1800. His the surface of the body of the characteristic spots in the family, which was of Huguenot origin, became through a form of small red points scattered over the skin of the marriage connexion lords of the manor of Pusey, a small limbs and trunk. They are not raised above the surface, Berkshire village near Oxford, and from it took their name and they do not disappear on pressure. Their colour soon a few years after Edward Bouverie's birth. In 1818 he becomes deep purple or nearly black; but after a few days became a commoner of Christ Church, Oxford, and after they undergo the changes which are observed in the case gaining high university distinctions was elected in 1824 to of an ordinary bruise, passing to a green and yellow hue a fellowship at Oriel College. He thus became a member and finally disappearing. When of minute size they are of a society which already contained some of the ablest termed "petechiæ" or "stigmata,” when somewhat larger of his contemporaries,-among them J. H. Newman and “vibices," and when in patches of considerable size John Keble. But for several years his intercourse with “ecchymoses.” They may come out in fresh crops over them seems to have been slight. He divided his time a lengthened period.

between his country home and Germany, and occupied The form of the disease above described is that known as himself with the study of Oriental languages and of German “purpura simplex.” A more serious form of the malady is theology. His first work, published in 1828, was a vindithat to which the term “purpura hæmorrhagica” is applied. I cation of the latter from a strong attack which had been

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made upon it by one of the leaders of the nascent High- | in 1853, first formulated the doctrine round which almost Church party, H. J. Rose. His work, which is entitled all the subsequent theology of his followers has revolved, An Iistorical Enquiry into the probable Causes of the and which has revolutionized the current practices of Rational Character lately predominant in the Theology of Anglican worship. And the last university sermon which Germany, is an impartial and clear summary of the history he composed, and which he was too ill to deliver himself, of German theology since the Reformation. In the same Unscience, not Science, adverse to Faith, in 1878, rendered year (1828) the duke of Wellington appointed him to the not only to his party but to religion in general the signal regius professorship of Hebrew with the attached canonry service of abandoning the old quarrel between theology of Christ Church, which he held for the rest of his life. and science, as to the manner in which the world was Mr Rose's somewhat intemperate reply to him led to the created, by admitting the possibility of evolution. Of his publication in 1830 of a second part of his Historical larger works the most important are his two books on the Enquiry, which is not less liberal in its tone than the pre EucharistThe Doctrine of the Real Presence (consisting of vious part. But in the years which immediately followed notes on his university sermon of 1853), published in 1855, the current of his thoughts began to set in another direc and The Real Presence ... the Doctrine of the English tion. The revolt against individualism had begun, and Church, published in 1857; Daniel the Prophet, in which he was attracted to its standard. By the end of 1833 he endeavours with great skill to maintain the traditional "he showed a disposition to make common cause date of that book; The Minor Prophets, with Commentary, those who had already begun to issue the Tracts for the which forms his chief contribution to the study of which T'imes. “He was not, however, fully associated in the he was the professor ; and the Eirenicon, in which he movement till 1835 and 1836, when he published his endeavoured to find, for those who accepted his premises, tract on baptism and started the Library of the Fathers” a basis of union between the Church of England and the (Cardinal Newman's Apologia, p. 136). The real work of Church of Rome. In 1836 he joined Newman, Keble, his life then began. He became a close student of the and Marriott in editing a series of translations from the fathers and of that school of Anglican divines who had fathers entitled 1 Library of Fathers of the Holy Catholic continued, or revived, in the 17th century the main tradi Church anterior to the Division of Eust and West, and tions of pre-Reformation teaching. In ten years after his contributed to it a revised translation of St Augustine's first adhesion to the movement he had become, with his Confessions and several valuable prefaces; the series was almost boundless capacity for accumulating information, accompanied by a translation of the Catena urea of saturated with patristic and “Anglo-Catholic ” divinity; Thomas Aquinas, and was followed by an edition of some and a sermon which he preached before the university in of the texts which had been translated. IIe also edited, 1813, The Iloly Eucharist a Comfort to the Penitent, so with suitable omissions, several books of devotion by startled the authorities by the re-statement of doctrines Roman Catholic writers, such as Avrillon and Scupoli. which, though well known to ecclesiastical antiquaries, In private life his habits were simple almost to austerity. had faded from the common view, that by the exercise He had few personal friends, and rarely mingled in genof an authority which, however legitimate, was almost cral society; though bitter to opponents, he was gentle obsolete he was suspended for three years from the func to those who knew him, and his munificent charities gave tion of preaching The immediate effect of his suspension him a warm place in the hearts of many to whom he was was the sale of 18,000 copies of the condemned sermon ; personally unknown. In his domestic life he had some its permanent effect was to make Pusey for the next severe trials : his wife died, after eleven years of married quarter of a century the most influential person in the life, in 1839; his only son, who was a scholar like-minded (Church of England. The movement, in the origination with himself, who had shared many of his literary labours, of which he had had no share, came to bear his name : it and who had edited an excellent valition of St ('yril's comwas popularly known as Puseyism and its adherents as mentary on the minor prophets, died in 1880, after many Piseyites. His activity, both public and private, as leader years of great bodily afilietion. From that time Pusey of the movement was enormous. He was not only on was seen by only a few persons. His own bodily infirmithe stage but also behind the scenes of every important ties increased, and on 16th September 1882, after a short controversy, whether theological or academical. In the illness, he died a painless death. lle was buried at Corham controversy of 1830, in the question of Oxford Oxforil in the cathedral of which he had been for fiftyreform in 1854, in the prosecution of some of the writers four years a canon. Ilis friends devised for him after his of Extys and Rerieurs, especially of Professor Jowett, in death a singular memorial : they purchased his library, 1863, in the question as to the reform of the marriage and bought for it a house in Oxford which they endowed laws from 1849 to the end of his life, in the revived con with sufficient funds to maintain three librarians, who troversy as to the meaning of everlasting punishment in were charged with the duty of endeavouring to perpetuate 1377, he was always busy with articles, letters, treatises, in the university the memory of the principles which he anel sermons. The occasions on which, in his turn, he taught. preached before his university were all memorable; and

His name will be chiefly reminul on the 1'**7.76 wat wise of a some of the sermons were manifestoes which mark distinct

grat 1clicious moviment which, water my lits ultimatin-1!'

, stages in the history of the party of which he was the has carried with it no small p.11t of the religione life of England in lealer. The practice of confession in the Church of Eng

tle latter half of the 19th century. His chuif:13. Lit was lanl practically dates from his two sermons on The Entir an almost unbounded(aparity for riking prins. Iliwe boiofiutline

Wils that of a pro ahoranda-piritualist. llis liroh...... Abendution of the Penitent, in 1846, in which the revival reproduce the substance of pilij homili in the mari of high sacramental doctrine is complemented by the of the Caroline vijvines. Ilis corre-powerra. -Jin... Kis alocacy of a revival of the penitential system which

was enormous; his decumil ne pation for pilul for oily

of charai ter muile liim the con continuerlar um..sy mexlixral theologians had appended to it. The sermon on

of men and women muburned their oil: il it ins Duit The Rule aj Frith as maintained by the Fathers and by the if he le estimated apart from liv junition as il- un ot a great Church of England, in 1851, stemmed the current of party, it must be consileread th.11.1 - 1:07.athom al antiquary dressions to Rome after the Gorham judgment, which had thau a therozian. He exlun. 11:11 for:o*:n theories and upseemed to show that on an important point of dogmatic Cut the heterogeen-1112-es of information while low accumulated therlogy the Church of England had no definite doctrine.

require a sitting wihoten leaves hua wanity risivuun, and, The sermon on The Presence of Christ in the lloly Eucharist, huiverer rauleivadvanced se lovlars, initivt safely in columended

to learners. Whatever he wrote was relative to the controversies | the education of watermen's sons; and the royal hospital
of his time, and as a controversialist he holds a place which is for incurables. To the south-west of the town is Putney
unique among his contemporaries. He had an almost unrivalled Heath, 400 acres in extent, formerly a great resort of
power of massing his evidence, of selecting from an author just so
much as was pertinent to the point under discussion, and of ignor- highwaymen and duellists. Putney is included within the
ing or depreciating statements which were at variance with the metropolitan area. The population of the registration
views which he advocated. As a party leader he combined great sub-district (area, 2235 acres) in 1871 was 9439, and in
enthusiasm with indefatigable energy and tenacity of purpose; he 1881 it was 13,235.
chose his positions beforehand with great skill, and never after-
wards abandoned them. But he does not seem to have had any Putney occurs in Domesday as “Putelei,” and subsequently
great logical power: he builds elaborate arguments upon words of appears as “Puttenheth” and “ Pottenheth,” gradually contracted
shifting connotation, such as “faith” and" church," and slides into “Putney.” The ferry was in early times of considerable
unconsciously from one meaning to another. Vor is there any importance. During the Parliamentary wars the heath was fre-
evidence that he ever faced the historical difficulties which the quently occupied by troops, the headquarters of the generals being
position of the Church of England presents from the Catholic point in the village. Putney was the birthplace of Thomas Cromwell,
of view, and which ultimately led to Newman's secession. He lived

earl of Essex, and of Gibbon the historian.
in Christian antiquity, and his arguments seldom touched any

but PU'TREFACTION. See FERMENTATION, vol. ix. pr. sympathetic natures. Unlike Newman, who appealed to the cul

97, 98.
tured intellect of his time, he never caught the modern spirit.
The result was that after Newman's departure the party of which

PUTTY is a kind of cement composed of fine powdered Pusey was the head never made a single convert of mark. The chalk intimately mixed with linseed oil, either boiled or intellect of Oxforil and of England drifted away from it; and, in raw, to the consistency of a tough dough. It is principally spite of the eloquence of some of its advocates, “ Puseyism.” does used by glaziers for bedding and fixing sheets of glass in not now number among its adherents any one who exercises an

windows and other frames, by joiners and painters for appreciable influence upon the intellectual life of England.

In fact Pusey survived the system which had borne his name. filling up nail-holes and other inequalities in the surface
Ilis followers went beyond him, or away from him, in two direc of wood-work, and by masons for bedding ashlar-work.
tions. On the one hand, his revival of the meilivval doctrine of The oxidation of the oil gradually hardens putty into a
the Real Presence, coinciding as it did with the revival of a taste
for mecliaeval art, naturally led to a revival of the medieval cere-

very dense adherent mass. When putty is required to monial of worship. With this revival of ceremonial Pusey had little dry quickly, boiled oil and sometimes litharge and other sympathy: he at first protested against it (in a university sermon driers are used. “Putty powder” or “polisher's putty” is in 1859); and, though he came to defend those who were accused oxide of tin in a state of fine division used for the polishing of breaking

the law in their practice of it, he did so on the express of glass, hard metals, granite, and similar substances. ground that their practice was alien to his own. of ceremonial in its various degrees is now the chief external PU'Y, LE, or more precisely LE PUY EN VELAY, chief characteristic of the movement of which he was the leader; and town of the department of Haute-Loire, France, 352 miles “Ritualist” has thrust "Puseyite” aside as the designation of from Paris by rail and 270 in a direct line, rises in the those who hold the doctrines for which he mainly contendel. On the other hand, the pivot of his teaching was the appeal to primitive form of an amphitheatre at a height of 2050 feet above antiquity. It was an appeal whichhail considerable force as sea-level upon Mont Anis, the hill that divides the left against the vapid theology of the early part of the century, and bank of the Dolézon from the right bank of the Borne (a as a criterion of the claims of Catholicism. But it lost its forçe, rapid stream which joins the Loire 3 miles below). From and his followers came to substitute for it an appeal to the prin; the new town, which lies east and west in the valley of ciples of an a priori philosophy, some of which were borrowed from Thomism and some, though at second hand, from Hegelian- the Dolézon, the traveller ascends the old feudal and ism. Nor is it probable that Puseyisin will revive again. Ön the ecclesiastical town through narrow steep streets, paved one hand, an appeal to primitive times which is divorced, as was

with slippery pebbles of lava, to the cathedral commanded Pusey's appeal, from the history of those times must necessarily

Mont Corfail in an age in which the spirit

of historical inquiry is abroad; by the fantastic pinnacle of Mont Corneille. on the other hand, however excellent the maxim may be which neille, which is 433 feet above the Place de Breuil (in the Pusey put in the forefront of his arguments, Quod semper

, quod lower town), is a steep rock of volcanic breccia, surubique

, quod ab omnibus, yet, when limited, as Pusey limited it, mounted by a colossal iron statue of the Virgin (53 feet to the statements of particular writers and the current beliefs of high, standing on a pedestal 23 feet high), cast after a particular ages, it becomes a mere paradox and ceases to afford a logical basis for any system of doctrine.

(E. HA.)

model by Bonassieux out of 213 guns taken at Sebastopol.

The monument is composed of eighty parts fitted together PUSHKIN. See PoushKIN.

and weighs 981 tons. Another statue, that of a bishop PUSHTU. See AFGHANISTAN, vol. 1. p. 238.

of Puy, also sculptured by Bonassieux, faces that of the PUSTULE, MALIGNANT, a contagious disease com- Virgin. From the platform of Mont Corneille a magmunicated to man from certain animals (especially cattle, nificent panoramic view is obtained of the town, and of sheep, and horses) suffering from splenic fever. This the volcanic mountains, which make this region one of malady will be referred to under WoolSORTER's Disease, the most interesting parts of France. The Romanesque of which it forms a variety.

cathedral (Notre Dame), dating from the 6th to the 12th PUTEOLI. See Pozzuoli.

century, has a particoloured facade of white sandstone and PU'TNEY, a suburb of London in the county of Surrey, black volcanic breccia, which is reached by a flight of sixty is situated on the right bank of the Thames, about 8 miles steps, and consists of three tiers, the lowest composed of above London Bridge by the river and 4.1 miles west of three high arcades opening into the porch beneath the nave Hyde Park Corner by road. The picturesque old timber of the church; above are three windows lighting the nave; bridge connecting it with Fulham on the left bank of the and these in turn are surmounted by three gables, two of river, and erected in 1729, is superseded by a structure which, those to the right and the left, are of open work. of iron and granite. Putney is the headquarters of Two side porches lead to the cathedral by the transept. London rowing and the starting point for most important The bell-tower (184 feet), which rises behind the choir in boat-races. It consists chiefly of the old-fashioned High seven stories, is one of the most beautiful examples of the Street leading to Putney Common, and various streets of Romanesque transition period. The bays of the nave are villas and houses inhabited by the middle classes. The covered in by octagonal cupolas ; the central cupola forms church of St Mary near the bridge was rebuilt in 1836, a lantern. The choir and transepts are barrel-vaulted. with the exception of the picturesque old tower. Among The cathedral has mural paintings of the 12th and 13th the benevolent institutions are the almshouses of the Holy centuries, an open-work Romanesque screen surrounding Trinity, founded by Sir Abraham Dawes in the reign of the sanctuary, and a manuscript Bible belonging to the 9th Charles II. ; the waterman's school, founded in 1681, for century. The cloister, to the north of the choir, is strikiny

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